PubMed Journals Articles About "Alcohol Countermeasure Systems Corp." RSS

08:29 EDT 26th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Alcohol Countermeasure Systems Corp" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 10,000+

Contribution of Dynorphin and Orexin Neuropeptide Systems to the Motivational Effects of Alcohol.

Understanding the neural systems that drive alcohol motivation and are disrupted in alcohol use disorders is of critical importance in developing novel treatments. The dynorphin and orexin/hypocretin neuropeptide systems are particularly relevant with respect to alcohol use and misuse. Both systems are strongly associated with alcohol-seeking behaviors, particularly in cases of high levels of alcohol use as seen in dependence. Furthermore, both systems also play a role in stress and anxiety, indicating that...

Influence of Parental Alcohol Dependence Symptoms and Parenting on Adolescent Risky Drinking and Conduct Problems: A Family Systems Perspective.

Parental alcohol problems are associated with adverse adolescent outcomes such as risky drinking and conduct problems. Important questions remain about the unique roles of fathers' and mothers' alcohol problems and differences and/or similarities in pathways of risk across ethnicity and gender. In this study, we used a family systems approach to consider spillover and crossover effects of fathers' and mothers' alcohol problems (number of alcohol dependence symptoms) and parenting behaviors in relation to ad...

Improving bioconversion of eugenol to coniferyl alcohol by in situ eliminating harmful HO.

Coniferyl alcohol is a valuable chemical. However, the current approaches to obtain coniferyl alcohol are either unefficient or expensive. Penicillium simplicissimum vanillyl alcohol oxidase (PsVAO) can be used to produce coniferyl alcohol. However, PsVAO intrinsically produces harmful byproduct HO. Utilizing catalase to decompose HO is a potential straightforward approach; however, catalase can also exhibit peroxidase activity to facilitate coniferyl alcohol over-oxidation. In this study, catalases exhibit...

A Declaration of Independence: Implicit Alcohol Associations Have Independent, not Interactive, Relationships with Alcohol Consumption and AUD Risk.

The current study aimed to test for potential interactive effects of three implicit alcohol-related associations (drinking identity, alcohol approach and alcohol excitement) in predicting concurrent and prospective alcohol consumption and risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in two samples of the US undergraduate drinkers and non-drinkers.

Summary of the 2017 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

On June 24, 2017, the 22nd annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held as a satellite conference during the annual Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Scientific Meeting in Denver, Colorado. The 2017 meeting focused broadly on mechanisms that link alcohol to tissue injury and inflammation, and how this research can be translated to improve human health. Two plenary sessions composed the meeting, which first explored the association between alcohol and trauma/tissue injury...

Differences in alcohol cognitions, consumption, and consequences among first-time DUI offenders who co-use alcohol and marijuana.

A significant portion of alcohol-related DUI offenders engage in co-use of alcohol and marijuana (AM). Given expanding marijuana legalization and the impaired driving risks associated with co-use, it is of increased importance to understand how characteristics of AM co-users compare to those who use alcohol only (AO) in order to inform DUI interventions and prevent recidivism.

Couple Interdependence Impacts Alcohol Use and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Malawi.

In sub-Saharan Africa, harmful alcohol use among male drinkers is high and has deleterious consequences on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV clinical outcomes, and couple relationship dynamics. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 25 Malawian couples on ART to understand how relationships influence adherence to ART, in which alcohol use emerged as a major theme. Almost half of men (40%) reported current or past alcohol use. Although alcohol use was linked to men's non-adherence, wo...

Receipt of alcohol-related care among patients with HCV and unhealthy alcohol use.

Alcohol use-particularly unhealthy alcohol use-exacerbates risks associated with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, whether unhealthy alcohol use is appropriately addressed among HCV+ patients is understudied. We examined receipt of alcohol-related care among HCV+ patients and unhealthy alcohol use.

Alcohol policy and fatal alcohol-related crashes in Finland 2000-2016.

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between annual alcohol consumption per capita/alcohol price index and the number of alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle accidents (AFMVAs). We were particularly interested in whether a tax reduction in 2004 increased the number of alcohol-related accidents.

Opportunistic screening for alcohol use problems in adolescents attending emergency departments: an evaluation of screening tools.

To estimate and compare the optimal cut-off score of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and AUDIT-C in identifying at-risk alcohol consumption, heavy episodic alcohol use, ICD-10 alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence in adolescents attending ED in England.

A managed alcohol program in Sydney, Australia: Acceptability, cost-savings and non-beverage alcohol use.

Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are a novel harm reduction intervention for people who experience long-term homelessness and severe long-term alcohol dependence. MAPs provide regulated amounts of alcohol onsite under supervision. Preliminary international evidence suggests that MAPs are associated with improvements such as reduced non-beverage alcohol consumption and decreases in some alcohol-related harms. There are currently no MAPs in Australia. We aimed to assess the feasibility of a MAP in inner-Sydney...

Short exposure to low concentrations of alcohol during embryonic development has only subtle and strain- dependent effect on the levels of five amino acid neurotransmitters in zebrafish.

The zebrafish has been successfully employed to model and study the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure. Short exposure to low alcohol concentrations during embryonic development has been shown to significantly disrupt social behavior as well as the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems in zebrafish. However, analysis of potential effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on other amino acid neurotransmitter systems has not been performed. Here we analyzed neurochemicals obtained from adult AB and TU strain...

Effect of Alcohol Sensitivity in Healthy Young Adults on Breath Pharmacokinetics of Acetaldehyde after Mouth Washing with Alcohol.

Acetaldehyde is causally related to head and neck cancer. Individuals with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency experience alcohol sensitivity and are referred to as "flushers" because of their skin-flushing response to high blood acetaldehyde levels after alcohol consumption. Acetaldehyde is produced in the oral cavity after local alcohol exposure without alcohol ingestion. However, the relationship between the oral acetaldehyde level after local alcohol exposure and alcohol sensitivity is unclear. Herein, ...

Alcohol Advertising on Social Media: Examining the Content of Popular Alcohol Brands on Instagram.

There is considerable evidence that exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood of adolescents initiating and engaging in alcohol consumption. There is a paucity of research, however, specifically examining industry generated alcohol marketing occurring on social media/networking platforms.

Alcohol Consumption in Obese Patients Before and After Gastric Bypass as Assessed with the Alcohol Marker Phosphatidylethanol (PEth).

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes more rapid and enhanced absorption of alcohol. RYGB patients have also been reported to use more inpatient care for alcohol-related disease than do patients after other bariatric procedures. The present study was designed to evaluate alcohol consumption level before and after gastric bypass using a sensitive and specific alcohol biomarker.

Condom use, multiple rounds of sex, and alcohol use among South African women who use alcohol and other drugs: An event-level analysis.

High rates of alcohol and other drug use contribute to the ongoing generalized HIV epidemic in South Africa. Despite the general link between alcohol use and condomless sex, findings from event-level studies of the relationship between alcohol use and condomless sex during the same encounter have been inconsistent.

Educ'alcool response to Petticrew et al.: 'How alcohol industry organisations mislead the public about alcohol and cancer'.

Familial alcohol supply, adolescent drinking and early alcohol onset in 45 low and middle income countries.

This study estimated the extent of familial alcohol supply in 45 low and middle income countries (LMIC), and examined the country-level effects of familial alcohol supply on adolescents' alcohol use.

Social space and alcohol use initiation among youth in northern Tanzania.

Alcohol use is a key risk factor for disease worldwide. Consumption of alcohol is increasing in sub Saharan Africa, where youth are already at high risk of HIV due to its high prevalence in the region. Studies show that youth begin drinking alcohol early; however, there is a need to further explore the initiation of alcohol use in order to design appropriate interventions in this population.

What is going on in underage drinking? Reflections on Finnish European school survey project on alcohol and other drugs data 1999-2015.

As alcohol use has decreased among Finnish adolescents, we aim to assess: (i) time trends in alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking (HED) and potential explanatory variables among adolescents; (ii) the relationship between trends of explanatory variables and trends in alcohol use and HED; and (iii) which of the explanatory variables can account for the temporal change in alcohol use and HED.

Exposure to drinking mediates the association between parental alcohol use and preteen alcohol use.

The aim of the present study was to test the link between exposure to parental alcohol use (i.e., preteens seeing their parents drinking) and preteen's alcohol use. Specifically, this study aimed to (a) replicate the association between parental alcohol use and preteen alcohol use and (b) test whether alcohol use exposure mediated this association.

Utilizing an Evidence-Based Alcohol Screening Tool for Identification of Alcohol Misuse.

Alcohol misuse is prevalent among college students and negatively affects their health, relationships, and academics. Alcohol misuse screening for this age group is advised but often overlooked.

Influence of comorbid alcohol use disorders on the clinical patterns of major depressive disorder: A general population-based study.

To compare the symptom patterns of major depressive disorder (MDD) among subjects with MDD and 1) no alcohol use disorder (AUD), 2) alcohol abuse and 3) alcohol dependence, respectively.

Maternal and partner prenatal alcohol use and infant cognitive development.

Teratogenicity of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is established, but uncertainty remains regarding the impact of moderate alcohol exposure on cognitive deficits in infants. Separating in utero effects from environmental confounding is a challenge for observational studies; consideration of alcohol use by partners as well as mothers may help clarify this. This study examined associations between prenatal alcohol use by both mothers and their partners and infant cognitive developmental outcomes at 12-months.

Evaluating several biomarkers as predictors of aortic stiffness in young and older Africans, not consuming alcohol based on self-report.

Black populations from sub-Saharan Africa have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, which places significant strain on public health systems. Aortic stiffness is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. We reported earlier that excessive alcohol use predicts aortic stiffness. However, we require a better understanding of other biomarkers involved in stiffness development, beyond alcohol use. Therefore, we determined which biomarkers (metabolic, inflammatory, endothelial activa...

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