PubMed Journals Articles About "Axon Instruments" RSS

11:15 EDT 18th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Axon Instruments" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 838

The electrical significance of axon location diversity.

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a unique domain of the proximal axon serving critical electrical and structural roles including the initiation of action potentials and maintenance of cellular polarity. Recent experimental and theoretical advances demonstrate that the anatomical site for initiation is remarkably diverse. The AIS location varies not only axially, along the axon, but axons also emerge variably from either the soma or proximal dendrites. Here, we review the evidence that the diversity of AIS ...

Axon-Axon Interactions Regulate Topographic Optic Tract Sorting via CYFIP2-Dependent WAVE Complex Function.

The axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are topographically sorted before they arrive at the optic tectum. This pre-target sorting, typical of axon tracts throughout the brain, is poorly understood. Here, we show that cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting proteins (CYFIPs) fulfill non-redundant functions in RGCs, with CYFIP1 mediating axon growth and CYFIP2 specifically involved in axon sorting. We find that CYFIP2 mediates homotypic and heterotypic contact-triggered fasciculation and repulsion responses between ...

High-resolution axon reflex sweat testing for diagnosis of neuropathy.

The aim of this study was to report a method that quantifies axon reflex sweating from individual sweat glands with nanoliter precision. Measurement of the axon reflex is generally expressed as a single variable (e.g., the flare area or total sweat volume). High-definition videography enables precise measurement of sweating from single, axon reflex-stimulated sweat glands (SGs).

A Microfluidic Platform to Study the Effects of GDNF on Neuronal Axon Entrapment.

One potential treatment strategy to enhance axon regeneration is transplanting Schwann Cells (SCs) that overexpress glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Unfortunately, constitutive GDNF overexpression in vivo can result in failure of regenerating axons to extend beyond the GDNF source, a phenomenon termed the "candy-store" effect. Little is known about the mechanism of this axon entrapment in vivo.

Reproducibility of work ability and work functioning instruments.

Work ability (WA) and work functioning (WF) instruments can be useful in occupational health practice. The reproducibility of both instruments is important to their relevance for daily practice. Clinimetrics concerns the methodological and statistical quality of instruments and their performance in practice.

Lin28 Signaling Supports Mammalian PNS and CNS Axon Regeneration.

RNA-binding proteins Lin28a/b regulate cellular growth and tissue regeneration. Here, we investigated the role of Lin28 in the control of axon regeneration in postmitotic neurons. We find that Lin28a/b are both necessary and sufficient for supporting axon regeneration in mature sensory neurons through their regulatory partners, let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs). More importantly, overexpression of Lin28a in mature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) produces robust and sustained optic nerve regeneration. Additionally, com...

Signal propagation along the axon.

Axons link distant brain regions and are usually considered as simple transmission cables in which reliable propagation occurs once an action potential has been generated. Safe propagation of action potentials relies on specific ion channel expression at strategic points of the axon such as nodes of Ranvier or axonal branch points. However, while action potentials are generally considered as the quantum of neuronal information, their signaling is not entirely digital. In fact, both their shape and their con...

Instruments to Evaluate Nurse Residency Programs: A Review of the Literature.

The purpose of this literature review was to explore evaluation instruments used by nurse residency programs to evaluate outcomes. The 15 studies found yielded 26 instruments, and all instruments were subjective, dated, and varied in how they were used. Nursing professional development practitioners should use a combination of reliable, valid, and current evaluation methods to appraise their nurse residency programs in order to demonstrate program quality and effectiveness.

Cyclic flexural fatigue resistance of NiTi Controlled Memory and Blue Technology instruments after torsional preloading.

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of torsional preloading on the cyclic flexural fatigue resistance of thermally treated NiTi instruments. Material and Methods Ten new instruments New Hyflex CM (HF 30.06; Coltene/Whaladent Inc.), Typhoon CM (TYP 30.06; Clinician's Choice Dental Products) and Vortex Blue (VB 30.06; Dentsply Tulsa Dental) were chosen, based on geometry and specific characteristics of the manufacturing process. The new instruments of each system were tested in a ben...

Wimpy Nerves: piRNA Pathway Curbs Axon Regrowth after Injury.

While PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are primarily recognized as guardians of genome integrity, new functions of these small non-coding RNAs are emerging. In this issue, Kim et al. (2018) describe a piRNA-based mechanism that limits axon regeneration in C. elegans.

What Are the MCIDs for PROMIS, NDI, and ODI Instruments Among Patients With Spinal Conditions?

As new Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) instruments are incorporated into clinical practice, determining how large a change on these instruments represents a clinically relevant difference is important; the metric that describes this is the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Prior research on MCIDs of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has produced values ranging from 5 to 10 points, but these measures have not been presented in ...

Loss of Sarm1 does not suppress motor neuron degeneration in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Axon degeneration occurs in all neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular pathways regulating axon destruction during neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Sterile Alpha and TIR Motif Containing 1 (Sarm1) is an essential component of the prodegenerative pathway driving axon degeneration after axotomy and represents an appealing target for therapeutic intervention in neurological conditions involving axon loss. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by rapid, progressive motor neuron deg...

A novel method for quantifying axon degeneration.

Axons normally degenerate during development of the mammalian nervous system, but dysregulation of the same genetically-encoded destructive cellular machinery can destroy crucial structures during adult neurodegenerative diseases. Nerve growth factor (NGF) withdrawal from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) axons is a well-established in vitro experimental model for biochemical and cell biological studies of developmental degeneration. Definitive methods for measuring axon degeneration have been lacking and here we r...

The C. elegans BRCA2-ALP/Enigma Complex Regulates Axon Regeneration via a Rho GTPase-ROCK-MLC Phosphorylation Pathway.

The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. However, the mechanisms regulating axon regeneration are not well understood. Here, we identify the brc-2 gene encoding a homolog of the mammalian BRCA2 tumor suppressor as a regulator of axon regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons. We show that the RHO-1/Rho GTPase-LET-502/ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase)-regulatory non-muscle myosin light-chain (MLC-4/MLC) phosp...

Actin Assemblies in the Axon Shaft - some Open Questions.

The actin cytoskeleton in neurons plays critical roles in axonal growth and synaptic organization. Until recently, most studies on axonal actin were limited to terminal growth cones or synapses, whereas the organization of actin along the shaft of the axon was relatively ignored. However, experiments using super-resolution microscopy and live imaging have revealed previously unknown actin structures along the axonal shaft, such as periodic 'actin rings' circumferentially wrapping underneath the plasma membr...

Local mechanisms regulating selective cargo entry and long-range trafficking in axons.

The polarized long-distance transport of neuronal cargoes depends on the presence of functional and structural axonal subcompartments. Given the heterogeneity of neuronal cargoes, selective sorting and entry occurs in the proximal axon where multiple subcellular specializations such as the axon initial segment, the pre-axonal exclusion zone, the MAP2 pre-axonal filtering zone and the Tau diffusion barrier provide different levels of regulation. Cargoes allowed to pass through the proximal axon spread into t...

Receptors of intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism, GPR91 and GPR99, mediate axon growth.

During the development of the visual system, high levels of energy are expended propelling axons from the retina to the brain. However, the role of intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism in the development of the visual system has been overlooked. Here, we report that the carbohydrate metabolites succinate and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and their respective receptor-GPR91 and GPR99-are involved in modulating retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections toward the thalamus during visual system development. Using ...

The Krüppel-Like Factor Gene Target Dusp14 Regulates Axon Growth and Regeneration.

Adult central nervous system (CNS) neurons are unable to regenerate their axons after injury. Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF) family members regulate intrinsic axon growth ability in vitro and in vivo, but mechanisms downstream of these transcription factors are not known.

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Sinonasal Polyposis: Microdebrider or Conventional Instruments.

Sinonasal polyposis is one of the commonest causes of nasal obstruction. Surgical management is treatment of choice. Microdebrider offers more advantage to conventional instruments. We aimed to find out outcome using microdebrider versus conventional instruments in endoscopic sinus surgery of sinonasal polyposis.

Resistive Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide in one Axon of single Neuron with Nano-pipettes.

Electrochemical analysis of intracellular hydrogen peroxide in sub-micron scaled cellular protrusion is challenging that requires highly sensitive nanoelectrode and advanced electrochemical detection system. In this technical note, a resistive analysis based on acrylic acid polymerization in the nano-pipettes is established to measure hydrogen peroxide in one axon of single neuron. Upon the position of nano-pipette tip inside the axon, hydrogen peroxide is electrokinetically loaded into the pipette to react...

The extent of extra-axonal tissue damage determines the levels of CSPG upregulation and the success of experimental axon regeneration in the CNS.

The failure of mature central nervous system (CNS) projection neurons to regenerate axons over long distances drastically limits the recovery of functions lost after various CNS injuries and diseases. Although a number of manipulations that stimulate some degree of axon regeneration that overcomes the inhibitory environment after CNS injury have been discovered, the extent of regeneration remains very limited, emphasizing the need for improved therapies. Regenerating axons need nerve tissue environment capa...

Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Sorting at the Optic Chiasm Requires Dystroglycan.

In the developing visual system, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons project from the retina to several distal retinorecipient regions in the brain. Several molecules have been implicated in guiding RGC axons in vivo, but the role of extracellular matrix molecules in this process remains poorly understood. Dystroglycan is a laminin-binding transmembrane protein important for formation and maintenance of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes and has previously been implicated in axon guidance in the ...

NMDA receptors inhibit axonal outgrowth by inactivating Akt and activating GSK-3β via calcineurin in cultured immature hippocampal neurons.

Neurons are highly polarized cells with an axon and dendritic arbors. It is still not well studied that how formation and elaboration of axon and dendrites is controlled by diffusible signaling factors such as glutamate via specific receptors. We found that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were enriched (stage 2-3) but decreased expression (stage 4-5) at tip of axon of cultured hippocampal neurons during distinct development stages. Inhibition of NMDA receptor activity by competitive antagonist DL-2-am...

Spatial distribution affects the role of CSPGs in nerve regeneration via the actin filament-mediated pathway.

CSPGs are components of the extracellular matrix in the nervous system, where they serve as cues for axon guidance during development. After a peripheral nerve injury, CSPGs switch roles and become axon inhibitors and become diffusely distributed at the injury site. To investigate whether the spatial distribution of CSPGs affects their role, we combined in vitro DRG cultures with CSPG stripe or coverage assays to simulate the effect of a patterned substrate or dispersive distribution of CSPGs on growing neu...

The functional architecture of axonal actin.

The cytoskeleton builds and supports the complex architecture of neurons. It orchestrates the specification, growth, and compartmentation of the axon: axon initial segment, axonal shaft, presynapses. The cytoskeleton must then maintain this intricate architecture for the whole life of its host, but also drive its adaptation to new network demands and changing physiological conditions. Microtubules are readily visible inside axon shafts by electron microscopy, whereas axonal actin study has long been focused...

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