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PubMed Journals Articles About "Axon Instruments" RSS

08:56 EST 12th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Axon Instruments PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Axon Instruments articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Axon Instruments" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 801

Apoptosis versus Axon Pruning: Molecular Intersection of Two Distinct Pathways for Axon Degeneration.

Neurons are capable of degenerating their axons for the physiological clearance and refinement of unnecessary connections via the programmed degenerative pathways of apoptosis and axon pruning. While both pathways mediate axon degeneration they are however distinct. Whereas in apoptosis the entire neuron, both axons and cell body, degenerates, in the context of axon pruning only the targeted axon segments are selectively degenerated. Interestingly, the molecular pathways mediating axon degeneration in these...


High-resolution axon reflex sweat testing for diagnosis of neuropathy.

The aim of this study was to report a method that quantifies axon reflex sweating from individual sweat glands with nanoliter precision. Measurement of the axon reflex is generally expressed as a single variable (e.g., the flare area or total sweat volume). High-definition videography enables precise measurement of sweating from single, axon reflex-stimulated sweat glands (SGs).

A Microfluidic Platform to Study the Effects of GDNF on Neuronal Axon Entrapment.

One potential treatment strategy to enhance axon regeneration is transplanting Schwann Cells (SCs) that overexpress glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Unfortunately, constitutive GDNF overexpression in vivo can result in failure of regenerating axons to extend beyond the GDNF source, a phenomenon termed the "candy-store" effect. Little is known about the mechanism of this axon entrapment in vivo.


Lin28 Signaling Supports Mammalian PNS and CNS Axon Regeneration.

RNA-binding proteins Lin28a/b regulate cellular growth and tissue regeneration. Here, we investigated the role of Lin28 in the control of axon regeneration in postmitotic neurons. We find that Lin28a/b are both necessary and sufficient for supporting axon regeneration in mature sensory neurons through their regulatory partners, let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs). More importantly, overexpression of Lin28a in mature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) produces robust and sustained optic nerve regeneration. Additionally, com...

Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase 2 maintains neuronal structural integrity through the maintenance of golgi structure.

Golgi fragmentation and loss of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase 2 (NMNAT2) are the early key features of many neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated the link between NMNAT2 loss, Golgi fragmentation and axon degeneration. Golgi fragmentation in the cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons resulted in caspase dependent axon degeneration and neuronal cell death. NMNAT2 depletion in the DRG neurons caused Golgi fragmentation and caspase dependent axon degeneration. NMNAT2 depletion did...

Instruments to Evaluate Nurse Residency Programs: A Review of the Literature.

The purpose of this literature review was to explore evaluation instruments used by nurse residency programs to evaluate outcomes. The 15 studies found yielded 26 instruments, and all instruments were subjective, dated, and varied in how they were used. Nursing professional development practitioners should use a combination of reliable, valid, and current evaluation methods to appraise their nurse residency programs in order to demonstrate program quality and effectiveness.

Cyclic flexural fatigue resistance of NiTi Controlled Memory and Blue Technology instruments after torsional preloading.

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of torsional preloading on the cyclic flexural fatigue resistance of thermally treated NiTi instruments. Material and Methods Ten new instruments New Hyflex CM (HF 30.06; Coltene/Whaladent Inc.), Typhoon CM (TYP 30.06; Clinician's Choice Dental Products) and Vortex Blue (VB 30.06; Dentsply Tulsa Dental) were chosen, based on geometry and specific characteristics of the manufacturing process. The new instruments of each system were tested in a ben...

Return of function after CNS axon regeneration: Lessons from injury-responsive intrinsically photosensitive and alpha retinal ganglion cells.

This review addresses issues relating to the survival and axon regeneration of both intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) and αRGC, and possible ensuing patterns of functional recovery after optic nerve crush, all of which are broadly relevant to recovery from injury in the central nervous system (CNS) as whole. Although much needs to be clarified about the connectivity, function and patterns of myelination of regenerated CNS axons, the results of recent research on activity-induced ...

What Are the MCIDs for PROMIS, NDI, and ODI Instruments Among Patients With Spinal Conditions?

As new Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) instruments are incorporated into clinical practice, determining how large a change on these instruments represents a clinically relevant difference is important; the metric that describes this is the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Prior research on MCIDs of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has produced values ranging from 5 to 10 points, but these measures have not been presented in ...

Loss of Sarm1 does not suppress motor neuron degeneration in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Axon degeneration occurs in all neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular pathways regulating axon destruction during neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Sterile Alpha and TIR Motif Containing 1 (Sarm1) is an essential component of the prodegenerative pathway driving axon degeneration after axotomy and represents an appealing target for therapeutic intervention in neurological conditions involving axon loss. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by rapid, progressive motor neuron deg...

A novel method for quantifying axon degeneration.

Axons normally degenerate during development of the mammalian nervous system, but dysregulation of the same genetically-encoded destructive cellular machinery can destroy crucial structures during adult neurodegenerative diseases. Nerve growth factor (NGF) withdrawal from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) axons is a well-established in vitro experimental model for biochemical and cell biological studies of developmental degeneration. Definitive methods for measuring axon degeneration have been lacking and here we r...

Axons morphometry in the human spinal cord.

Due to the technical challenges of large-scale microscopy and analysis, to date only limited knowledge has been made available about axon morphometry (diameter, shape, myelin thickness, volume fraction), thereby limiting our understanding of neuronal microstructure and slowing down research on neurodegenerative pathologies. This study addresses this knowledge gap by establishing a state-of-the-art acquisition and analysis framework for mapping axon morphometry, and providing the first comprehensive mapping ...

The C. elegans BRCA2-ALP/Enigma Complex Regulates Axon Regeneration via a Rho GTPase-ROCK-MLC Phosphorylation Pathway.

The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. However, the mechanisms regulating axon regeneration are not well understood. Here, we identify the brc-2 gene encoding a homolog of the mammalian BRCA2 tumor suppressor as a regulator of axon regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons. We show that the RHO-1/Rho GTPase-LET-502/ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase)-regulatory non-muscle myosin light-chain (MLC-4/MLC) phosp...

A Survey About Dental Instruments at the Primary Health Care in Brazil.

This study describes the structure of oral health services in primary health care in Brazil and the instruments available for the provision of oral health care and to compare the number of instruments according to organizational characteristics of health services and among the macroregions. Of the 23,251 oral health teams (OHTs) in the Public Health System, 17,513 (75.3%) participated in this study. Trained researchers observed the structures of the health services and determined the presence of and whether...

Actin Assemblies in the Axon Shaft - some Open Questions.

The actin cytoskeleton in neurons plays critical roles in axonal growth and synaptic organization. Until recently, most studies on axonal actin were limited to terminal growth cones or synapses, whereas the organization of actin along the shaft of the axon was relatively ignored. However, experiments using super-resolution microscopy and live imaging have revealed previously unknown actin structures along the axonal shaft, such as periodic 'actin rings' circumferentially wrapping underneath the plasma membr...

Receptors of intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism, GPR91 and GPR99, mediate axon growth.

During the development of the visual system, high levels of energy are expended propelling axons from the retina to the brain. However, the role of intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism in the development of the visual system has been overlooked. Here, we report that the carbohydrate metabolites succinate and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and their respective receptor-GPR91 and GPR99-are involved in modulating retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections toward the thalamus during visual system development. Using ...

The Krüppel-Like Factor Gene Target Dusp14 Regulates Axon Growth and Regeneration.

Adult central nervous system (CNS) neurons are unable to regenerate their axons after injury. Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF) family members regulate intrinsic axon growth ability in vitro and in vivo, but mechanisms downstream of these transcription factors are not known.

Resistive Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide in one Axon of single Neuron with Nano-pipettes.

Electrochemical analysis of intracellular hydrogen peroxide in sub-micron scaled cellular protrusion is challenging that requires highly sensitive nanoelectrode and advanced electrochemical detection system. In this technical note, a resistive analysis based on acrylic acid polymerization in the nano-pipettes is established to measure hydrogen peroxide in one axon of single neuron. Upon the position of nano-pipette tip inside the axon, hydrogen peroxide is electrokinetically loaded into the pipette to react...

Distinct CED-10/Rac1 domains confer context-specific functions in development.

Rac GTPases act as master switches to coordinate multiple interweaved signaling pathways. A major function for Rac GTPases is to control neurite development by influencing downstream effector molecules and pathways. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Rac proteins CED-10, RAC-2 and MIG-2 act in parallel to control axon outgrowth and guidance. Here, we have identified a single glycine residue in the CED-10/Rac1 Switch 1 region that confers a non-redundant function in axon outgrowth but not guidance. Mutation of t...

Keeping up with advances in axon guidance.

Twenty-five years after the discovery of the first chemotropic molecules for growing axons, what are the new findings? This review describes the latest progress made in our understanding of the molecular control of axonal guidance in the vertebrate nervous system. Special focus will be given to new molecular players, their source and location in vivo, and the role of membrane/receptor trafficking and RNA-based mechanisms in axon guidance cue signalling.

The extent of extra-axonal tissue damage determines the levels of CSPG upregulation and the success of experimental axon regeneration in the CNS.

The failure of mature central nervous system (CNS) projection neurons to regenerate axons over long distances drastically limits the recovery of functions lost after various CNS injuries and diseases. Although a number of manipulations that stimulate some degree of axon regeneration that overcomes the inhibitory environment after CNS injury have been discovered, the extent of regeneration remains very limited, emphasizing the need for improved therapies. Regenerating axons need nerve tissue environment capa...

Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Sorting at the Optic Chiasm Requires Dystroglycan.

In the developing visual system, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons project from the retina to several distal retinorecipient regions in the brain. Several molecules have been implicated in guiding RGC axons in vivo, but the role of extracellular matrix molecules in this process remains poorly understood. Dystroglycan is a laminin-binding transmembrane protein important for formation and maintenance of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes and has previously been implicated in axon guidance in the ...

Olfactory ensheathing cells abutting the embryonic olfactory bulb express Frzb, whose deletion disrupts olfactory axon targeting.

We and others previously showed that in mouse embryos lacking the transcription factor Sox10, olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) differentiation is disrupted, resulting in defective olfactory axon targeting and fewer gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons entering the embryonic forebrain. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report that OECs in the olfactory nerve layer express Frzb-encoding a secreted Wnt inhibitor with roles in axon targeting and basement membrane breakdown-from embryonic ...

NMDA receptors inhibit axonal outgrowth by inactivating Akt and activating GSK-3β via calcineurin in cultured immature hippocampal neurons.

Neurons are highly polarized cells with an axon and dendritic arbors. It is still not well studied that how formation and elaboration of axon and dendrites is controlled by diffusible signaling factors such as glutamate via specific receptors. We found that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were enriched (stage 2-3) but decreased expression (stage 4-5) at tip of axon of cultured hippocampal neurons during distinct development stages. Inhibition of NMDA receptor activity by competitive antagonist DL-2-am...

Spatial distribution affects the role of CSPGs in nerve regeneration via the actin filament-mediated pathway.

CSPGs are components of the extracellular matrix in the nervous system, where they serve as cues for axon guidance during development. After a peripheral nerve injury, CSPGs switch roles and become axon inhibitors and become diffusely distributed at the injury site. To investigate whether the spatial distribution of CSPGs affects their role, we combined in vitro DRG cultures with CSPG stripe or coverage assays to simulate the effect of a patterned substrate or dispersive distribution of CSPGs on growing neu...


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