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Showing "Boston apos free speech apos rally abandoned right" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 7,500+

Evaluating the progress to eliminate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis in Hunan Province, China: A study based on a health service delivery model.

To prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis, Hunan Province launched a free syphilis screening and treatment programme in 2011. Thus far, the programme has been implemented for 6 years. This study aimed to assess progress toward the elimination of MTCT of syphilis in Hunan Province from 2011-2016. Estimates of syphilis-related adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) were based on the health service delivery model developed by the WHO, which were then translated into disability-adjusted life years (...

Language Matters: Denying the Existence of the 30-Million-Word Gap Has Serious Consequences.

Sperry, Sperry, and Miller (2018) aim to debunk what is called the 30-million-word gap by claiming that children from lower income households hear more speech than Hart and Risley () reported. We address why the 30-million-word gap should not be abandoned, and the importance of retaining focus on the vital ingredient to language learning-quality speech directed to children rather than overheard speech, the focus of Sperry et al.'s argument. Three issues are addressed: Whether there is a language gap; the c...

Combined Unilateral Posteroventral Pallidotomy and Ventral Intermediate Nucleus Thalamotomy in Tremor-Dominant Parkinson's Disease versus Posteroventral Pallidotomy Alone: A Prospective Comparative Study.

The optimum target in surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) is still controversial, especially in patients with tremor-dominant PD. We aim to compare results in tremor-dominant patients undergoing pallidotomy vs. those undergoing simultaneous posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) and ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) thalamotomy.

Folate Nutrition Status in Mothers of the Boston Birth Cohort, Sample of a US Urban Low-Income Population.

To examine maternal folic acid supplementation and plasma folate concentrations in the Boston Birth Cohort, a predominantly urban, low-income, minority population in Boston, Massachusetts.

Treating Childhood Apraxia of Speech With the Kaufman Speech to Language Protocol: A Phase I Pilot Study.

A Phase I pilot study was designed to collect preliminary evidence on the use of the Kaufman Speech to Language Protocol (K-SLP; Kaufman, 2014) to treat children with childhood apraxia of speech. We hypothesized that the K-SLP approach would result in more accurate speech production in targeted words, whereas untrained (control) words and speech sounds would remain unchanged.

Comprehension of Degraded Speech Matures During Adolescence.

The aim of the study was to compare comprehension of spectrally degraded (noise-vocoded [NV]) speech and perceptual learning of NV speech between adolescents and young adults and examine the role of phonological processing and executive functions in this perception.

Post-Chemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection in Patients with Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumour (NSGCT).

Diabetic retinopathy is a significant complication of diabetes, and the most common cause of blindness in people under the age of 65. The National Diabetic Retinal Screening Programme (Diabetic RetinaScreen) was established to detect sight threatening retinopathies. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine the barriers to the uptake of Diabetic RetinaScreen, to investigate discrepancies in attendance, if any, between patients whose diabetes care is delivered in a large tertiary referral hos...

Dysarthria in Mandarin-Speaking Children With Cerebral Palsy: Speech Subsystem Profiles.

This study explored the speech characteristics of Mandarin-speaking children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) children to determine (a) how children in the 2 groups may differ in their speech patterns and (b) the variables correlated with speech intelligibility for words and sentences.

Speech rate adjustment of adults during conversation.

Speech rate convergence has been reported previously as a phenomenon in which one's speech rate is influenced by his/her partner's speech rate. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in artificial settings, and to some extent, in mother-child interactions. The purpose of this study was to explore speech rate adjustment in a quasi-natural adult-adult conversation.

Effect of reclamation of abandoned salinized farmland on soil bacterial communities in arid northwest China.

Understanding the impact of reclamation of abandoned salinized farmland on soil bacterial community is of great importance for maintaining soil health and sustainability in arid regions. In this study, we used field sampling and 454 pyrosequencing methods to investigate the effects of 5-year reclamation treatments on soil properties, bacterial community composition and diversity. The four reclamation treatments are: abandoned salinized farmland (CK), cropland (CL), grassland (GL) and woodland (WL). We have ...

The tangled roots of inner speech, voices and delusions.

The role of inner speech in the experience of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and delusions remains unclear. This exploratory study tested for differences in inner speech (assessed via self-report questionnaire) between 89 participants with psychosis and 37 non-clinical controls. We also tested for associations of inner speech with, i) state/trait AVH, ii) AVH-severity; iii) patients' relations with their voices, and; iv) delusion-severity. Persons with psychosis had greater levels of dialogic inner sp...

The influence of clear speech on auditory-perceptual judgments of electrolaryngeal speech.

To determine the influence of clear speech on auditory-perceptual judgments of speech acceptability and listener comfort for electrolaryngeal speech.

The varieties of inner speech questionnaire - Revised (VISQ-R): Replicating and refining links between inner speech and psychopathology.

Inner speech is a common experience for many but hard to measure empirically. The Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ) has been used to link everyday phenomenology of inner speech - such as inner dialogue - to various psychopathological traits. However, positive and supportive aspects of inner speech have not always been captured. This study presents a revised version of the scale - the VISQ-R - based on factor analyses in two large samples: respondents to a survey on inner speech and reading (N...

Re-Examining Phonetic Variability in Native and Non-Native Speech.

Non-native speech is frequently characterized as being more variable than native speech. However, the few studies that have directly investigated phonetic variability in the speech of second language learners have considered a limited subset of native/non-native language pairings and few linguistic features.

A Test Battery for Inner Speech Functions.

Inner speech, or the ability to talk to yourself in your head, is one of the most ubiquitous phenomena of everyday experience. Recent years have seen growing interest in the role and function of inner speech in various typical and cognitively impaired populations. Although people vary in their ability to produce inner speech, there is currently no test battery which can be used to evaluate people's inner speech ability. Here we developed a test battery which can be used to evaluate individual differences in...

Frequency of speech disruptions in Parkinson's Disease and developmental stuttering: A comparison among speech tasks.

To analyze the frequency of speech disruptions across different speech tasks, comparing the performance of individuals with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and DS.

What speech and language therapy do community dwelling stroke survivors with aphasia receive in the UK?

Speech and language therapy provision for aphasia (a language disorder) post stroke has been studied over time through surveys completed by speech and language therapists. This paper revisits provision based on what was received by 278 patients in 21 UK speech and language therapy departments in 2014-2016.

Narrowing in face and speech perception in infancy: Developmental change in the relations between domains.

Although prior research has established that perceptual narrowing reflects the influence of experience on the development of face and speech processing, it is unclear whether narrowing in the two domains is related. A within-participant design (N = 72) was used to investigate discrimination of own- and other-race faces and native and non-native speech sounds in 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants. For face and speech discrimination, whereas 3-month-olds discriminated own-race faces and native speech so...

Comparative Outcomes of Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1 Implantation Based on Vision in the Contralateral Eye.

To compare the outcomes of Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 implantation after failed keratoplasty in patients who are blind or sighted in the contralateral eye.

Additional evidence for a therapeutic effect of dextromethorphan/quinidine on bulbar motor function in persons with ALS: A quantitative speech analysis.

A recent double-blind placebo-controlled crossover 70-day trial demonstrated that a fixed combination of dextromethorphan and quinidine (DM/Q) improves speech and swallowing function in most patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, a subset of participants, many of whom did not substantially improve while on DM/Q, were re-evaluated using computer-based speech analyses and expert clinician ratings of the overall severity of speech impairment.

Effects of Additional Low-Pass-Filtered Speech on Listening Effort for Noise-Band-Vocoded Speech in Quiet and in Noise.

Residual acoustic hearing in electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) can benefit cochlear implant (CI) users in increased sound quality, speech intelligibility, and improved tolerance to noise. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the low-pass-filtered acoustic speech in simulated EAS can provide the additional benefit of reducing listening effort for the spectrotemporally degraded signal of noise-band-vocoded speech.

Characteristics of Real-World Signal to Noise Ratios and Speech Listening Situations of Older Adults With Mild to Moderate Hearing Loss.

The first objective was to determine the relationship between speech level, noise level, and signal to noise ratio (SNR), as well as the distribution of SNR, in real-world situations wherein older adults with hearing loss are listening to speech. The second objective was to develop a set of prototype listening situations (PLSs) that describe the speech level, noise level, SNR, availability of visual cues, and locations of speech and noise sources of typical speech listening situations experienced by these i...

Listening to yourself is special: Evidence from global speech rate tracking.

Listeners are known to use adjacent contextual speech rate in processing temporally ambiguous speech sounds. For instance, an ambiguous vowel between short /α/ and long /a:/ in Dutch sounds relatively long (i.e., as /a:/) embedded in a fast precursor sentence, but short in a slow sentence. Besides the local speech rate, listeners also track talker-specific global speech rates. However, it is yet unclear whether other talkers' global rates are encoded with reference to a listener's self-produced rate. Three...

A new MAPT deletion in a case of speech apraxia leading to corticobasal syndrome.

Speech apraxia is a disorder of speech motor planning/programming leading to slow rate, articulatory distortion, and distorted sound substitutions. We describe the clinical profile evolution of a patient presenting with slowly progressive isolated speech apraxia that eventually led to the diagnosis of corticobasal syndrome (CBS), supporting the evidence that this rare speech disorder can be the first presentation of CBS. Moreover, we found a novel variant in MAPT gene, which is hypothesized to be disease-ca...

Contralateral functional reorganization of the speech supplementary motor area following neurosurgical tumor resection.

We evaluated plasticity in speech supplemental motor area (SMA) tissue in two patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), following resection of tumors in or associated with the dominant hemisphere speech SMA. Patient A underwent resection of a anaplastic astrocytoma NOS associated with the left speech SMA, experienced SMA syndrome related mutism postoperatively, but experienced full recovery 14 months later. FMRI performed 32 months after surgery demonstrated a migration of speech SMA ...

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