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19:04 EST 10th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Alcohol Countermeasure Systems Corp" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 10,000+

Perioperative alcohol cessation intervention for postoperative complications.

Risky consumption of alcohol is a global problem. More than 3.3 million deaths annually are associated with risky use of alcohol, and global alcohol consumption continues to increase. People who have high alcohol consumption often require planned and emergency surgical procedures.Risky drinking is associated with increased postoperative complications such as infections, cardiopulmonary complications, and bleeding episodes. Alcohol causes disorders of the liver, pancreas, and nervous system. Stopping consump...

Influence of Parental Alcohol Dependence Symptoms and Parenting on Adolescent Risky Drinking and Conduct Problems: A Family Systems Perspective.

Parental alcohol problems are associated with adverse adolescent outcomes such as risky drinking and conduct problems. Important questions remain about the unique roles of fathers' and mothers' alcohol problems and differences and/or similarities in pathways of risk across ethnicity and gender. In this study, we used a family systems approach to consider spillover and crossover effects of fathers' and mothers' alcohol problems (number of alcohol dependence symptoms) and parenting behaviors in relation to ad...

Improving bioconversion of eugenol to coniferyl alcohol by in situ eliminating harmful HO.

Coniferyl alcohol is a valuable chemical. However, the current approaches to obtain coniferyl alcohol are either unefficient or expensive. Penicillium simplicissimum vanillyl alcohol oxidase (PsVAO) can be used to produce coniferyl alcohol. However, PsVAO intrinsically produces harmful byproduct HO. Utilizing catalase to decompose HO is a potential straightforward approach; however, catalase can also exhibit peroxidase activity to facilitate coniferyl alcohol over-oxidation. In this study, catalases exhibit...

A prospective study of alcohol involvement and the dual-systems model of adolescent risk-taking during late adolescence and emerging adulthood.

To estimate interactions and unique effects of behavioral approach and behavioral control on alcohol involvement hypothesized by dual-systems models, during adolescence and emerging adulthood.

Differences in alcohol cognitions, consumption, and consequences among first-time DUI offenders who co-use alcohol and marijuana.

A significant portion of alcohol-related DUI offenders engage in co-use of alcohol and marijuana (AM). Given expanding marijuana legalization and the impaired driving risks associated with co-use, it is of increased importance to understand how characteristics of AM co-users compare to those who use alcohol only (AO) in order to inform DUI interventions and prevent recidivism.

Informing drinkers: Can current UK alcohol labels be improved?

Alcohol labeling provides a relatively low-cost, population-level approach to providing information about alcohol's content and harms.

Couple Interdependence Impacts Alcohol Use and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Malawi.

In sub-Saharan Africa, harmful alcohol use among male drinkers is high and has deleterious consequences on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV clinical outcomes, and couple relationship dynamics. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 25 Malawian couples on ART to understand how relationships influence adherence to ART, in which alcohol use emerged as a major theme. Almost half of men (40%) reported current or past alcohol use. Although alcohol use was linked to men's non-adherence, wo...

Receipt of alcohol-related care among patients with HCV and unhealthy alcohol use.

Alcohol use-particularly unhealthy alcohol use-exacerbates risks associated with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, whether unhealthy alcohol use is appropriately addressed among HCV+ patients is understudied. We examined receipt of alcohol-related care among HCV+ patients and unhealthy alcohol use.

The effect of countermeasures against the reaction time based concealed information test on the P300 index of knowledge recognition: A combined RT and P300-based test.

Behavioral reaction time (RT) to key (probe) stimuli in a concealed information test (CIT) is usually greater than RT to irrelevant stimuli, and this difference has been utilized as a sign of recognition of concealed information. The ability to voluntarily increase irrelevant RT would appear to be an obvious countermeasure to the RT-based CIT. This study examined the effect of such countermeasure use on the simultaneously recorded P300 event related potentials. There were two blocks of trials in the present...

Role of glutamatergic system and mesocorticolimbic circuits in alcohol dependence.

Emerging evidence demonstrates that alcohol dependence is associated with dysregulation of several neurotransmitters. Alterations in dopamine, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid release are linked to chronic alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol on the glutamatergic system in the mesocorticolimbic areas have been investigated extensively. Several studies have demonstrated dysregulation in the glutamatergic systems in animal models exposed to alcohol. Alcohol exposure can lead to an increase in extrace...

Short exposure to low concentrations of alcohol during embryonic development has only subtle and strain- dependent effect on the levels of five amino acid neurotransmitters in zebrafish.

The zebrafish has been successfully employed to model and study the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure. Short exposure to low alcohol concentrations during embryonic development has been shown to significantly disrupt social behavior as well as the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems in zebrafish. However, analysis of potential effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on other amino acid neurotransmitter systems has not been performed. Here we analyzed neurochemicals obtained from adult AB and TU strain...

Role of MCP-1 and CCR2 in Alcohol Neurotoxicity.

Alcohol abuse causes profound damage to both the developing brain and the adult brain. Prenatal exposure to alcohol results in a wide range of deficits known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Alcohol abuse in adults is associated with brain shrinkage, memory and attention deficits, communication disorders and physical disabilities. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate the recruitment and activation of monocytes and microglia. Both MCP-1 and its...

Effect of Alcohol Sensitivity in Healthy Young Adults on Breath Pharmacokinetics of Acetaldehyde after Mouth Washing with Alcohol.

Acetaldehyde is causally related to head and neck cancer. Individuals with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency experience alcohol sensitivity and are referred to as "flushers" because of their skin-flushing response to high blood acetaldehyde levels after alcohol consumption. Acetaldehyde is produced in the oral cavity after local alcohol exposure without alcohol ingestion. However, the relationship between the oral acetaldehyde level after local alcohol exposure and alcohol sensitivity is unclear. Herein, ...

Alcohol Advertising on Social Media: Examining the Content of Popular Alcohol Brands on Instagram.

There is considerable evidence that exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood of adolescents initiating and engaging in alcohol consumption. There is a paucity of research, however, specifically examining industry generated alcohol marketing occurring on social media/networking platforms.

The Think/No-Think Alcohol Task: A New Paradigm for Assessing Memory Suppression in Alcohol-Related Contexts.

Research with the Think/No-Think (TNT) task has shown that voluntary suppression of an unwanted memory may lead to its later forgetting. To date, however, no study has assessed the memory suppression abilities in alcohol-related contexts despite the potential implications that it might have for alcohol research. With this aim, we developed a new version of the TNT paradigm, the Think/No-Think Alcohol (TNTA) task, which consists of 36 neutral pictures paired with 36 alcohol/no-alcohol images that are instruc...

Condom use, multiple rounds of sex, and alcohol use among South African women who use alcohol and other drugs: An event-level analysis.

High rates of alcohol and other drug use contribute to the ongoing generalized HIV epidemic in South Africa. Despite the general link between alcohol use and condomless sex, findings from event-level studies of the relationship between alcohol use and condomless sex during the same encounter have been inconsistent.

Relationship between General and Sport-Related Drinking Motives and Athlete Alcohol Use and Problems.

Alcohol use (and adverse consequences due to alcohol use) among college student-athletes is a common occurrence and consequently garners attention as a health concern within athletic departments and the NCAA. One of the strongest predictors of alcohol use in athletes is motivation to drink. However, not much is known about the influence of alcohol use motivations on drinking in collegiate athletes. Therefore, this study examined the influence of sport-related and general drinking motives on alcohol use and ...

Familial alcohol supply, adolescent drinking and early alcohol onset in 45 low and middle income countries.

This study estimated the extent of familial alcohol supply in 45 low and middle income countries (LMIC), and examined the country-level effects of familial alcohol supply on adolescents' alcohol use.

Social space and alcohol use initiation among youth in northern Tanzania.

Alcohol use is a key risk factor for disease worldwide. Consumption of alcohol is increasing in sub Saharan Africa, where youth are already at high risk of HIV due to its high prevalence in the region. Studies show that youth begin drinking alcohol early; however, there is a need to further explore the initiation of alcohol use in order to design appropriate interventions in this population.

Exposure to drinking mediates the association between parental alcohol use and preteen alcohol use.

The aim of the present study was to test the link between exposure to parental alcohol use (i.e., preteens seeing their parents drinking) and preteen's alcohol use. Specifically, this study aimed to (a) replicate the association between parental alcohol use and preteen alcohol use and (b) test whether alcohol use exposure mediated this association.

A parent-oriented alcohol prevention program "Effekt" had no impact on adolescents' alcohol use: Findings from a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Estonia.

To evaluate the effectiveness of a universal parent-oriented alcohol prevention program ("Effekt") in Estonia. The main objective of the program was to delay and reduce adolescents' alcohol consumption by maintaining parental restrictive attitudes towards adolescents' alcohol use over time.

Utilizing an Evidence-Based Alcohol Screening Tool for Identification of Alcohol Misuse.

Alcohol misuse is prevalent among college students and negatively affects their health, relationships, and academics. Alcohol misuse screening for this age group is advised but often overlooked.

Chronic inflammatory pain drives alcohol drinking in a sex-dependent manner for C57BL/6J mice.

Sex differences in chronic pain and alcohol abuse are not well understood. The development of rodent models is imperative for investigating the underlying changes behind these pathological states. In the present study, we investigated whether hind paw treatment with the inflammatory agent Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) could generate hyperalgesia and alter alcohol consumption in male and female C57BL/6J mice. CFA treatment led to greater nociceptive sensitivity for both sexes in the Hargreaves test, and i...

Children's home and school neighbourhood exposure to alcohol marketing: Using wearable camera and GPS data to directly examine the link between retailer availability and visual exposure to marketing.

Neighbourhood alcohol availability has been associated with alcohol consumption by children, despite children rarely acquiring alcohol from retailers. This study explores one potential reason for this finding, by evaluating the relationships between neighbourhood alcohol availability and children's actual exposure to alcohol marketing.

Evaluating several biomarkers as predictors of aortic stiffness in young and older Africans, not consuming alcohol based on self-report.

Black populations from sub-Saharan Africa have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, which places significant strain on public health systems. Aortic stiffness is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. We reported earlier that excessive alcohol use predicts aortic stiffness. However, we require a better understanding of other biomarkers involved in stiffness development, beyond alcohol use. Therefore, we determined which biomarkers (metabolic, inflammatory, endothelial activa...

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