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PubMed Journals Articles About "Behavioral Economics Of Human Drug Self-Administration" RSS

11:15 EDT 21st October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Behavioral Economics Of Human Drug Self-Administration PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Behavioral Economics Of Human Drug Self-Administration articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Behavioral Economics Human Drug Self Administration" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 31,000+

Why Money Alone Can't (Always) "Nudge" Physicians: The Role of Behavioral Economics in the Design of Physician Incentives.

Behavioral economics seeks to define how humans respond to incentives, how to maximize desired behavioral change, and how to avoid perverse negative impacts on work effort. Relatively new in their application to physician behavior, behavioral economic principles have primarily been used to construct optimized financial incentives. This review introduces and evaluates the essential components of building successful financial incentive programs for physicians, adhering to the principles of behavioral economic...


Using Behavioral Economics to Encourage Parent Behavior Change: Opportunities to Improve Clinical Effectiveness.

Pediatric clinical practice often involves improving child health by changing parents' behavior. Strategies from behavioral economics - a field that leverages predictable patterns in human decision-making to overcome barriers to behavior change - can improve health outcomes in adults. Though more research is needed, the application of these approaches to parent behavior change in pediatric settings has the potential to improve the clinical effectiveness of child healthcare. We review the foundational concep...

Demand elasticity predicts addiction endophenotypes and the therapeutic efficacy of an orexin/hypocretin-1 receptor antagonist in rats.

Behavioral economics is a powerful, translational approach for measuring drug demand in both humans and animals. Here, we asked if demand for cocaine in rats with limited drug experience could be used to identify individuals most at risk of expressing an addiction phenotype following either long- or intermittent-access self-administration schedules, both of which model the transition to uncontrolled drug seeking. Because the orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB) is particularly effective at reducing d...


Behavioral economics and diabetic eye exams.

Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is the leading cause of new blindness among working-age adults in the United States. Timely intervention to prevent vision loss is possible with early detection by regular eye examinations. Unfortunately, adherence to recommended annual diabetic eye exams is poor. Public health interventions have targeted traditional barriers to care, such as cost and transportation, with limited success. Behavioral economics provides an ad...

Effects of varenicline on subjective craving and relative reinforcing value of cigarettes.

Varenicline is an FDA approved medication for the treatment of nicotine dependence. While the efficacy and safety of this medication have been demonstrated, success rates remain low, and efforts to understand mechanisms of efficacy are in progress. A behavioral economics framework is one unique way to examine how demand for a drug changes under different circumstances. Therefore, the current randomized placebo-controlled, cross-over study aimed to examine effects of varenicline on subjective cigarette cravi...

Effects of a Behavioral Economics Intervention on Food Choice and Food Consumption in Middle-School and High-School Cafeterias.

Changing food choice architecture in school cafeterias through behavioral economics may increase student selection and consumption of healthy foods. However, most research assesses the effects of short-term interventions. We evaluated a year-long choice architecture intervention implemented by school food service staff.

Non-pharmacological factors that determine drug use and addiction.

Based on their pharmacological properties, psychoactive drugs are supposed to take control of the natural reward system to finally drive compulsory drug seeking and consumption. However, psychoactive drugs are not used in an arbitrary way as pure pharmacological reinforcement would suggest, but rather in a highly specific manner depending on non-pharmacological factors. While pharmacological effects of psychoactive drugs are well studied, neurobiological mechanisms of non-pharmacological factors are less we...

An impact evaluation of two rounds of mass drug administration on the prevalence of active trachoma: A clustered cross sectional survey.

We investigated the impact of two round of mass drug administration on trachoma prevalence in Plateau and Nasarawa States of Nigeria. The mass drug administration was conducted as a component of the SAFE Strategy, a combination of interventions recommended for the global elimination of blinding trachoma.

US Food and Drug Administration Disruption of Generic Drug Market Increases Hospital Costs.

The purpose of the US Food and Drug Administration's Marketed Unapproved Drugs Initiative is to decrease marketing of older unapproved medications. The administration has recently extended its rulings by including sterile injectable drugs administered in the inpatient environment. The impact of this initiative on the inpatient environment has been minimally studied.

Challenges related to the immunogenicity of parenteral recombinant proteins: Underlying mechanisms and new approaches to overcome it.

Immune response elicited by therapeutic proteins is an important safety and efficacy issue for regulatory agencies, drug manufacturers, clinicians, and patients. Administration of therapeutic proteins can potentially induce the production of anti-drug antibodies or cell-mediated immune responses. At first, it was speculated that the immunogenicity is related to the non-human origin of these proteins. Later on, it was confirmed that the human proteins may also show immunogenicity. In this review article, we ...

Nanoemulsions in drug delivery: formulation to medical application.

Nanoscale oil-in-water emulsions (NEs), heterogeneous systems of two immiscible liquids stabilized by emulsifiers or surfactants, show great potential in medical applications because of their attractive characteristics for drug delivery. NEs have been explored as therapeutic carriers for hydrophobic compounds via various routes of administration. NEs provide opportunities to improve drug delivery via alternative administration routes. However, deep understanding of the NE manufacturing and functionalization...

Binge-like acquisition of α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) self-administration in female rats.

The synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been associated with bizarre public behavior in users. Association of such behavior with extended binges of drug use motivates additional investigation, particularly since a prior study found that half of male rats experience a binge of exceptionally high intake, followed by sustained lower levels of self-administration during the acquisition of intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of a related drug, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

phMRI, neurochemical and behavioral responses to psychostimulants distinguishing genetically selected alcohol-preferring from genetically heterogenous rats.

Alcoholism is often associated with other forms of drug abuse, suggesting that innate predisposing factors may confer vulnerability to addiction to diverse substances. However, the neurobiological bases of these factors remain unknown. Here, we have used a combination of imaging, neurochemistry and behavioral techniques to investigate responses to the psychostimulant amphetamine in Marchigian Sardinian (msP) alcohol-preferring rats, a model of vulnerability to alcoholism. Specifically, we employed pharmacol...

Understanding nociception-related phenotypes in adult zebrafish: behavioral and pharmacological characterization using the acetic acid model.

Pain, a severely debilitating symptom of many human disorders, is a growing, unmet biomedical problem. Although the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to investigate both behavioral and physiological nociception-related responses is expanding rapidly, the characterization of behavioral phenotypes that reflect injury location is still poorly explored, making the results of such studies difficult to interpret. Here, we characterize putative nociception-related behavioral phenotypes in adult zebrafish following an...

Impairments in reversal learning following short access to cocaine self-administration.

Cocaine use disorder is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking that persists long into abstinence. Work using rodent models of cocaine addiction has found evidence for reversal learning deficits 21 days after non-contingent cocaine administration and 60 days after self-administration. Here we sought to determine if a deficit in reversal learning is present 3-4 weeks after cessation of cocaine self-administration, when relapse to cocaine-seeking is robust. Conversely, we hypothesized that reversal learning...

Pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline and its 5-hydroxyhexyl metabolite following intravenous administration in cattle.

This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline (PTX) and its 5-hydroxyhexyl metabolite (M-I) after single-dose intravenous (IV) administration (10 mg/kg) of PTX in six healthy cattle. The safety of PTX was evaluated by clinical observation and biochemical analysis. Plasma concentrations of PTX and M-I were simultaneously determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental methods. Salivation and discomfort we...

Behavioral Economics Interventions in Clinical Decision Support Systems.

 Clinical decision support (CDS) systems can improve safety and facilitate evidence-based practice. However, clinical decisions are often affected by the cognitive biases and heuristics of clinicians, which is increasing the interest in behavioral and cognitive science approaches in the medical field.

Proportionate palliative sedation and the giving of a deadly drug: the conundrum.

Among the oldest extant medical ethics, the Hippocratic Oath prohibits the giving of a deadly drug, regarding this act as an egregious violation of a medical ethic that is exclusively therapeutic. Proportionate palliative sedation involves the administration of a deadly drug. Hence it seems to violate the venerable Hippocratic promise associated with the dawn of Western medicine not to give a deadly drug. Relying on distinctions commonly employed in the analysis and evaluation of human actions, this article...

A Prospective Evaluation of Drug Discrimination in Pharmacology.

As investigators, we use many methodologies to answer both practical and theoretical questions in our field. Occasionally, we must stop and collect the latest findings or trends and then look forward to where our ideas, findings, and hypotheses may take us. Similar to volumes that were published in previous years on drug discrimination (Glennon and Young, Drug discrimination applications to medicinal chemistry and drug studies. Wiley, Hoboken, 2011; Ho et al., Drug discrimination and state dependent learnin...

Hypocretin/orexin antagonists decrease cocaine self-administration by female rhesus monkeys.

The hypocretin/orexin system is involved in regulating arousal, and much recent work demonstrates that decreasing hypocretin receptor-1 (HCRTr1) activity using antagonists decreases appetitive behavior, including stimulant drug self-administration and reinstatement.

Executive dysfunctions and behavioral changes in early drug-naïve patients with Parkinson's disease.

This study aims to explore the clinical profiles and onset age-related difference of executive dysfunctions and behavioral changes in early drug-naïve patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

Multigenerational and transgenerational effects of paternal exposure to drugs of abuse on behavioral and neural function.

Addictions are highly heritable disorders, with heritability estimates ranging from 39% to 72%. Multiple studies suggest a link between paternal drug abuse and addiction in their children. However, patterns of inheritance cannot be explained purely by Mendelian genetic mechanisms. Exposure to drugs of abuse results in epigenetic changes that may be passed on through the germline. This mechanism of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a link between paternal drug exposure and addiction suscep...

Electrocardiogram Monitoring After the Food and Drug Administration Warnings for Citalopram: Unheeded Alerts?

To evaluate national trends in electrocardiogram (EKG) monitoring in Veterans Affairs (VA) beneficiaries prescribed high-dose citalopram before and after the 2011-12 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety warnings.

Hyaluronic acid modified MPEG-b-PAE block copolymer aqueous micelles for efficient ophthalmic drug delivery of hydrophobic genistein.

The ophthalmic drug delivery is a challenge in the clinical treatment of ocular diseases. The traditional drug administration usually shows apparent limitations, such as the low bioavailability from the reason of low penetration of the cornea and the short survival time of drug in the eyes. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose an amphiphilic polymer micelle modified with hyaluronic acid (HA) for high efficient ophthalmic delivery of genistein, a widely used hydrophobic drug for treatment of ocular ang...

Anticipating Industry Arguments: The US Food and Drug Administration's Authority to Reduce Nicotine Levels in Cigarettes.

The US Food and Drug Administration has announced that it is considering lowering nicotine levels in cigarettes to "minimally addictive or nonaddictive levels." This could be a transformative public health measure, but the tobacco industry is likely to challenge such an action in court. This article reviews some of the key legal arguments that industry is likely to advance and considers possible responses. As we demonstrate, there are strong arguments that the US Food and Drug Administration has the authori...


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