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PubMed Journals Articles About "Axon Instruments" RSS

19:15 EDT 15th July 2018 | BioPortfolio

Axon Instruments PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Axon Instruments articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Axon Instruments" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 899

The electrical significance of axon location diversity.

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a unique domain of the proximal axon serving critical electrical and structural roles including the initiation of action potentials and maintenance of cellular polarity. Recent experimental and theoretical advances demonstrate that the anatomical site for initiation is remarkably diverse. The AIS location varies not only axially, along the axon, but axons also emerge variably from either the soma or proximal dendrites. Here, we review the evidence that the diversity of AIS ...


Axon-Axon Interactions Regulate Topographic Optic Tract Sorting via CYFIP2-Dependent WAVE Complex Function.

The axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are topographically sorted before they arrive at the optic tectum. This pre-target sorting, typical of axon tracts throughout the brain, is poorly understood. Here, we show that cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting proteins (CYFIPs) fulfill non-redundant functions in RGCs, with CYFIP1 mediating axon growth and CYFIP2 specifically involved in axon sorting. We find that CYFIP2 mediates homotypic and heterotypic contact-triggered fasciculation and repulsion responses between ...

Reproducibility of work ability and work functioning instruments.

Work ability (WA) and work functioning (WF) instruments can be useful in occupational health practice. The reproducibility of both instruments is important to their relevance for daily practice. Clinimetrics concerns the methodological and statistical quality of instruments and their performance in practice.


Signal propagation along the axon.

Axons link distant brain regions and are usually considered as simple transmission cables in which reliable propagation occurs once an action potential has been generated. Safe propagation of action potentials relies on specific ion channel expression at strategic points of the axon such as nodes of Ranvier or axonal branch points. However, while action potentials are generally considered as the quantum of neuronal information, their signaling is not entirely digital. In fact, both their shape and their con...

Wimpy Nerves: piRNA Pathway Curbs Axon Regrowth after Injury.

While PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are primarily recognized as guardians of genome integrity, new functions of these small non-coding RNAs are emerging. In this issue, Kim et al. (2018) describe a piRNA-based mechanism that limits axon regeneration in C. elegans.

Instruments to Evaluate Nurse Residency Programs: A Review of the Literature.

The purpose of this literature review was to explore evaluation instruments used by nurse residency programs to evaluate outcomes. The 15 studies found yielded 26 instruments, and all instruments were subjective, dated, and varied in how they were used. Nursing professional development practitioners should use a combination of reliable, valid, and current evaluation methods to appraise their nurse residency programs in order to demonstrate program quality and effectiveness.

Sonic Hedgehog Is a Remotely Produced Cue that Controls Axon Guidance Trans-axonally at a Midline Choice Point.

At the optic chiasm choice point, ipsilateral retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are repelled away from the midline by guidance cues, including Ephrin-B2 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Although guidance cues are normally produced by cells residing at the choice point, the mRNA for Shh is not found at the optic chiasm. Here we show that Shh protein is instead produced by contralateral RGCs at the retina, transported anterogradely along the axon, and accumulates at the optic chiasm to repel ipsilateral RGCs. In vitro...

Actin Assemblies in the Axon Shaft - some Open Questions.

The actin cytoskeleton in neurons plays critical roles in axonal growth and synaptic organization. Until recently, most studies on axonal actin were limited to terminal growth cones or synapses, whereas the organization of actin along the shaft of the axon was relatively ignored. However, experiments using super-resolution microscopy and live imaging have revealed previously unknown actin structures along the axonal shaft, such as periodic 'actin rings' circumferentially wrapping underneath the plasma membr...

Structure and Function of an Actin-Based Filter in the Proximal Axon.

The essential organization of microtubules within neurons has been described; however, less is known about how neuronal actin is arranged and the functional implications of its arrangement. Here, we describe, in live cells, an actin-based structure in the proximal axon that selectively prevents some proteins from entering the axon while allowing the passage of others. Concentrated patches of actin in proximal axons are present shortly after axonal specification in rat and zebrafish neurons imaged live, and ...

Local mechanisms regulating selective cargo entry and long-range trafficking in axons.

The polarized long-distance transport of neuronal cargoes depends on the presence of functional and structural axonal subcompartments. Given the heterogeneity of neuronal cargoes, selective sorting and entry occurs in the proximal axon where multiple subcellular specializations such as the axon initial segment, the pre-axonal exclusion zone, the MAP2 pre-axonal filtering zone and the Tau diffusion barrier provide different levels of regulation. Cargoes allowed to pass through the proximal axon spread into t...

Receptors of intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism, GPR91 and GPR99, mediate axon growth.

During the development of the visual system, high levels of energy are expended propelling axons from the retina to the brain. However, the role of intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism in the development of the visual system has been overlooked. Here, we report that the carbohydrate metabolites succinate and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and their respective receptor-GPR91 and GPR99-are involved in modulating retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections toward the thalamus during visual system development. Using ...

The Krüppel-Like Factor Gene Target Dusp14 Regulates Axon Growth and Regeneration.

Adult central nervous system (CNS) neurons are unable to regenerate their axons after injury. Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF) family members regulate intrinsic axon growth ability in vitro and in vivo, but mechanisms downstream of these transcription factors are not known.

Common cues wire the spinal cord: Axon guidance molecules in spinal neuron migration.

Topographic arrangement of neuronal cell bodies and axonal tracts are crucial for proper wiring of the nervous system. This involves often-coordinated neuronal migration and axon guidance during development. Most neurons migrate from their birthplace to specific topographic coordinates as they adopt the final cell fates and extend axons. The axons follow temporospatial specific guidance cues to reach the appropriate targets. When neuronal or axonal migration or their coordination is disrupted, severe conseq...

The extent of extra-axonal tissue damage determines the levels of CSPG upregulation and the success of experimental axon regeneration in the CNS.

The failure of mature central nervous system (CNS) projection neurons to regenerate axons over long distances drastically limits the recovery of functions lost after various CNS injuries and diseases. Although a number of manipulations that stimulate some degree of axon regeneration that overcomes the inhibitory environment after CNS injury have been discovered, the extent of regeneration remains very limited, emphasizing the need for improved therapies. Regenerating axons need nerve tissue environment capa...

Instruments evaluating the self-directed learning abilities among nursing students and nurses: a systematic review of psychometric properties.

Modern healthcare institutions are continuously changing, and Self-Directed Learning (SDL) abilities are considered a prerequisite for both nursing students and nurses in order to be proactive about these demanding challenges. To date, no systematic reviews of existing instruments aimed at detecting and critically evaluating SDL abilities have been published. Therefore, the aims of this review are: 1) identify the instruments for assessment of SDL abilities among nursing students and nurses; 2) critically e...

Comparison of 3 Frailty Instruments in a Geriatric Acute Care Setting in a Low-Middle Income Country.

Comparison of frailty instruments in low-middle income countries, where the prevalence of frailty may be higher, is scarce. In addition, less complex diagnostic tools for frailty are important in these settings, especially in acutely ill patients, because of limited time and economic resources. We aimed to compare the performance of 3 frailty instruments for predicting adverse outcomes after 1 year of follow-up in older adults with an acute event or a chronic decompensated disease.

Oxidative stress-dependent MMP-13 activity underlies glucose neurotoxicity.

A complication of diabetes is neuropathy, a condition of sensory axon degeneration that originates in the epidermis. The mechanisms remain unknown but reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in this condition. In this study, we assessed the role of ROS and a candidate downstream target, MMP-13 in glucose-induced sensory axon degeneration in zebrafish and mice.

Spatial distribution affects the role of CSPGs in nerve regeneration via the actin filament-mediated pathway.

CSPGs are components of the extracellular matrix in the nervous system, where they serve as cues for axon guidance during development. After a peripheral nerve injury, CSPGs switch roles and become axon inhibitors and become diffusely distributed at the injury site. To investigate whether the spatial distribution of CSPGs affects their role, we combined in vitro DRG cultures with CSPG stripe or coverage assays to simulate the effect of a patterned substrate or dispersive distribution of CSPGs on growing neu...

The functional architecture of axonal actin.

The cytoskeleton builds and supports the complex architecture of neurons. It orchestrates the specification, growth, and compartmentation of the axon: axon initial segment, axonal shaft, presynapses. The cytoskeleton must then maintain this intricate architecture for the whole life of its host, but also drive its adaptation to new network demands and changing physiological conditions. Microtubules are readily visible inside axon shafts by electron microscopy, whereas axonal actin study has long been focused...

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Sinonasal Polyposis: Microdebrider or Conventional Instruments.

Sinonasal polyposis is one of the commonest causes of nasal obstruction. Surgical management is treatment of choice. Microdebrider offers more advantage to conventional instruments. We aimed to find out outcome using microdebrider versus conventional instruments in endoscopic sinus surgery of sinonasal polyposis.

Brain Tumor promotes axon growth across the midline through interactions with the microtubule stabilizing protein Apc2.

Commissural axons must cross the midline to establish reciprocal connections between the two sides of the body. This process is highly conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates and depends on guidance cues and their receptors to instruct axon trajectories. The DCC family receptor Frazzled (Fra) signals chemoattraction and promotes midline crossing in response to its ligand Netrin. However, in Netrin or fra mutants, the loss of crossing is incomplete, suggesting the existence of additional pathways. He...

Epitranscriptomic m6A Regulation of Axon Regeneration in the Adult Mammalian Nervous System.

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) affects multiple aspects of mRNA metabolism and regulates developmental transitions by promoting mRNA decay. Little is known about the role of m6A in the adult mammalian nervous system. Here we report that sciatic nerve lesion elevates levels of m6A-tagged transcripts encoding many regeneration-associated genes and protein translation machinery components in the adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Single-base resolution m6A-CLIP mapping further reveals a dynamic m6A landscape in...

PTEN suppresses axon outgrowth by down-regulating the level of detyrosinated microtubules.

Inhibition of the phospholipid phosphatase and tumor suppressor PTEN leads to excessive polarized cell growth during directed cell migration and neurite outgrowth. These processes require the precise regulation of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. While PTEN is known to regulate actin dynamics through phospholipid modulation, whether and how PTEN regulates microtubule dynamics is unknown. Here, we show that depletion of PTEN leads to elevated levels of stable and post-translationally modified (de...

Screening for problem gambling within mental health services: A comparison of the classification accuracy of brief instruments.

Despite the over-representation of people with gambling problems in mental health populations, there is limited information available to guide the selection of brief screening instruments within mental health services. The primary aim was therefore to compare the classification accuracy of nine brief problem gambling screening instruments (2-5 items) with a reference standard among patients accessing mental health services.

Heterogeneity of Retinogeniculate Axon Arbors.

The retinogeniculate synapse transmits information from retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in the eye to thalamocortical relay neurons in the visual thalamus, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Studies in mice have identified genetic markers for distinct classes of RGCs encoding different features of the visual space, facilitating the dissection of RGC subtype-specific physiology and anatomy. In this study, we examine the morphological properties of axon arbors of the BD-RGC class of ON-OFF direction s...


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