PubMed Journals Articles About "Antarctic Study Shows Isolation Monotony Change Human Brain" RSS

21:09 EST 23rd January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Antarctic Study Shows Isolation Monotony Change Human Brain" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 83,000+

Isolation and characterization of violacein from an Antarctic Iodobacter: a non-pathogenic psychrotolerant microorganism.

Violacein is an intensely purple pigment synthesized by various genera of bacteria that has been discovered to have a wide range of interesting biological activities which range from anticarcinogenic to antibacterial. One of the hindrances for its real-life application is that the first microorganisms found to produce the compound may act as opportunistic pathogens. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of violacein from a non-pathogenic Antarctic Iodobacter strain. Its anti-microbial propertie...

Past, Present, and Future of Brain Organoid Technology.

Brain organoids are an exciting new technology with the potential to significantly change our understanding of the development and disorders of the human brain. With step-by-step differentiation protocols, three-dimensional neural tissues are self-organized from pluripotent stem cells, and recapitulate the major millstones of human brain development in vitro. Recent studies have shown that brain organoids can mimic the spatiotemporal dynamicity of neurogenesis, the formation of regional neural circuitry, an...

Invasive non-native species likely to threaten biodiversity and ecosystems in the Antarctic Peninsula region.

The Antarctic is considered to be a pristine environment relative to other regions of the Earth, but it is increasingly vulnerable to invasions by marine, freshwater and terrestrial non-native species. The Antarctic Peninsula region (APR), which encompasses the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands and South Orkney Islands, is by far the most invaded part of the Antarctica continent. The risk of introduction of invasive non-native species to the APR is likely to increase with predicted increases in th...

More than the eye can see: genomic insights into the drivers of genetic differentiation in Royal/Macaroni penguins across the Southern Ocean.

The study of systematics in wide-ranging seabirds can be challenging due to the vast geographic scales involved, as well as the possible discordance between molecular, morphological and behavioral data. In the Southern Ocean, macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) are distributed over a circumpolar range including populations in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic areas. Macquarie Island, in its relative isolation, is home to a closely related endemic taxon - the royal penguin (Eudyptes schlegeli), which is dist...

Heterogeneity of human pancreatic islet isolation around Europe: results of a survey study.

Europe is currently the most active region in the field of pancreatic islet transplantation and many of the leading groups are actually achieving similar good outcomes. Further collaborative advances in the field require the standardization of islet cell product isolation processes and this work aimed to identify differences in the human pancreatic islet isolation processes within European countries.

The neuropeptide Drosulfakinin regulates social isolation-induced aggression in .

Social isolation strongly modulates behavior across the animal kingdom. We utilized the fruit fly to study social isolation-driven changes in animal behavior and gene expression in the brain. RNA-seq identified several head-expressed genes strongly responding to social isolation or enrichment. Of particular interest, social isolation downregulated expression of the gene encoding the neuropeptide (), the homologue of vertebrate cholecystokinin (CCK), which is critical for many mammalian social behaviors. ...

Brain diseases in changing climate.

Climate change is one of the biggest and most urgent challenges for the 21st century. Rising average temperatures and ocean levels, altered precipitation patterns and increased occurrence of extreme weather events affect not only the global landscape and ecosystem, but also human health. Multiple environmental factors influence the onset and severity of human diseases and changing climate may have a great impact on these factors. Climate shifts disrupt the quantity and quality of water, increase environment...

Brain Organoids as Tools for Modeling Human Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Brain organoids recapitulate in vitro the specific stages of in vivo human brain development, thus offering an innovative tool by which to model human neurodevelopmental disease. We review here how brain organoids have been used to study neurodevelopmental disease and consider their potential for both technological advancement and therapeutic development.

Discovering common change-point patterns in functional connectivity across subjects.

This paper studies change-points in human brain functional connectivity (FC) and seeks patterns that are common across multiple subjects under identical external stimulus. FC relates to the similarity of fMRI responses across different brain regions when the brain is simply resting or performing a task. While the dynamic nature of FC is well accepted, this paper develops a formal statistical test for finding change-points in times series associated with FC. It represents short-term connectivity by a symmetr...

Improving pneumovirus isolation using a centrifugation and AZD1480 combined method.

The isolation of respiratory viruses, especially from clinical specimens, often shows poor efficiency with classical cell culture methods. The lack of suitable methods to generate virus particles inhibits the development of diagnostic assays, treatments, and vaccines. We compared three inoculation methods, classical cell culture, the addition of a JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480, and centrifugation-enhanced inoculation (CEI), to replicate human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). In ...

Development of ultrasonic calls in rat pups follows similar patterns regardless of isolation distress.

Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by rat pups have been extensively studied in the context of isolation from their mother and littermates. The heightened call rate of isolation-induced USVs indicates increased anxiety, whereas other acoustic parameters, such as frequency and call duration, are thought to be useful in reflecting developmental changes, which by weaning have developed into their adult form. However, it is possible that stress can affect the quality as well as the quantity of calls, and t...

Beyond the Isolated Brain: The Promise and Challenge of Interacting Minds.

As scientists, we brainstorm and develop experimental designs with our colleagues and students. Paradoxically, this teamwork has produced a field focused nearly exclusively on mapping the brain as if it evolved in isolation. Here, we discuss promises and challenges in advancing our understanding of how human minds connect during social interaction.

Brain Changes in Response to Long Antarctic Expeditions.

Assessing the risk of metals and their mixtures in the Antarctic nearshore marine environment with diffusive gradients in thin-films.

Robust environmental assessments and contaminant monitoring in Antarctic near-shore marine environments need new techniques to overcome challenges presented by a highly dynamic environment. This study outlines an approach for contaminant monitoring and risk assessment in Antarctic marine conditions using diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) coupled to regionally-specific ecotoxicology data and environmental quality standards. This is demonstrated in a field study where DGT samplers were deployed in the n...

A balanced evaluation of the evidence for adult neurogenesis in humans: implication for neuropsychiatric disorders.

There is a widespread belief that neurogenesis exists in adult human brain, especially in the dentate gyrus, and it is to be maintained and, if possible, augmented with different stimuli including exercise and certain drugs. Here, we examine the evidence for adult human neurogenesis and note important limitations of the methodologies used to study it. A balanced review of the literature and evaluation of the data indicate that adult neurogenesis in human brain is improbable. In fact, in several high-quality...

Isolation distance between municipal solid waste landfills and drinking water wells for bacteria attenuation and safe drinking.

Groundwater pollution and human health risks caused by leachate leakage have become a worldwide environmental problem, and the harm and influence of bacteria in leachate have received increased attention. Setting the isolation distance between landfill sites and groundwater isolation targets is particularly important. Firstly, the intensity model of pollutant leakage source and solute transport model were established for the isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Then, the migration, removal and reductio...

A Xenotransplant Model of Human Brain Tumors in Wild-Type Mice.

The development of adequate model systems to study human malignancies is crucial for basic and preclinical research. Here, we exploit the "immune-privileged" developmental time window to achieve orthotopic xenotransplantation of human brain tumor cells in wild-type (WT) mice. We find that, when transplanted in utero, human glioblastoma (GBM) cells readily integrate in the embryonic mouse brain mirroring key tumor-associated pathological features such as infiltration, vascularization, and complex tumor micro...

Age-associated reorganization of metabolic brain connectivity in Chinese children.

The human brain develops rapidly from infant to adolescent. Establishment of the brain developmental trajectory is important to understand cognition, behavior, and emotions, as well to evaluate the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. F-FDG PET has been widely used to study brain glucose metabolism, but functional brain segregation and integration based on F-FDG PET remains largely unknown.

Complexity-based decoding of brain-skin relation in response to olfactory stimuli.

Human body is covered with skin in different parts. In fact, skin reacts to different changes around human. For instance, when the surrounding temperature changes, human skin will react differently. It is known that the activity of skin is regulated by human brain. In this research, for the first time we investigate the relation between the activities of human skin and brain by mathematical analysis of Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Electroencephalography (EEG) signals.

Mouse vs Man: Organoid Models of Brain Development & Disease.

Brain organoids have rapidly become established as promising tools for studying both the normal embryonic development of the brain and the mechanistic roots of neurodevelopmental disorders. Most recent studies are based on brain organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), as these are likely to be the best way to understand normal human development and disease. However, brain organoids grown from mouse cells still have a role to play. We discuss recent work showing how mice and mouse organoi...

Modeling the Evolution of Human Brain Development Using Organoids.

In a recent issue of Nature, Kanton et al. explore human brain evolution and development by profiling the single-cell transcriptomes and epigenomes of cerebral organoids derived from human, chimpanzee, and macaque stem cells. Their results reveal key molecular characteristics that differentiate humans and non-human primates at the earliest stages of brain development.

Social participation reduces isolation among Japanese older people in urban area: A 3-year longitudinal study.

Social isolation is a particular problem among older people and social participation may reduce future isolation. However, it is unclear which types of activities and which level of participation are effective. This study examines the relationship between social participation and isolation among Japanese older people by employing a 3-year longitudinal study.

Effect of gradual temperature increase on the carbohydrate energy metabolism responses of the Antarctic fish Notothenia rossii.

The warming of the Southern Ocean waters may affect the biological processes and the performance of the fish inhabiting it. The notothenioid group is metabolically specialized to low-temperature environments and may be vulnerable to the climatic changes imposed on the Antarctic continent. However, gradual temperature changes potentially allow an opportunity for plasticity adjustments. The present study evaluated the effect of gradual increase of temperature on the enzymatic and nonenzymatic parameters of en...

Inflammatory biomarkers in the blood and pancreatic tissue of organ donors that predict human islet isolation success and function.

The pancreas of brain-dead donors is the primary source of islets for transplantation. However, brain death mediates systemic inflammation, which may affect the quantity and quality of isolated islets. Our aim was to identify inflammatory biomarkers in donor blood and/or pancreatic tissue capable of predicting islet isolation success. Blood samples were collected from 21 pancreas donors and 14 healthy volunteers. Pancreatic tissue samples were also collected from the corresponding donor during organ procure...

A human brain tau PET template in MNI space for the voxel-wise analysis of Alzheimer's disease.

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques of tau retention in the human brain are important for mechanistic studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the method for effectively conducting voxel-wise analysis on tau PET images still needs to be improved. In the present study, we introduced a tau PET template for the human brain in Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space for the convenient and reliable voxel-wise analysis of tau PET images in AD studies.

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