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PubMed Journals Articles About "Bacterial Cell Wall Changes Produce More Fatty Molecules" RSS

08:22 EST 14th December 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Bacterial cell wall changes produce more fatty molecules" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 36,000+

The disruptive effect of lysozyme on the bacterial cell wall explored by an in-silico structural outlook.

The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the bacterial life cycle by cleaving the linkage between the NAG and NAM carbohydrates. Lab exercises focused on the effects of lysozyme on the bacter...


Deciphering the Nature of Enzymatic Modifications of Bacterial Cell Wall.

The major constituent of bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan, which in its crosslinked form is a polymer of considerable complexity that encases the entire bacterium. A functional cell wall is indispensable for the survival of the organism. There are several dozens of enzymes that assemble and disassemble the peptidoglycan dynamically within each bacterial generation. Understanding of the nature of these transformations is critical knowledge on these events. Octasaccharide peptidoglycans were prepared and ...

Bacterial RNA polymerase caps RNA with various cofactors and cell wall precursors.

Bacterial RNA polymerase is able to initiate transcription with adenosine-containing cofactor NAD+, which was proposed to result in a portion of cellular RNAs being 'capped' at the 5΄ end with NAD+, reminiscent of eukaryotic cap. Here we show that, apart from NAD+, another adenosine-containing cofactor FAD and highly abundant uridine-containing cell wall precursors, UDP-Glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine are efficiently used to initiate transcription in vitro. We show that the affinity to NAD+ and UDP-con...


Carbon supply and the regulation of cell wall synthesis.

All plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall that determines the directionality of cell growth and protects the cell against its environment. Plant cell walls are comprised primarily of polysaccharides and represent the largest sink for photosynthetically fixed carbon, both for individual plants and in the terrestrial biosphere as a whole. Cell wall synthesis is a highly complex process, involving multiple enzymes and metabolic intermediates, intracellular trafficking of proteins and cell wall precursors, ...

Pyruvylated cell wall glycopolymers of Promicromonospora citrea VKM A≿-665(T) and promicromonospora sp. VKM A≿-1028.

The cell walls of two strains of the genus Promicromonospora (phylum Actinobacteria) were found to include non-phosphorylated anionic glycopolymers with pyruvic acid acetals of R-configuration. The cell wall of the type strain P. citrea 665(T) contains two glycopolymers of the sort, including the Kdn-teichulosonic acid with the repeating unit →6)-α-d-Gl≿p/→6)-α-d-Gl≿p3SO3(-)-(1 → 4)-α-[7,9Pyr]-Kdn-(2→, and the galactan with the repeating unit →3)-α-[4,6Pyr]-d-Galp-2OAc-(1 → . The ce...

Radioactive Labeling and Fractionation of Fission Yeast Walls.

Fungal cells contain an essential structure external to the cell, made of polysaccharides and proteins, termed the cell wall. Polysaccharides represent ∼96% of the cell wall on a dry-weight basis. They are complex insoluble polymers connected to each other by covalent linkages and hydrogen bonds with specific localizations in the cell wall and septum. Fission yeast contains three β-glucans (a major branched β(1,3)-glucan, a minor linear β(1,3)-glucan, and a minor branched β(1,6)-glucan), two α-glucan...

Fission Yeast Cell Wall Analysis.

The Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell wall is a rigid exoskeletal structure mainly composed of interlinked glucose polysaccharides and galactomannoproteins. It is essential for survival of the fission yeast, as it prevents cells from bursting from internal turgor pressure and protects them from mechanical injuries. Additionally, the cell wall determines the cell shape and, therefore, a better knowledge of cell wall structure and composition could provide valuable data in S. pombe morphogenetic studies. Here, w...

Quorum sensing molecules production by nosocomial and soil isolates Acinetobacter baumannii.

Acinetobacter species remain alive in hospitals on various surfaces, both dry and moist, forming an important source of hospital infections. These bacteria are naturally resistant to many antibiotic classes. Although the role of the quorum sensing system in regulating the virulence factors of Acinetobacter species has not been fully elucidated, it has been reported that they play a role in bacterial biofilm formation. The biofilm formation helps them to survive under unfavorable growth conditions and antimi...

Bacterial cell wall: Phages breaking free.

Plant Vasculature: Selective Membrane-to-Microtubule Tethering Patterns the Xylem Cell Wall.

To introduce pits into a cell wall, plants depolymerize cortical microtubules, which prevents subsequent secondary cell wall thickening. A newly identified protein tethers microtubules to the plasma membrane and contains this breakdown to defined regions, thereby shaping these holes.

The cell wall of the filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Oscillochloris trichoides.

The filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Oscillochloris trichoides DG-6 has been studied, and it has been shown that there are no lipopolysaccharides on the cell surface. Fatty acids hydroxylated at the C3 position, amino sugars and phosphate-containing compounds characteristic of lipid A have also not been found. The genes encoding for proteins responsible for the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides and the genes for the transport system, usually localized in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacte...

Exposure to human alveolar lining fluid enhances Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a CD8(+) T-cell-dependent manner.

Current tuberculosis (TB) treatments include chemotherapy and preventative vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In humans, however, BCG vaccination fails to fully protect against pulmonary TB. Few studies have considered the impact of the human lung mucosa (alveolar lining fluid (ALF)), which modifies the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cell wall, revealing alternate antigenic epitopes on the bacterium surface that alter its pathogenicity. We hypothesized that ALF-induced ...

Progress in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Gram-negative Bacterial Cell Envelopes.

Bacteria are protected by complex molecular architectures known as the cell envelope. The cell envelope is composed of regions with distinct chemical compositions and physical properties; namely mem-branes and a cell wall. To develop novel antibiotics to combat pathogenic bacteria, molecular level knowledge of the structure, dynamics and interplay between the chemical components of the cell envelope that surrounds bacterial cells is imperative. In addition, conserved mo-lecular patterns associated with the ...

Changing of biochemical parameters and cell wall polysaccharides distribution during physiological development of tomato fruit.

This study was aimed at discovering an impact of biochemical parameters (like content of cell wall polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid or activity of pectinolytic enzymes) on cell wall microstructure during physiological fruit development. Cell wall microstructure as well as changes in the polysaccharides distribution were examined by confocal Raman microscopy. Also there was a need to simultaneous usage of reference method which is immunolabeling. A tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv Ceri...

From structure to function - a family portrait of plant subtilases.

I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Subtilases (SBTs) are serine peptidases that are found in all three domains of life. As compared with homologs in other Eucarya, plant SBTs are more closely related to archaeal and bacterial SBTs, with which they share many biochemical and structural features. However, in the course of evolution, functional diversification led to the acquisition of novel, plant-specific functions, resulting in the present-day complexity of the plant SBT family. SBTs are much more numer...

Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of Larch bark procyanidins against Staphylococcus aureus.

Larch bark procyanidins (LBPC) have not only antioxidant and antitumor properties, but also strong bacteriostatic effects. However, it is not clear about the antibacterial mechanisms of LBPC. In this work, the antibacterial effects and mechanisms of LBPC on Staphylococcus aureus were studied in the aspects of morphological structure, cell wall and membrane, essential proteins, and genetic material. The results showed that LBPC effectively inhibited bacterial growth at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1...

Enzymatic synthesis and semi-preparative isolation of N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate.

N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate (MurNAc-6P) is a constituent of the bacterial peptidoglycan cell wall, serving as an anchor point of secondary cell wall polymers such as teichoic acids, and it is a key metabolite of the peptidoglycan recycling metabolism. Thus, there is a demand for MurNAc-6P as a standard for cell wall compositional and metabolic analyses and, in addition, as a substrate for peptidoglycan recycling enzymes, e.g. MurNAc-6P etherases (MurQ) and MurNAc-6P phosphatases (MupP), or as an effect...

Enzymatic properties of β-N-acetylglucosaminidases.

β-N-Acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases) hydrolyse N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharides and proteins. These enzymes produce N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and have a wide range of promising applications in the food, energy, and pharmaceutical industries, such as synergistic degradation of chitin with endo-chitinases and using GlcNAc to produce sialic acid, bioethanol, single-cell proteins, and pharmaceutical therapeutics. GlcNAcases also play an important role in the dynamic balance of cellular O-l...

Design, synthesis and immunological evaluation of novel amphiphilic desmuramyl peptides.

Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) - an essential bacterial cell wall component - is recognized by our immune system as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) which results in immune responses with adverse toxic effects. In order to harness the beneficial properties from the pro-inflammatory characteristics of the bacterial cell wall motif, MDP was strategically re-designed while conserving the L-D configurations of the dipeptide moiety. The muramic acid was replaced with a hydrophilic arene and lipophilic chain...

Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for High-Level Synthesis of Fatty Acids and Derived Products.

Fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives are important biorenewable products, as well as precursors for further transformation via chemical catalysis. This minireview focuses on recent advances in increasing the production of fatty acids and derived products in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The engineering of upstream pathways to increase levels of the required precursors, fatty acid synthase systems to increase expression and to modify chain length, and downstream pathways to produce free fatty acids, ...

Cell Wall Peptidolipids of Mycobacterium avium: From Genetic Prediction to Exact Structure of a Nonribosomal Peptide.

Mycobacteria have a complex cell wall structure that includes many lipids; however, even within a single subspecies of Mycobacterium avium these lipids can differ. Total lipids from an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) ovine strain (S-type) contained no identifiable glycopeptidolipids or lipopentapeptide, yet both lipids are present in other M. avium subspecies. We determined the genetic and phenotypic basis for this difference using sequence analysis as well as biochemical and physico-chemical approac...

The cause of multiple sclerosis is autoimmune attack of adenosyltransferase thereby limiting adenosylcobalamin production.

The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) begins with an infection by a bacterium from the class of bacteria that produce and utilize adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and possess an adenosyl transferase enzyme (ATR); these bacteria are the exogenous antigens that cause MS. Human ATR is homologous to bacterial ATR and B cells produce anti-ATR antibodies as an autoimmune response thereby reducing the concentration of ATR and thus limiting production of AdoCbl, one of the two bioactive forms of vitamin B12. The ne...

Immunogold scanning electron microscopy can reveal the polysaccharide architecture of xylem cell walls.

Immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and immunogold transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are the two main techniques commonly used to detect polysaccharides in plant cell walls. Both are important in localizing cell wall polysaccharides, but both have major limitations, such as low resolution in IFM and restricted sample size for immunogold TEM. In this study, we have developed a robust technique that combines immunocytochemistry with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study cell wall polysaccharide arc...

Saturated Fatty Acids Induce Ceramide-associated Macrophage Cell Death.

Macrophages highly express epidermal fatty acid-binding protein and adipose fatty acid-binding protein. They actively uptake saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which might play a critical role in regulating their immune functions. Numerous studies have shown that various fatty acids, saturated or unsaturated, may possess different impacts on cell growth and function. However, the approaches used for fatty acid preparation vary, which may lead to non-physiological results. Serum albumin, a natural carrie...

A review about brown algal cell walls and fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides: Cell wall context, biomedical properties and key research challenges.

Studies on brown algal cell walls have entered a new phase with the concomitant discovery of novel polysaccharides present in cell walls and the establishment of a comprehensive generic model for cell wall architecture. Brown algal cell walls are composites of structurally complex polysaccharides. In this review we discuss the most recent progress in the structural composition of brown algal cell walls, emphasizing the significance of extraction and screening techniques, and the biological activities of the...


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