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PubMed Journals Articles About "Bacterial Cell Wall Changes Produce More Fatty Molecules" RSS

21:53 EDT 16th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Bacterial cell wall changes produce more fatty molecules" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 36,000+

The ng_ζ1 toxin of the gonococcal epsilon/zeta toxin/antitoxin system drains precursors for cell wall synthesis.

Bacterial toxin-antitoxin complexes are emerging as key players modulating bacterial physiology as activation of toxins induces stasis or programmed cell death by interference with vital cellular processes. Zeta toxins, which are prevalent in many bacterial genomes, were shown to interfere with cell wall formation by perturbing peptidoglycan synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we characterize the epsilon/zeta toxin-antitoxin (TA) homologue from the Gram-negative pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae termed...


Phenotype-Based Screening of Small Molecules to Modify Plant Cell Walls Using BY-2 Cells.

The plant cell wall is an important and abundant biomass with great potential for use as a modern recyclable resource. For effective utilization of this cellulosic biomass, its ability to degrade efficiently is key point. With the aim of modifying the cell wall to allow easy decomposition, we used chemical biological technology to alter its structure. As a first step toward evaluating the chemicals in the cell wall we employed a phenotype-based approach using high-throughput screening. As the plant cell wal...

Omega-3 fatty acids and leukocyte-endothelium adhesion: Novel anti-atherosclerotic actions.

Endothelial cells (ECs) play a role in the optimal function of blood vessels. When endothelial function becomes dysregulated, the risk of developing atherosclerosis increases. Specifically, upregulation of adhesion molecule expression on ECs promotes the movement of leukocytes, particularly monocytes, into the vessel wall. Here, monocytes differentiate into macrophages and may become foam cells, contributing to the initiation and progression of an atherosclerotic plaque. The ability of omega-3 (n-3) polyuns...


Derivatives of Ribosome-Inhibiting Antibiotic Chloramphenicol Inhibit the Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cell Wall.

Here, we describe the preparation and evaluation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives of the bacterial translation inhibiting antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAM). Compared to the parent antibiotic, two compounds containing α,β-unsaturated ketones (1 and 4) displayed a broader spectrum of activity against a panel of Gram-positive pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration range of 2-32 μg/mL. Interestingly, unlike the parent CAM, these compounds do not inhibit bacterial translation. Microscopic e...

Cell-Wall Recycling of the Gram-Negative Bacteria and the Nexus to Antibiotic Resistance.

The importance of the cell wall to the viability of the bacterium is underscored by the breadth of antibiotic structures that act by blocking key enzymes that are tasked with cell-wall creation, preservation, and regulation. The interplay between cell-wall integrity, and the summoning forth of resistance mechanisms to deactivate cell-wall-targeting antibiotics, involves exquisite orchestration among cell-wall synthesis and remodeling and the detection of and response to the antibiotics through modulation of...

The Role of Auxin in Cell Wall Expansion.

Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls, which are dynamic structures displaying a strictly regulated balance between rigidity and flexibility. Walls are fairly rigid to provide support and protection, but also extensible, to allow cell growth, which is triggered by a high intracellular turgor pressure. Wall properties regulate the differential growth of the cell, resulting in a diversity of cell sizes and shapes. The plant hormone auxin is well known to stimulate cell elongation via increasing wall extens...

Seven-transmembrane receptor protein RgsP and cell wall-binding protein RgsM promote unipolar growth in Rhizobiales.

Members of the Rhizobiales (class of α-proteobacteria) display zonal peptidoglycan cell wall growth at one cell pole, contrasting with the dispersed mode of cell wall growth along the sidewalls of many other rod-shaped bacteria. Here, we show that the seven-transmembrane receptor (7TMR) protein RgsP (SMc00074), together with the putative membrane-anchored peptidoglycan metallopeptidase RgsM (SMc02432), have key roles in unipolar peptidoglycan formation during growth and at mid-cell during cell division in ...

Sucrose transport and carbon fluxes during wood formation.

Wood biosynthesis defines the chemical and structural properties of wood. The metabolic pathways that produce the precursors of wood cell wall polymers have a central role in defining wood properties. To make rational design of wood properties feasible, we need not only to understand the cell wall biosynthetic machinery, but also how sucrose transport and metabolism in developing wood connect to cell wall biosynthesis and how they respond to genetic and environmental cues. Here, we review the current unders...

Molecular basis for the attachment of S-layer proteins to the cell wall of Bacillus anthracis.

Bacterial surface (S)-layers are paracrystalline arrays of protein assembled on the bacterial cell wall which serve as protective barriers and scaffolds for housekeeping enzymes and virulence factors. The attachment of S-layer proteins to the cell walls of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, which includes the pathogen Bacillus anthracis, occurs through non-covalent interactions between their S-layer homology domains and secondary cell wall polysaccharides. To promote recognition for these interactions, it is p...

Cell wall enrichment unveils proteomic changes in the cell wall during treatment of Mycobacterium smegmatis with sub-lethal concentrations of rifampicin.

Understanding the cell wall of mycobacteria is crucial for improving drug design or identifying new antigens suitable to vaccination. Yet this remains problematic due to the complexity of the cell wall composition. In this study, we successfully developed gel-free approaches to study cell wall proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The cell wall was subjected to differential centrifugation, differential detergent solubilisation and phase separation to yield the genuine cell wall proteome. Next, protein extrac...

Free-standing three-dimensional hollow bacterial cellulose structures with controlled geometry via patterned superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surfaces.

Bacteria can produce cellulose, one of the most abundant biopolymer on earth, and emerge as an interesting candidate to fabricate advanced materials. Cellulose produced by Komagataeibacter Xylinus, a bacterial strain, is a pure water insoluble biopolymer, without hemicellulose or lignin. Bacterial cellulose (BC) exhibits a nanofibrous porous network microstructure with high strength, low density and high biocompatibility and it has been proposed as cell scaffold and wound healing material. The formation of ...

Growth ofin vivo segregates with host macrophage metabolism and ontogeny.

To understand how infection by(Mtb) is modulated by host cell phenotype, we characterized those host phagocytes that controlled or supported bacterial growth during early infection, focusing on the ontologically distinct alveolar macrophage (AM) and interstitial macrophage (IM) lineages. Using fluorescent Mtb reporter strains, we found that bacilli in AM exhibited lower stress and higher bacterial replication than those in IM. Interestingly, depletion of AM reduced bacterial burden, whereas depletion of IM ...

Synthesis of functionalized N-acetyl muramic acids to probe bacterial cell wall recycling and biosynthesis.

Uridine diphosphate N-acetyl muramic acid (UDP NAM) is a critical intermediate in bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis. As the primary source of muramic acid that shapes the PG backbone, modifications installed at the UDP NAM intermediate can be used to selectively tag and manipulate this polymer via metabolic incorporation. However, synthetic and purification strategies to access large quantities of these PG building blocks, as well as their derivatives, are challenging. A robust chemoenzymatic synthe...

Elicitors and defense gene induction in plants with altered lignin compositions.

A reduction in the lignin content in transgenic plants induces the ectopic expression of defense genes, but the importance of altered lignin composition in such phenomena remains unclear. Two Arabidopsis lines with similar lignin contents, but strikingly different lignin compositions, exhibited different quantitative and qualitative transcriptional responses. Plants with lignin composed primarily of guaiacyl units overexpressed genes responsive to oomycete and bacterial pathogen attack, whereas plants with ...

Mechanical feedback coordinates cell wall expansion and assembly in yeast mating morphogenesis.

The shaping of individual cells requires a tight coordination of cell mechanics and growth. However, it is unclear how information about the mechanical state of the wall is relayed to the molecular processes building it, thereby enabling the coordination of cell wall expansion and assembly during morphogenesis. Combining theoretical and experimental approaches, we show that a mechanical feedback coordinating cell wall assembly and expansion is essential to sustain mating projection growth in budding yeast (...

Role of MAIT cells in pulmonary bacterial infection.

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent a population of innate T cells that is highly abundant in humans. MAIT cells recognize metabolites of the microbial vitamin B pathway that are presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related protein MR1. Upon bacterial infection, activated MAIT cells produce diverse cytokines and cytotoxic effector molecules and accumulate at the site of infection, thus, MAIT cells have been shown to be protective against various bacterial infecti...

An integrative view of cell cycle control in Escherichia coli.

Bacterial proliferation depends on the cells' capability to proceed through consecutive rounds of the cell cycle. The cell cycle consists of a series of events during which cells grow, copy their genome, partition the duplicated DNA into different cell halves and, ultimately, divide to produce two newly formed daughter cells. Cell cycle control is of the utmost importance to maintain the correct order of events and safeguard the integrity of the cell and its genomic information. This review covers insights ...

Enzyme structures of the bacterial peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid biogenesis pathways.

The bacterial cell wall is a complex polymeric structure with essential roles in defence, survival and pathogenesis. Common to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is the mesh-like peptidoglycan sacculus that surrounds the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. Recent crystallographic studies of enzymes that comprise the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway have led to significant new understanding of all stages. These include initial multi-step cytosolic formation of sugar-pentapeptide precursor...

Measuring the Adhesion Forces for the Multivalent Binding of Vancomycin-conjugated Dendrimer to Bacterial Cell-Wall Peptide.

Multivalent ligand-receptor interaction provides the fundamental basis for the hypothetical notion that high binding avidity relates to the strong force of adhesion. Despite its increasing importance in the design of targeted nanoconjugates, an understanding of the physical forces underlying the multivalent interaction remains a subject of urgent investigation. In this study, we designed three vancomycin (Van)-conjugated dendrimers G5(Van) (n = mean valency = 0, 1, 4) for bacterial targeting with generation...

Studying intact bacterial peptidoglycan by proton-detected NMR spectroscopy at 100 kHz MAS frequency.

The bacterial cell wall is composed of the peptidoglycan (PG), a large polymer that maintains the integrity of the bacterial cell. Due to its multi-gigadalton size, heterogeniety, and dynamics, atomic-resolution studies are inherently complex. Solid-state NMR is an important technique to gain insight into its structure, dynamics and interactions. Here, we explore the possibilities to study the PG with ultra-fast (100 kHz) magic-angle spinning NMR. We demonstrate that highly resolved spectra can be obtained,...

On the maverick Planctomycetes.

Planctomycetes are ubiquitous, environmentally and biotechnologically important bacteria that are key-players in global carbon- and nitrogen cycles. Ever since their first discovery in the 1920s they seemed to blur the prokaryote/eukaryote dichotomy. After initially being described as fungi and reclassified as bacteria later, they were still thought to feature a nucleus-like compartment surrounding their highly condensed DNA. Also, an endocytosis-like uptake mechanism for macromolecules was described. Besid...

RNA-Seq analysis of global transcriptomic changes suggests a role for the MAPK pathway and carbon metabolism in cell wall maintenance in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS1 mutant.

FKS1 encodes a β-1,3-glucan synthase, which is a key player in cell wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we analyzed the global transcriptomic changes in the FKS1 mutant to establish a correlation between the changes in the cell wall of the FKS1 mutant and the molecular mechanism of cell wall maintenance. These transcriptomic profiles showed that there are 1151 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the FKS1 mutant. Through KEGG pathway analysis of the DEGs, the MAPK pathway and seven pathways...

Quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria: signal molecules, inhibitors and their potential therapeutic application.

Quorum Sensing (QS) is a phenomenon of chemical cell-to-cell communication consisting in the synthesis and secretion of signal molecules called autoinducers into the environment, which contribute in regulation of various physiological processes. QS was identified in different bacterial species, including symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria. QS systems play a crucial role in regulation of expression of genes which control motility, biofilm formation, and synthesis of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria. T...

Isolation of colonization-defective Escherichia coli mutants reveals critical requirement for fatty acids in bacterial colony formation.

Most bacterial cells in nature exhibit extremely low colony-forming activity, despite showing various signs of viability, impeding the isolation and utilization of many bacterial resources. However, the general causes responsible for this state of low colony formation are largely unknown. Because liquid cultivation typically yields more bacterial cell cultures than traditional solid cultivation, we hypothesized that colony formation requires one or more specific gene functions that are dispensable or less i...

The chemical topology of a bacterial swarm.

Microbes respond to antibiotics by initiating a suite of defense mechanisms, including the production of small-molecule effectors. However, it is not well-known how these defenses vary according to the particular effector or antibiotic and bacterial state, due in part to the challenges of monitoring small molecules in complex environments. A new study uses state-of-the-art imaging techniques to track the location of secreted small molecules produced by a bacterial swarm in response to different antibiotics,...


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