PubMed Journals Articles About "Behavioral Economics Of Human Drug Self-Administration" RSS

15:58 EST 13th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Behavioral Economics Human Drug Self Administration" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 31,000+

Why Money Alone Can't (Always) "Nudge" Physicians: The Role of Behavioral Economics in the Design of Physician Incentives.

Behavioral economics seeks to define how humans respond to incentives, how to maximize desired behavioral change, and how to avoid perverse negative impacts on work effort. Relatively new in their application to physician behavior, behavioral economic principles have primarily been used to construct optimized financial incentives. This review introduces and evaluates the essential components of building successful financial incentive programs for physicians, adhering to the principles of behavioral economic...

Using Behavioral Economics to Encourage Parent Behavior Change: Opportunities to Improve Clinical Effectiveness.

Pediatric clinical practice often involves improving child health by changing parents' behavior. Strategies from behavioral economics - a field that leverages predictable patterns in human decision-making to overcome barriers to behavior change - can improve health outcomes in adults. Though more research is needed, the application of these approaches to parent behavior change in pediatric settings has the potential to improve the clinical effectiveness of child healthcare. We review the foundational concep...

Demand elasticity predicts addiction endophenotypes and the therapeutic efficacy of an orexin/hypocretin-1 receptor antagonist in rats.

Behavioral economics is a powerful, translational approach for measuring drug demand in both humans and animals. Here, we asked if demand for cocaine in rats with limited drug experience could be used to identify individuals most at risk of expressing an addiction phenotype following either long- or intermittent-access self-administration schedules, both of which model the transition to uncontrolled drug seeking. Because the orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB) is particularly effective at reducing d...

Delivery of amitriptyline by intravenous and intraperitoneal administration compared in the same animal by whole-body mass spectrometry imaging of a stable isotope labelled drug substance in mice.

The distribution and metabolism of a drug in the organism is dependent on the administration route as well as on the drug formulation. It is important to be able to assess which impact the administration route or formulation of a drug has for its distribution and metabolism.

The effects of competition outcomes on health: Evidence from the lifespans of U.S. Olympic medalists.

This paper investigates the effects of competition outcomes on health by using U.S. Olympic medalists' lifespans and medal colors as a natural experiment. Whereas the life expectancies of gold and bronze medalists do not differ significantly, life expectancy of silver medalists is about 2.4 and 3.9 years less than these former, respectively. These findings are readily explainable by insights from behavioral economics, psychology, and human biology, which suggest that (perceived) dissatisfactory competition ...

Effects of varenicline on subjective craving and relative reinforcing value of cigarettes.

Varenicline is an FDA approved medication for the treatment of nicotine dependence. While the efficacy and safety of this medication have been demonstrated, success rates remain low, and efforts to understand mechanisms of efficacy are in progress. A behavioral economics framework is one unique way to examine how demand for a drug changes under different circumstances. Therefore, the current randomized placebo-controlled, cross-over study aimed to examine effects of varenicline on subjective cigarette cravi...

Effects of a Behavioral Economics Intervention on Food Choice and Food Consumption in Middle-School and High-School Cafeterias.

Changing food choice architecture in school cafeterias through behavioral economics may increase student selection and consumption of healthy foods. However, most research assesses the effects of short-term interventions. We evaluated a year-long choice architecture intervention implemented by school food service staff.

Non-pharmacological factors that determine drug use and addiction.

Based on their pharmacological properties, psychoactive drugs are supposed to take control of the natural reward system to finally drive compulsory drug seeking and consumption. However, psychoactive drugs are not used in an arbitrary way as pure pharmacological reinforcement would suggest, but rather in a highly specific manner depending on non-pharmacological factors. While pharmacological effects of psychoactive drugs are well studied, neurobiological mechanisms of non-pharmacological factors are less we...

An impact evaluation of two rounds of mass drug administration on the prevalence of active trachoma: A clustered cross sectional survey.

We investigated the impact of two round of mass drug administration on trachoma prevalence in Plateau and Nasarawa States of Nigeria. The mass drug administration was conducted as a component of the SAFE Strategy, a combination of interventions recommended for the global elimination of blinding trachoma.

US Food and Drug Administration Disruption of Generic Drug Market Increases Hospital Costs.

The purpose of the US Food and Drug Administration's Marketed Unapproved Drugs Initiative is to decrease marketing of older unapproved medications. The administration has recently extended its rulings by including sterile injectable drugs administered in the inpatient environment. The impact of this initiative on the inpatient environment has been minimally studied.

Challenges related to the immunogenicity of parenteral recombinant proteins: Underlying mechanisms and new approaches to overcome it.

Immune response elicited by therapeutic proteins is an important safety and efficacy issue for regulatory agencies, drug manufacturers, clinicians, and patients. Administration of therapeutic proteins can potentially induce the production of anti-drug antibodies or cell-mediated immune responses. At first, it was speculated that the immunogenicity is related to the non-human origin of these proteins. Later on, it was confirmed that the human proteins may also show immunogenicity. In this review article, we ...

Metformin for Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome and Other Neurological Disorders.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent inherited form of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein, FMRP, engenders molecular, behavioral, and cognitive deficits in FXS patients. Experiments using different animal models advanced our knowledge of the pathophysiology of FXS and led to the discovery of many targets for drug treatments. In this review, we discuss the potential of metformin, an antidiabetic drug approved by the US Food and Drug...

Nanoemulsions in drug delivery: formulation to medical application.

Nanoscale oil-in-water emulsions (NEs), heterogeneous systems of two immiscible liquids stabilized by emulsifiers or surfactants, show great potential in medical applications because of their attractive characteristics for drug delivery. NEs have been explored as therapeutic carriers for hydrophobic compounds via various routes of administration. NEs provide opportunities to improve drug delivery via alternative administration routes. However, deep understanding of the NE manufacturing and functionalization...

Binge-like acquisition of α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) self-administration in female rats.

The synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been associated with bizarre public behavior in users. Association of such behavior with extended binges of drug use motivates additional investigation, particularly since a prior study found that half of male rats experience a binge of exceptionally high intake, followed by sustained lower levels of self-administration during the acquisition of intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of a related drug, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

A Systems Approach to Person-Centric Health Economics.

The economics of health and the economics of health care are not the same, and in fact can be competitors for resources in some cases. Using a traditional supply/demand framework can clarify the forces at work in person-centric health economics. Use of cost-effectiveness analysis, employing a broader systems perspective that incorporates sectors other than health care, and nudging individuals to better health habits are three strategies that can help to drive a shift from health care to health.

A robotic system to prepare IV solutions.

Drugs need to be used regularly and correctly in order to be effective. When medicines are used correctly, negativities that threaten human health and life can be avoided, but they can cause unwanted situations that can occur until the end of life when they are used incorrectly. The most common drug administration errors in hospitals are: The wrong dosage of the drug given to the patient, the timing and / or the method of administration, the wrong drug given to the patient, the drug given to the wrong patie...

phMRI, neurochemical and behavioral responses to psychostimulants distinguishing genetically selected alcohol-preferring from genetically heterogenous rats.

Alcoholism is often associated with other forms of drug abuse, suggesting that innate predisposing factors may confer vulnerability to addiction to diverse substances. However, the neurobiological bases of these factors remain unknown. Here, we have used a combination of imaging, neurochemistry and behavioral techniques to investigate responses to the psychostimulant amphetamine in Marchigian Sardinian (msP) alcohol-preferring rats, a model of vulnerability to alcoholism. Specifically, we employed pharmacol...

Understanding nociception-related phenotypes in adult zebrafish: behavioral and pharmacological characterization using the acetic acid model.

Pain, a severely debilitating symptom of many human disorders, is a growing, unmet biomedical problem. Although the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to investigate both behavioral and physiological nociception-related responses is expanding rapidly, the characterization of behavioral phenotypes that reflect injury location is still poorly explored, making the results of such studies difficult to interpret. Here, we characterize putative nociception-related behavioral phenotypes in adult zebrafish following an...

Impairments in reversal learning following short access to cocaine self-administration.

Cocaine use disorder is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking that persists long into abstinence. Work using rodent models of cocaine addiction has found evidence for reversal learning deficits 21 days after non-contingent cocaine administration and 60 days after self-administration. Here we sought to determine if a deficit in reversal learning is present 3-4 weeks after cessation of cocaine self-administration, when relapse to cocaine-seeking is robust. Conversely, we hypothesized that reversal learning...

Pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline and its 5-hydroxyhexyl metabolite following intravenous administration in cattle.

This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline (PTX) and its 5-hydroxyhexyl metabolite (M-I) after single-dose intravenous (IV) administration (10 mg/kg) of PTX in six healthy cattle. The safety of PTX was evaluated by clinical observation and biochemical analysis. Plasma concentrations of PTX and M-I were simultaneously determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental methods. Salivation and discomfort we...

Behavioral Economics Interventions in Clinical Decision Support Systems.

 Clinical decision support (CDS) systems can improve safety and facilitate evidence-based practice. However, clinical decisions are often affected by the cognitive biases and heuristics of clinicians, which is increasing the interest in behavioral and cognitive science approaches in the medical field.

Fluoxetine reverses brain radiation and temozolomide-induced anxiety and spatial learning and memory defect in mice.

Radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy are commonly used in treatment of brain tumors, but they may also result in behavioral impairments such as anxiety and cognitive deficit. The present study sought to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on the behavioral impairments caused by radiation and temozolomide treatment. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single cranial radiation followed by 6-week cyclic temozolomide administration, and then treated with chronic administration of fluoxetin...

Proportionate palliative sedation and the giving of a deadly drug: the conundrum.

Among the oldest extant medical ethics, the Hippocratic Oath prohibits the giving of a deadly drug, regarding this act as an egregious violation of a medical ethic that is exclusively therapeutic. Proportionate palliative sedation involves the administration of a deadly drug. Hence it seems to violate the venerable Hippocratic promise associated with the dawn of Western medicine not to give a deadly drug. Relying on distinctions commonly employed in the analysis and evaluation of human actions, this article...

A Prospective Evaluation of Drug Discrimination in Pharmacology.

As investigators, we use many methodologies to answer both practical and theoretical questions in our field. Occasionally, we must stop and collect the latest findings or trends and then look forward to where our ideas, findings, and hypotheses may take us. Similar to volumes that were published in previous years on drug discrimination (Glennon and Young, Drug discrimination applications to medicinal chemistry and drug studies. Wiley, Hoboken, 2011; Ho et al., Drug discrimination and state dependent learnin...

The novel psychoactive substance methoxetamine induces persistent behavioral abnormalities and neurotoxicity in rats.

Methoxetamine (MXE) is a novel psychoactive substance that can induce several short-term effects on emotional states and behavior. However, little is known about the persistent emotional and behavioral effects of MXE. Moreover, neurotoxic effects of MXE have been hypothesized, but never demonstrated in vivo. To clarify these issues, rats received repeated treatment with MXE every other day (0.1-0.5 mg/kg, i.p., × 5), and 7 days later they were challenged with MXE (0.1-0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Behavioral e...

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