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PubMed Journals Articles About "Bacterial Cell Wall Changes Produce More Fatty Molecules" RSS

18:56 EDT 25th May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Bacterial Cell Wall Changes Produce More Fatty Molecules PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Bacterial Cell Wall Changes Produce More Fatty Molecules articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Bacterial cell wall changes produce more fatty molecules" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 36,000+

The disruptive effect of lysozyme on the bacterial cell wall explored by an in-silico structural outlook.

The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the bacterial life cycle by cleaving the linkage between the NAG and NAM carbohydrates. Lab exercises focused on the effects of lysozyme on the bacter...


The ng_ζ1 toxin of the gonococcal epsilon/zeta toxin/antitoxin system drains precursors for cell wall synthesis.

Bacterial toxin-antitoxin complexes are emerging as key players modulating bacterial physiology as activation of toxins induces stasis or programmed cell death by interference with vital cellular processes. Zeta toxins, which are prevalent in many bacterial genomes, were shown to interfere with cell wall formation by perturbing peptidoglycan synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we characterize the epsilon/zeta toxin-antitoxin (TA) homologue from the Gram-negative pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae termed...

Derivatives of Ribosome-Inhibiting Antibiotic Chloramphenicol Inhibit the Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cell Wall.

Here, we describe the preparation and evaluation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives of the bacterial translation inhibiting antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAM). Compared to the parent antibiotic, two compounds containing α,β-unsaturated ketones (1 and 4) displayed a broader spectrum of activity against a panel of Gram-positive pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration range of 2-32 μg/mL. Interestingly, unlike the parent CAM, these compounds do not inhibit bacterial translation. Microscopic e...


Carbon supply and the regulation of cell wall synthesis.

All plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall that determines the directionality of cell growth and protects the cell against its environment. Plant cell walls are comprised primarily of polysaccharides and represent the largest sink for photosynthetically fixed carbon, both for individual plants and in the terrestrial biosphere as a whole. Cell wall synthesis is a highly complex process, involving multiple enzymes and metabolic intermediates, intracellular trafficking of proteins and cell wall precursors, ...

The Role of Auxin in Cell Wall Expansion.

Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls, which are dynamic structures displaying a strictly regulated balance between rigidity and flexibility. Walls are fairly rigid to provide support and protection, but also extensible, to allow cell growth, which is triggered by a high intracellular turgor pressure. Wall properties regulate the differential growth of the cell, resulting in a diversity of cell sizes and shapes. The plant hormone auxin is well known to stimulate cell elongation via increasing wall extens...

Sucrose transport and carbon fluxes during wood formation.

Wood biosynthesis defines the chemical and structural properties of wood. The metabolic pathways that produce the precursors of wood cell wall polymers have a central role in defining wood properties. To make rational design of wood properties feasible, we need not only to understand the cell wall biosynthetic machinery, but also how sucrose transport and metabolism in developing wood connect to cell wall biosynthesis and how they respond to genetic and environmental cues. Here, we review the current unders...

Molecular basis for the attachment of S-layer proteins to the cell wall of Bacillus anthracis.

Bacterial surface (S)-layers are paracrystalline arrays of protein assembled on the bacterial cell wall which serve as protective barriers and scaffolds for housekeeping enzymes and virulence factors. The attachment of S-layer proteins to the cell walls of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, which includes the pathogen Bacillus anthracis, occurs through non-covalent interactions between their S-layer homology domains and secondary cell wall polysaccharides. To promote recognition for these interactions, it is p...

Cell wall enrichment unveils proteomic changes in the cell wall during treatment of Mycobacterium smegmatis with sub-lethal concentrations of rifampicin.

Understanding the cell wall of mycobacteria is crucial for improving drug design or identifying new antigens suitable to vaccination. Yet this remains problematic due to the complexity of the cell wall composition. In this study, we successfully developed gel-free approaches to study cell wall proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The cell wall was subjected to differential centrifugation, differential detergent solubilisation and phase separation to yield the genuine cell wall proteome. Next, protein extrac...

Bacterial cell wall: Phages breaking free.

Free-standing three-dimensional hollow bacterial cellulose structures with controlled geometry via patterned superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surfaces.

Bacteria can produce cellulose, one of the most abundant biopolymer on earth, and emerge as an interesting candidate to fabricate advanced materials. Cellulose produced by Komagataeibacter Xylinus, a bacterial strain, is a pure water insoluble biopolymer, without hemicellulose or lignin. Bacterial cellulose (BC) exhibits a nanofibrous porous network microstructure with high strength, low density and high biocompatibility and it has been proposed as cell scaffold and wound healing material. The formation of ...

The cell wall of the filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Oscillochloris trichoides.

The filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Oscillochloris trichoides DG-6 has been studied, and it has been shown that there are no lipopolysaccharides on the cell surface. Fatty acids hydroxylated at the C3 position, amino sugars and phosphate-containing compounds characteristic of lipid A have also not been found. The genes encoding for proteins responsible for the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides and the genes for the transport system, usually localized in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacte...

Growth ofin vivo segregates with host macrophage metabolism and ontogeny.

To understand how infection by(Mtb) is modulated by host cell phenotype, we characterized those host phagocytes that controlled or supported bacterial growth during early infection, focusing on the ontologically distinct alveolar macrophage (AM) and interstitial macrophage (IM) lineages. Using fluorescent Mtb reporter strains, we found that bacilli in AM exhibited lower stress and higher bacterial replication than those in IM. Interestingly, depletion of AM reduced bacterial burden, whereas depletion of IM ...

Mechanical feedback coordinates cell wall expansion and assembly in yeast mating morphogenesis.

The shaping of individual cells requires a tight coordination of cell mechanics and growth. However, it is unclear how information about the mechanical state of the wall is relayed to the molecular processes building it, thereby enabling the coordination of cell wall expansion and assembly during morphogenesis. Combining theoretical and experimental approaches, we show that a mechanical feedback coordinating cell wall assembly and expansion is essential to sustain mating projection growth in budding yeast (...

An integrative view of cell cycle control in Escherichia coli.

Bacterial proliferation depends on the cells' capability to proceed through consecutive rounds of the cell cycle. The cell cycle consists of a series of events during which cells grow, copy their genome, partition the duplicated DNA into different cell halves and, ultimately, divide to produce two newly formed daughter cells. Cell cycle control is of the utmost importance to maintain the correct order of events and safeguard the integrity of the cell and its genomic information. This review covers insights ...

Measuring the Adhesion Forces for the Multivalent Binding of Vancomycin-conjugated Dendrimer to Bacterial Cell-Wall Peptide.

Multivalent ligand-receptor interaction provides the fundamental basis for the hypothetical notion that high binding avidity relates to the strong force of adhesion. Despite its increasing importance in the design of targeted nanoconjugates, an understanding of the physical forces underlying the multivalent interaction remains a subject of urgent investigation. In this study, we designed three vancomycin (Van)-conjugated dendrimers G5(Van) (n = mean valency = 0, 1, 4) for bacterial targeting with generation...

RNA-Seq analysis of global transcriptomic changes suggests a role for the MAPK pathway and carbon metabolism in cell wall maintenance in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS1 mutant.

FKS1 encodes a β-1,3-glucan synthase, which is a key player in cell wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we analyzed the global transcriptomic changes in the FKS1 mutant to establish a correlation between the changes in the cell wall of the FKS1 mutant and the molecular mechanism of cell wall maintenance. These transcriptomic profiles showed that there are 1151 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the FKS1 mutant. Through KEGG pathway analysis of the DEGs, the MAPK pathway and seven pathways...

Quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria: signal molecules, inhibitors and their potential therapeutic application.

Quorum Sensing (QS) is a phenomenon of chemical cell-to-cell communication consisting in the synthesis and secretion of signal molecules called autoinducers into the environment, which contribute in regulation of various physiological processes. QS was identified in different bacterial species, including symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria. QS systems play a crucial role in regulation of expression of genes which control motility, biofilm formation, and synthesis of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria. T...

Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of Larch bark procyanidins against Staphylococcus aureus.

Larch bark procyanidins (LBPC) have not only antioxidant and antitumor properties, but also strong bacteriostatic effects. However, it is not clear about the antibacterial mechanisms of LBPC. In this work, the antibacterial effects and mechanisms of LBPC on Staphylococcus aureus were studied in the aspects of morphological structure, cell wall and membrane, essential proteins, and genetic material. The results showed that LBPC effectively inhibited bacterial growth at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1...

Enzymatic properties of β-N-acetylglucosaminidases.

β-N-Acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases) hydrolyse N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharides and proteins. These enzymes produce N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and have a wide range of promising applications in the food, energy, and pharmaceutical industries, such as synergistic degradation of chitin with endo-chitinases and using GlcNAc to produce sialic acid, bioethanol, single-cell proteins, and pharmaceutical therapeutics. GlcNAcases also play an important role in the dynamic balance of cellular O-l...

Design, synthesis and immunological evaluation of novel amphiphilic desmuramyl peptides.

Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) - an essential bacterial cell wall component - is recognized by our immune system as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) which results in immune responses with adverse toxic effects. In order to harness the beneficial properties from the pro-inflammatory characteristics of the bacterial cell wall motif, MDP was strategically re-designed while conserving the L-D configurations of the dipeptide moiety. The muramic acid was replaced with a hydrophilic arene and lipophilic chain...

Distribution, Mobility and Anchoring of Lignin-Related Oxidative Enzymes in Arabidopsis Secondary Cell Walls.

Lignin is an important phenolic biopolymer, which provides strength and rigidity to the secondary cell walls of tracheary elements, sclereids, and fibers in vascular plants. Lignin precursors, called monolignols, are synthesized in the cell and exported to the cell wall where they are polymerized into lignin by oxidative enzymes such as laccases and peroxidases. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a peroxidase (PRX64) and laccase (LAC4) were localized to distinct cell wall domains in interfascicular fibers: PRX64 loca...

Principal coordinate analysis assisted chromatographic analysis of bacterial cell wall collection: A robust classification approach.

In the present work, Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) is introduced to develop a robust model to classify the chromatographic data sets of peptidoglycan sample. PcoA captures the heterogeneity present in the data sets by using the dissimilarity matrix as input. Thus, in principle, it can even capture the subtle differences in the bacterial peptidoglycan composition and can provide a more robust and fast approach for classifying the bacterial collection and identifying the novel cell wall targets for fur...

Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for High-Level Synthesis of Fatty Acids and Derived Products.

Fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives are important biorenewable products, as well as precursors for further transformation via chemical catalysis. This minireview focuses on recent advances in increasing the production of fatty acids and derived products in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The engineering of upstream pathways to increase levels of the required precursors, fatty acid synthase systems to increase expression and to modify chain length, and downstream pathways to produce free fatty acids, ...

The cause of multiple sclerosis is autoimmune attack of adenosyltransferase thereby limiting adenosylcobalamin production.

The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) begins with an infection by a bacterium from the class of bacteria that produce and utilize adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and possess an adenosyl transferase enzyme (ATR); these bacteria are the exogenous antigens that cause MS. Human ATR is homologous to bacterial ATR and B cells produce anti-ATR antibodies as an autoimmune response thereby reducing the concentration of ATR and thus limiting production of AdoCbl, one of the two bioactive forms of vitamin B12. The ne...

Saturated Fatty Acids Induce Ceramide-associated Macrophage Cell Death.

Macrophages highly express epidermal fatty acid-binding protein and adipose fatty acid-binding protein. They actively uptake saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which might play a critical role in regulating their immune functions. Numerous studies have shown that various fatty acids, saturated or unsaturated, may possess different impacts on cell growth and function. However, the approaches used for fatty acid preparation vary, which may lead to non-physiological results. Serum albumin, a natural carrie...


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