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PubMed Journals Articles About "Assessing Impact Urban Pollution With Advanced Instrumentation" RSS

10:53 EDT 17th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Assessing impact urban pollution with advanced instrumentation" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 21,000+

Assessing the impact of an aerial chronic urban pollution (UP) on some facial signs of differently-aged Chinese men.

To assess the impact of an aerial chronic urban pollution (UP) on the severities of some facial signs of Chinese men living in two close but differently polluted Chinese cities.


Effects of road salt on microbial communities: Halophiles as biomarkers of road salt pollution.

Increased use of salting to de-ice roadways, especially in urban areas, is leading to elevated salinity levels in soil as well as surface- and ground water. This salt pollution may cause long-term ecological changes to soil and aquatic microbial communities. In this study, we examined the impact on microbial communities in soils exposed to urban road salt runoff using both culturing and 16S amplicon sequencing. Both methods showed an increase in halophilic Bacteria and Archaea in samples from road salt-expo...

Atmospheric nitrogen pollution in urban agglomeration and its impact on alpine lake-case study of Tianchi Lake.

The atmospheric pollution caused by human activities has been recognized as an important factor affecting the water quality of freshwater bodies. The process of the human factors' impact on high-altitude lakes in inland regions is not clear up to now. In this research, regions around Tianchi Lake were taken as a case study to explore the relation between the urban air pollution and alpine lake water quality. Multi-scale station observed data were analyzed for the urban NO pollution by means of relevance ana...


Impacts on human mortality due to reductions in PM concentrations through different traffic scenarios in Paris, France.

Air pollution is a well-known burden for population health and health systems worldwide. Reduction in air pollution is associated with improvements in mortality and rates of respiratory, cardiovascular and other diseases. Though air quality is a problem globally, efforts to lower air pollutant concentrations are usually regional or local. In industrialized countries, most urban air pollution is caused by vehicles, suggesting reductions in traffic would result in reductions of pollution. However, detailed da...

Using green infrastructure to improve urban air quality (GI4AQ).

As evidence for the devastating impacts of air pollution on human health continues to increase, improving urban air quality has become one of the most pressing tasks facing policy makers world-wide. Increasingly, and very often on the basis of conflicting and/or weak evidence, the introduction of green infrastructure (GI) is seen as a win-win solution to urban air pollution, reducing ground-level concentrations without imposing restrictions on traffic and other polluting activities. The impact of GI on air ...

Season and size of urban particulate matter differentially affect cytotoxicity and human immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Exposure to air pollution particulate matter (PM) and tuberculosis (TB) are two of the leading global public health challenges affecting low and middle income countries. An estimated 4.26 million premature deaths are attributable to household air pollution and an additional 4.1 million to outdoor air pollution annually. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infects a large proportion of the world's population with the risk for TB development increasing during immunosuppressing conditions. There is strong eviden...

Sweating the assets - The role of instrumentation, control and automation in urban water systems.

Instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) are currently applied throughout the urban water system at water treatment plants, in water distribution networks, in sewer networks, and at wastewater treatment plants. However, researchers and practitioners specialising in respective urban water sub-systems do not frequently interact, and in most cases to date the application of ICA has been achieved in silo. Here, we review start-of-the-art ICA throughout these sub-systems, and discuss the benefits achieved i...

Adverse-Event Free Survival, Hospitalizations, and Mortality in Left Ventricular Assist Device Recipients: A Rural-Urban Cohort Comparison.

The number of individuals with advanced heart failure (HF) receiving left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) is growing. Postimplantation LVAD recipients return home to both rural and urban locations. The impact of rural or urban living on postimplantation outcomes has not been adequately explored.

Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contamination in the Peri-urban Agricultural Soils of 31 Provincial Capital Cities in China.

To obtain a general understanding of heavy metal contamination in peri-urban agricultural soils in China, this study investigates the concentrations of eight heavy metals, i.e., Cd, Pb, Zn, As, Cu, Cr, Hg, and Ni, in the peri-urban agricultural soils of 31 provincial capital cities in China. The data were obtained via exhaustive literature searches in both the Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) as well as from statistical yearbooks published in China. To evaluate the pollution...

Source, Spatial Distribution and Pollution Assessment of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Pb, Isotopes in urban soils of Ahvaz City, a semi-arid metropolis in southwest Iran.

This study examined the status of toxic metal contamination of the urban industrial city of Ahvaz in Iran. Two hundred and twenty-seven surface soils from a depth horizon of 0-10 cm were collected from urban areas. In addition, 15 soil samples were collected to recognise the sources of Pb in urban topsoils in Ahvaz city. Mean concentration of Pb, Zn, Cu and As were 181 ± 167, 123 ± 118, 185 ± 167 and 6.9 ± 8.9 mg.kg, respectively. Results of inter-element relationship among studied t...

Lessons learned: Retrospective assessment of outcomes and management of patients with advanced HIV disease in a semi-urban polyclinic in Epworth, Zimbabwe.

HIV continues to be one of the leading causes of infectious death worldwide and presentation with advanced HIV disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recommendations for the management of advanced HIV disease include prompt screening and treatment of opportunistic infections, rapid initiation of ART and intensified adherence support. We present treatment outcomes of a cohort of patients presenting with advanced HIV disease in a semi-urban Zimbabwean polyclinic.

Chronic exposure to urban air pollution from Buenos Aires: the ocular mucosa as an early biomarker.

Air pollution represents a major health problem in megacities, bringing about 8 million deaths every year. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vivo the ocular and respiratory mucosa biological response after chronic exposure to urban air particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA). BALB/c mice were exposed to UAP-BA or filtered air for 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. After exposure, histology, histomorphometry, and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokine level were evaluated in the respiratory and ocular mucosa. Total cell num...

An innovative method based on cloud model learning to identify high-risk pollution intervals of storm-flow on an urban catchment scale.

Identifying high-risk storm-flow pollution intervals in an urban watershed is critical for watershed pollution control decision-making. High-risk pollution intervals of storm-flow are defined as storm-flow intervals that contribute more than the background pollutant load, and whose load contribution rank in the top 20%. However, the identification of high-risk pollution intervals is difficult due to variations in the flow-concentration relationship among rain events, uncertainty inherent in stormwater quali...

Multielemental analysis in Nerium Oleander L. leaves as a way of assessing the levels of urban air pollution by heavy metals.

In this study, Nerium oleander L. leaves were used as biomonitors to evaluate environmental pollutants levels in a sub-region in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro City (Brazil) through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Control samples were collected in a rural zone next to the Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca/RJ. The samples were collected during all seasons of 2015 (summer, fall, winter and spring). The concentration of 13 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb) was determined. Most of ...

The flux and impact of wastewater infrastructure microorganisms on human and ecosystem health.

Wastewater infrastructure is designed, in part, to remove microorganisms. However, many microorganisms are able to colonize infrastructure and resist treatment, resulting in an enormous flux of microorganisms to urban adjacent waters. These urban-associated microorganisms are discharged through three primary routes 1) failing infrastructure, 2) stormwater, and 3) treated wastewater effluent. Bacterial load estimates indicate failing infrastructure should be considered an equivalent source of microbial pollu...

Invertebrate community responses to urban wastewater effluent pollution under different hydro-morphological conditions.

Urban wastewater effluents bring large amounts of nutrients, organic matter and organic microcontaminants into freshwater ecosystems. The effects of this complex mixture of pollutants on freshwater invertebrates have been studied mainly in temperate rivers and streams with high dilution capacities. In contrast, Mediterranean streams and rivers have lower dilution capacities especially during the seasonal drought, and are therefore exposed to high concentrations of pollutants. Here, we assess the effects of ...

Lichens as a spatial record of metal air pollution in the industrialized city of Huelva (SW Spain).

Huelva is a highly industrialized city in SW Spain hosting, among others, a Cu smelter, a phosphate fertilizer plant, a power plant, and oil refineries. This study aims to evaluate metal concentrations in lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution in the impacted urban areas. Xanthoria parietina species from Huelva and nearby villages, as well as reference samples from remote, non-contaminated urban areas, were analyzed for trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, As, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr...

Vertical monitoring of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in urban street canyons of Hong Kong.

Rapid urbanization has significantly increased air pollution especially in urban regions with high traffic volumes. Existing methods for estimating traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and TRAP-related health impacts are based on two-dimensional modelling. This paper describes a point-based methodology to monitor vertical pollutant concentrations in typical street canyons of Hong Kong. It explains the conceptual design, monitoring strategy and selection criteria for a limited number of receptor locations in...

Modeling the provision of air-quality regulation ecosystem service provided by urban green spaces using lichens as ecological indicators.

The UN Sustainable Development Goals states that urban air pollution must be tackled to create more inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities. Urban green infrastructures can mitigate air pollution, but a crucial step to use this knowledge into urban management is to quantify how much air-quality regulation can green spaces provide and to understand how the provision of this ecosystem service is affected by other environmental factors. Considering the insufficient number of air quality monitoring st...

Simulation of coupled impact-management response scenarios for distributed wastewater environmental discharges at basin scale through urban environmental risk network transmission mechanism.

A multi-agent modeling method is applied here to model the coupled environmental impact and management response scenarios in relation to the impact of multiple wastewater discharges at river basin scale. Based on the Netlogo modeling platform, the cumulative impact of water pollution, which was represented here by COD values, is esteemed using Huaihe River Basin (China) as a case study. As a novel factor, different management responses to the adverse effects of cumulative pollution level increases along the...

Microplastic Pollution in Surface Water of Urban Lakes in Changsha, China.

As emerging pollutants, microplastics have attracted the attention of scholars from all over the world. However, there is a lack of research on freshwater areas, even in densely populated urban areas. This study investigated eight urban lakes in Changsha, China. It was found that microplastic concentrations ranged from 2425 ± 247.5 items/m to 7050 ± 1060.66 items/m in the surface water of research areas and the maximum concentration was found in Yuejin Lake, a tourist spot in the center of the city. Anthr...

Understanding spatiotemporal variability of in-stream water quality in urban environments - A case study of Melbourne, Australia.

To support sustainable urban planning and the design of water pollution mitigation strategies, the spatial and temporal trends of water quality in urban streams needs to be further understood. This study analyses over ten years of surface water quality data from 53 upstream catchments (20 of them predominated by a single type of land use) and two lowland sites across Greater Melbourne, Australia. We evaluated the impact of various catchment characteristics, especially urban land uses, on spatial and tempora...

Which decreases in air pollution should be targeted to bring health and economic benefits and improve environmental justice?

Fine particulate matter (PM) exposure entails large health effects in many urban areas. Public measures aiming at decreasing air pollution are often designed without targeting an explicit health benefit. Our objective was to investigate the health and economic benefits and the social inequalities in exposure resulting from several scenarios of reduction of PM exposure, in order to support decisions about urban policies.

Assessing the Impact of Serious Illness on Patient Intimacy and Sexuality in Palliative Care.

Palliative care (PC) clinical practice guidelines recommend providers assess the impact of illness on intimacy and sexuality. Previous studies around sexuality and intimacy in patients with advanced illness have largely focused on patients with a cancer diagnosis in the outpatient setting. Little is known about such impact of illness on inpatients receiving PC consultation.

Inter-city air pollutant transport in The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration: Comparison between the winters of 2012 and 2016.

In recent years, with the continual urbanization of China, regional atmospheric environmental problems have become increasingly prominent. Although local emissions are an important cause of local pollution, the cross-boundary transmission of pollutants between cities also has an inevitable impact on regional pollution. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the California Puff (CALPUFF) air quality model was used to study the transmission characteristics of four major a...


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