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PubMed Journals Articles About "Axon Instruments" RSS

06:57 EDT 24th April 2018 | BioPortfolio

Axon Instruments PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Axon Instruments articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Axon Instruments" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 769

The electrical significance of axon location diversity.

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a unique domain of the proximal axon serving critical electrical and structural roles including the initiation of action potentials and maintenance of cellular polarity. Recent experimental and theoretical advances demonstrate that the anatomical site for initiation is remarkably diverse. The AIS location varies not only axially, along the axon, but axons also emerge variably from either the soma or proximal dendrites. Here, we review the evidence that the diversity of AIS ...


Axon-Axon Interactions Regulate Topographic Optic Tract Sorting via CYFIP2-Dependent WAVE Complex Function.

The axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are topographically sorted before they arrive at the optic tectum. This pre-target sorting, typical of axon tracts throughout the brain, is poorly understood. Here, we show that cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting proteins (CYFIPs) fulfill non-redundant functions in RGCs, with CYFIP1 mediating axon growth and CYFIP2 specifically involved in axon sorting. We find that CYFIP2 mediates homotypic and heterotypic contact-triggered fasciculation and repulsion responses between ...

α-Tubulin Acetylation Restricts Axon Overbranching by Dampening Microtubule Plus-End Dynamics in Neurons.

Axon growth is tightly controlled to establish functional neural circuits during brain development. Despite the belief that cytoskeletal dynamics is critical for cell morphology, how microtubule acetylation regulates axon development in the mammalian central nervous system remains unclear. Here, we report that loss of α-tubulin acetylation by ablation of MEC-17 in mice predisposes neurons to axon overbranching and overgrowth. Introduction of MEC-17F183A lacking α-tubulin acetyltransferase activity into ME...


Reproducibility of work ability and work functioning instruments.

Work ability (WA) and work functioning (WF) instruments can be useful in occupational health practice. The reproducibility of both instruments is important to their relevance for daily practice. Clinimetrics concerns the methodological and statistical quality of instruments and their performance in practice.

Signal propagation along the axon.

Axons link distant brain regions and are usually considered as simple transmission cables in which reliable propagation occurs once an action potential has been generated. Safe propagation of action potentials relies on specific ion channel expression at strategic points of the axon such as nodes of Ranvier or axonal branch points. However, while action potentials are generally considered as the quantum of neuronal information, their signaling is not entirely digital. In fact, both their shape and their con...

Wimpy Nerves: piRNA Pathway Curbs Axon Regrowth after Injury.

While PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are primarily recognized as guardians of genome integrity, new functions of these small non-coding RNAs are emerging. In this issue, Kim et al. (2018) describe a piRNA-based mechanism that limits axon regeneration in C. elegans.

Sonic Hedgehog Is a Remotely Produced Cue that Controls Axon Guidance Trans-axonally at a Midline Choice Point.

At the optic chiasm choice point, ipsilateral retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are repelled away from the midline by guidance cues, including Ephrin-B2 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Although guidance cues are normally produced by cells residing at the choice point, the mRNA for Shh is not found at the optic chiasm. Here we show that Shh protein is instead produced by contralateral RGCs at the retina, transported anterogradely along the axon, and accumulates at the optic chiasm to repel ipsilateral RGCs. In vitro...

Predicting child maltreatment: A meta-analysis of the predictive validity of risk assessment instruments.

Risk assessment is crucial in preventing child maltreatment since it can identify high-risk cases in need of child protection intervention. Despite widespread use of risk assessment instruments in child welfare, it is unknown how well these instruments predict maltreatment and what instrument characteristics are associated with higher levels of predictive validity. Therefore, a multilevel meta-analysis was conducted to examine the predictive accuracy of (characteristics of) risk assessment instruments. A li...

Structure and Function of an Actin-Based Filter in the Proximal Axon.

The essential organization of microtubules within neurons has been described; however, less is known about how neuronal actin is arranged and the functional implications of its arrangement. Here, we describe, in live cells, an actin-based structure in the proximal axon that selectively prevents some proteins from entering the axon while allowing the passage of others. Concentrated patches of actin in proximal axons are present shortly after axonal specification in rat and zebrafish neurons imaged live, and ...

Local mechanisms regulating selective cargo entry and long-range trafficking in axons.

The polarized long-distance transport of neuronal cargoes depends on the presence of functional and structural axonal subcompartments. Given the heterogeneity of neuronal cargoes, selective sorting and entry occurs in the proximal axon where multiple subcellular specializations such as the axon initial segment, the pre-axonal exclusion zone, the MAP2 pre-axonal filtering zone and the Tau diffusion barrier provide different levels of regulation. Cargoes allowed to pass through the proximal axon spread into t...

Oligodendroglial excitability mediated by glutamatergic inputs and Nav1.2 activation.

Oligodendrocyte (OL) maturation and axon-glial communication are required for proper myelination in the developing brain. However, physiological properties of OLs remain largely uncharacterized in different brain regions. The roles of oligodendroglial voltage-activated Na(+) channels (Nav) and electrical excitability in relation to maturation to the myelinating stage are controversial, although oligodendroglial excitability is potentially important for promoting axon myelination. Here we show spiking proper...

Instruments evaluating the self-directed learning abilities among nursing students and nurses: a systematic review of psychometric properties.

Modern healthcare institutions are continuously changing, and Self-Directed Learning (SDL) abilities are considered a prerequisite for both nursing students and nurses in order to be proactive about these demanding challenges. To date, no systematic reviews of existing instruments aimed at detecting and critically evaluating SDL abilities have been published. Therefore, the aims of this review are: 1) identify the instruments for assessment of SDL abilities among nursing students and nurses; 2) critically e...

Common cues wire the spinal cord: Axon guidance molecules in spinal neuron migration.

Topographic arrangement of neuronal cell bodies and axonal tracts are crucial for proper wiring of the nervous system. This involves often-coordinated neuronal migration and axon guidance during development. Most neurons migrate from their birthplace to specific topographic coordinates as they adopt the final cell fates and extend axons. The axons follow temporospatial specific guidance cues to reach the appropriate targets. When neuronal or axonal migration or their coordination is disrupted, severe conseq...

Comparison of 3 Frailty Instruments in a Geriatric Acute Care Setting in a Low-Middle Income Country.

Comparison of frailty instruments in low-middle income countries, where the prevalence of frailty may be higher, is scarce. In addition, less complex diagnostic tools for frailty are important in these settings, especially in acutely ill patients, because of limited time and economic resources. We aimed to compare the performance of 3 frailty instruments for predicting adverse outcomes after 1 year of follow-up in older adults with an acute event or a chronic decompensated disease.

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Sinonasal Polyposis: Microdebrider or Conventional Instruments.

Sinonasal polyposis is one of the commonest causes of nasal obstruction. Surgical management is treatment of choice. Microdebrider offers more advantage to conventional instruments. We aimed to find out outcome using microdebrider versus conventional instruments in endoscopic sinus surgery of sinonasal polyposis.

Oxidative stress-dependent MMP-13 activity underlies glucose neurotoxicity.

A complication of diabetes is neuropathy, a condition of sensory axon degeneration that originates in the epidermis. The mechanisms remain unknown but reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in this condition. In this study, we assessed the role of ROS and a candidate downstream target, MMP-13 in glucose-induced sensory axon degeneration in zebrafish and mice.

Formation of longitudinal axon pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans.

The small number of neurons and the simple architecture of the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) nervous system enables researchers to study axonal pathfinding at the level of individually identified axons. Axons in C. elegans extend predominantly along one of the two major body axes, the anterior-posterior axis and the dorso-ventral axis. This review will focus on axon navigation along the anterior-posterior axis, leading to the establishment of the longitudinal axon tracts, with a focus on the largest l...

Brain Tumor promotes axon growth across the midline through interactions with the microtubule stabilizing protein Apc2.

Commissural axons must cross the midline to establish reciprocal connections between the two sides of the body. This process is highly conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates and depends on guidance cues and their receptors to instruct axon trajectories. The DCC family receptor Frazzled (Fra) signals chemoattraction and promotes midline crossing in response to its ligand Netrin. However, in Netrin or fra mutants, the loss of crossing is incomplete, suggesting the existence of additional pathways. He...

Epitranscriptomic m6A Regulation of Axon Regeneration in the Adult Mammalian Nervous System.

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) affects multiple aspects of mRNA metabolism and regulates developmental transitions by promoting mRNA decay. Little is known about the role of m6A in the adult mammalian nervous system. Here we report that sciatic nerve lesion elevates levels of m6A-tagged transcripts encoding many regeneration-associated genes and protein translation machinery components in the adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Single-base resolution m6A-CLIP mapping further reveals a dynamic m6A landscape in...

Screening for problem gambling within mental health services: A comparison of the classification accuracy of brief instruments.

Despite the over-representation of people with gambling problems in mental health populations, there is limited information available to guide the selection of brief screening instruments within mental health services. The primary aim was therefore to compare the classification accuracy of nine brief problem gambling screening instruments (2-5 items) with a reference standard among patients accessing mental health services.

PTEN suppresses axon outgrowth by down-regulating the level of detyrosinated microtubules.

Inhibition of the phospholipid phosphatase and tumor suppressor PTEN leads to excessive polarized cell growth during directed cell migration and neurite outgrowth. These processes require the precise regulation of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. While PTEN is known to regulate actin dynamics through phospholipid modulation, whether and how PTEN regulates microtubule dynamics is unknown. Here, we show that depletion of PTEN leads to elevated levels of stable and post-translationally modified (de...

Measuring work functioning in individuals with musculoskeletal disorders with reference to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: a systematic literature review.

The assessment of work functioning is important to define needs in the context of vocational rehabilitation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) serves as a framework to describe functioning and health. In reference to the ICF, work functioning can be described as consisting of work activities and work participation. A range of instruments are used in rehabilitation practice to assess work functioning. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify questionna...

Measuring Medical Housestaff Teamwork Performance Using Multiple Direct Observation Instruments: Comparing Apples and Apples.

To examine the composition and concordance of existing instruments used to assess medical teams' performance.

Cost Savings of Standardization of Thoracic Surgical Instruments: The Process of Lean.

Our objective is to show the effect that standardization of surgical trays has on the number of instruments sterilized and on cost.

Measurement properties of instruments assessing permanent functional impairment of the spine: a systematic review protocol.

Permanent functional impairment (PFI) of the spine is a rating system used by compensation authorities, such as workers compensation boards, to establish an appropriate level of financial compensation for persistent loss of function. Determination of PFI of the spine is commonly based on the assessment of spinal movement combined with other measures of physical and functional impairments; however, the reliability and validity of the measurement instruments used for these evaluations have yet to be establish...


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