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PubMed Journals Articles About "Automotive Catalyst Market Type Platinum Palladium Rhodium Vehicle" RSS

04:02 EDT 22nd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Automotive Catalyst Market Type Platinum Palladium Rhodium Vehicle PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Automotive Catalyst Market Type Platinum Palladium Rhodium Vehicle articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Automotive Catalyst Market Type Platinum Palladium Rhodium Vehicle" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 15,000+

Evaluation of phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity of industrial catalyst components (Fe, Cu, Ni, Rh and Pd): A case of lethal toxicity of a rhodium salt in terrestrial plants.

Until recently, chemical derivatives of platinum group metals have not been in a systematic direct contact with living organisms. The situation has changed dramatically due to anthropogenic activity, which has led to significant redistribution of these metals in the biosphere. Millions of modern cars are equipped with automotive catalytic converters, which contain rhodium, palladium and platinum as active elements. Everyday usage of catalytic technologies promotes the propagation of catalyst components in t...


Leaching efficiency and kinetics of the recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent auto-catalyst in HCl/CuCl media.

The recycling of scarce elements such as platinum-group metals is becoming crucial due to their growing importance in current and emerging applications. In this sense, the recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent auto-catalyst by leaching in HCl/CuCl media was studied, aiming at assessing the kinetic performance as well as the influence of some processing factors, and the behaviour of contaminant metals. Based on a kinetic model developed for the present case, the influence of temperature was evaluate...

Hazards from failure of CNG automotive cylinders in fire.

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a widely used automotive fuel in a variety of countries. In case of a vehicle fire where the safety device also malfunctions, a failure of the CNG automotive cylinder could occur. Such a cylinder failure is associated with severe hazards for the surrounding environment. Firstly, a comprehensive analysis is given below, summarizing various accidents involving CNG automotive cylinders and their consequences. In an extensive experimental program, 21 CNG automotive cylinders with...


Rhodium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Silicon-Bridged 1,2-Dialkenylbenzenes via 1,4-Rhodium Migration.

An efficient synthesis of 1,3-dialkylidene-2,3-dihydro-1 H-benzo[ c]siloles, a new type of silicon-bridged π-conjugated compounds, was developed from a simple substrate combination of dialkynylsilanes and arylboronic acids under rhodium catalysis through the use of 1,4-rhodium migration. The reaction pathway was probed by deuterium-labeling experiments, and the use of o-tolylboronic acids led to the formation of 6-membered silacycles via 1,5-rhodium migration.

Size-selective hydroformylation by a rhodium catalyst confined in a supramolecular cage.

In this study, size-selective hydroformylation of terminal alkenes is attained upon embedding a rhodium bisphosphine complex in a supramolecular metal-organic cage that is formed by subcomponent self-assembly. The catalyst is bound in the cage via a template ligand approach in which pyridyl-zinc(II)porphyrin interactions lead to high association constants (>105 M-1) for the binding of the ligands and the corresponding rhodium complex. DFT calculations confirm that the second coordination sphere forces the e...

Pd-CuFe Catalyst for Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitriles: Controllable Selectivity to Primary Amines and Secondary Amines.

A multicomponent nanocatalyst system was fabricated for the transfer hydrogenation of nitrile compounds. This catalyst system contains palladium, copper, and iron, which are supported on the magnetite nanospheres, and the loading of palladium could be at the parts per million level. Palladium and copper contribute to the transformation of nitrile, and the product distribution highly depends on the alloying of Fe to Cu. The nitriles could be converted to primary amine by the Pd-Cu catalyst in the absence of ...

Asymmetric Cyclizative Dimerization of (ortho-Alkynyl Phenyl) (Methoxymethyl) Sulfides with Palladium(II) Bisoxazoline Catalyst.

The first example of an asymmetric cyclizative dimerization of (ortho-alkynylphenyl) (methoxymethyl) sulfides with a palladium(II) bisoxazoline (box) catalyst has been developed. The box ligand enhances the alkynophilicity of benzothienyl palladium(II) intermediate and thus promotes coordination of the second alkyne substrate, leading to the dimerization. The characteristic properties of the box ligand were supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the intermediate. Axially chiral bibenzo...

Catalyst Control in Positional-Selective C-H Alkenylation of Isoxazoles and a Ruthenium-Mediated Assembly of Trisubstituted Pyrroles.

High levels of catalyst control are demonstrated in determining the positional selectivity in C-H alkenylation of isoxazoles. A cationic rhodium-mediated, strong-directing group promotes C( sp)-H activation at the proximal aryl ring whereas, the palladium-mediated electrophilic metallation leads to the C( sp)-H activation at the distal position of the directing group. Synthetic elaboration of this C-H alkenylation product via ruthenium and copper co-catalysis leads to an efficient method for the assembly of...

Stereoselective Aromatic Ring Hydrogenation over Supported Rhodium Catalysts in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Solvent.

The combination of supported rhodium metal catalysts and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent was effective for the stereoselective ring hydrogenations of aromatic compounds at low temperature. Higher solubility of hydrogen in supercritical carbon dioxide provides higher concentration of hydrogen on the rhodium surface, but lower that of the intermediate on rhodium surface, which suppresses the flipping of surface intermediate, leading to higher catalyst activities and cis selectivities to the corresponding...

Cofactor controlled encapsulation of a rhodium hydroformylation catalyst.

Supramolecular approaches in transition metal catalysis, including catalyst encapsulation, have attracted considerable attention. Compared to enzymes, supramolecular catalysts in general are less complex. Enzyme activity is often controlled by the use of smaller cofactor type molecules, which is important in order to control reactivity in complex mixtures of molecules. Interested in increasing the complexity and allowing control over supramolecular catalysts formation by external stimuli, we designed a cata...

New platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with substituted terpyridine ligands: synthesis and characterization, cytotoxicity and reactivity towards biomolecules.

A series of palladium(II) (1-3) and platinum(II) chloride complexes (4 and 5) with 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (terpy) derivatives substituted at the 4' position, was synthesized and fully characterized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of complexes 2, 3 and 5 showed tridentate coordination of the 4'-substituted terpyridine (terpy) ligands to the metal center. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxic activity of these complexes toward a panel of human cancer cell lines (lung cancer A549, colorectal cancer HCT116,...

Highly recoverable, reusable, cost-effective, and Schiff base functionalized pectin supported Pd(II) catalyst for microwave-accelerated Suzuki cross-coupling reactions.

One of the most important problems in catalytic systems is metal leaching due to weak interactions between the supporting material and the metal ions. It adversely affects the reusability and catalytic performance of catalysts. In this study, a novel support material, which is a composed Schiff base functionalized pectin bio-polymer with good coordination performance against palladium ions, was designed and characterized to overcome the afore-mentioned problems. Then the catalytic activity of the designed p...

Mobility of traffic-related Pd and Pt species in soils evaluated by sequential extraction.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mobility of platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) emissions from automotive catalysts in soils and to contribute to the risk assessment of platinum group metals (PGMs) discharged from catalysts in the environment. To address this question, for the first time risk assessment code (RAC) was applied to consider the results from sequential extraction of different Pd and Pt species from soils. For this purpose, model soil samples were prepared spiking defined Pd or Pt species...

Platinum Nanosheets between Graphite Layers.

Two-dimensional platinum nanosheets were obtained by the hydrogen reduction of platinum tetrachloride intercalated between graphite layers, the latter was prepared by the treatment of the mixture of platinum tetrachloride and graphite powder under chlorine atmosphere. The size of platinum nanosheets was 1-3 nm in thickness with a width in the range of 5-300 nm. These nanosheets contain a number of hexagonal holes and edges with an angle of 120°. This review discusses the reduction and oxidation behavio...

Cost implications for automaker compliance of Zero Emissions Vehicle requirements.

While there are many automotive regulations in the United States, few studies in the literature examine the interaction between different rules. We investigate the cost implications of enforcing the national Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards and the Zero Emissions Vehicle (ZEV) requirements simultaneously. We construct a new "Cost Optimization Modeling for Efficiency Technologies" (COMET) to understand how vehicle manufacturers implement fuel economy technolo...

Correction: A novel polymer containing phosphorus-nitrogen ligands for stabilization of palladium nanoparticles: an efficient and recyclable catalyst for Suzuki and Sonogashira reactions in neat water.

Correction for 'A novel polymer containing phosphorus-nitrogen ligands for stabilization of palladium nanoparticles: an efficient and recyclable catalyst for Suzuki and Sonogashira reactions in neat water' by M. Gholinejad, et al., Dalton Trans., 2015, 44, 14293-14303.

Anticancer activity of palladium-based complexes against triple-negative breast cancer.

Treatment of triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) remains an unmet medical need with no targeted therapy available to date. Accounting for 10-30% of all human breast cancer tumors, this mammary carcinoma subtype has a particularly poor prognosis owing to its high metastatic potential, aggressive biology and limited pharmacological treatment options. Platinum chemotherapeutics are the mainstay therapy in patients with TNBC but their clinical use is limited by severe toxicity and acquired resistance. Palla...

Trabectedin for reversing platinum resistance and resensitization to platinum in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.

We evaluated trabectedin in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory and partially platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer and the outcomes after reintroduction of platinum.

Platinum-catalyzed Desaturation of Lactams, Ketones and Lactones.

The development of a general platinum-catalyzed desaturation of N-protected lactams, ketones, and lactones to their conjugated α,β-unsaturated counterparts is reported. The reaction is operated under mildly acidic conditions at room temperature or 50 oC. It is scalable and tolerates a wide range of functional groups. The complementary reactivity to the palladium-catalyzed desaturation is demonstrated in the efficient conversion of iodide, bromide and sulfur-containing substrates.

Palladium-Catalyzed Chemoselective Protodecarboxylation of Polyenoic Acids.

Conditions for the first palladium-catalyzed chemoselective protodecarboxylation of polyenoic acids to give the desired polyenes in good yields are presented. The reactions proceed under mild conditions using either a Pd(0) or Pd(II) catalyst and tolerate a variety of aryl and aliphatic substitutions. Unique aspects of the reaction include the requirement of phosphines, water, and a polyene adjacent to the carboxylic acid.

Design and synthesis of amine-functionalized cellulose with multiple binding sites and their application in CC bond forming reactions.

Straw is a green and promising material in nature. However, as is the case for all other biopolymers, straw have to face the challenge of underutilization thereby resulting in environmental and economic issues. To overcome these drawbacks, the urgent exploitation of straw is needed for its comprehensive utilization. In this paper, we chose cellulose as the straw model to prepare two amine ligands functionalized environmentally-friendly cellulose supported catalyst. The ethylenediamine functionalized cellulo...

Rhodium Nanoparticles/F-Doped Graphene Composites as Multifunctional Electrocatalyst Superior to Pt/C for Hydrogen Evolution and Formic Acid Oxidation Reaction.

High-efficient electrocatalysis for clean, efficient and sustainable energy supply, such as hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR), has drawn enthusiastic and worldwide attention. Universal and efficient electrocatalysts for these reactions are essential elements for the development of renewable and clean energy technologies. Herein, we show the design and fabrication of the rhodium nanoparticles modified fluorine-doped graphene (Rh/F-graphene) catalyst using silicon nan...

Ultrathin Nanosheet of Graphdiyne-Supported Palladium Atom Catalyst for Efficient Hydrogen Production.

Atomic catalysts are promising alternatives to bulk catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), because of their high atomic efficiencies, catalytic activities, and selectivities. Here, we report the ultrathin nanosheet of graphdiyne (GDY)-supported zero-valent palladium atoms and its direct application as a three-dimensional flexible hydrogen-evolving cathode. Our theoretical and experimental findings verified the successful anchoring of Pd to GDY and the excellent catalytic performance of Pd/GDY....

Continuous-flow Synthesis of Aryl Aldehydes by Pd-catalyzed Formylation of Aryl Bromides Using Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen.

A continuous-flow protocol utilizing syngas (CO and H2) was developed for the palladium-catalyzed reductive carbonylation of (hetero)aryl bromides to their corresponding (hetero)aryl aldehydes. The optimization of temperature, pressure, catalyst and ligand loading, and residence time resulted in process intensified flow conditions for the transformation. In addition, a key benefit of investigating the reaction in flow is the ability to precisely control the CO to H2 stoichiometric ratio, which was identifie...

Green Principles for Vehicle Lightweighting.

A large portion of life cycle transportation impacts occur during vehicle operation, and key improvement strategies include increasing powertrain efficiency, vehicle electrification and lightweighting vehicles by reducing their mass. The potential energy benefits of vehicle lightweighting are large, given that 29.5 EJ was used in all modes of U.S. transportation in 2016 and roughly half of the energy spent in wheeled transportation and the majority of energy spent in aircraft is used to move vehicle mass. W...


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