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PubMed Journals Articles About "Brain Motor Signals Sharpen Sound Perception Research Suggests" RSS

06:29 EDT 15th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Brain Motor Signals Sharpen Sound Perception Research Suggests PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Brain Motor Signals Sharpen Sound Perception Research Suggests articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Brain motor signals sharpen sound perception research suggests" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 38,000+

How Movement Modulates Hearing.

Hearing is often viewed as a passive process: Sound enters the ear, triggers a cascade of activity through the auditory system, and culminates in an auditory percept. In contrast to a passive process, motor-related signals strongly modulate the auditory system from the eardrum to the cortex. The motor modulation of auditory activity is most well documented during speech and other vocalizations but also can be detected during a wide variety of other sound-generating behaviors. An influential idea is that the...


Perception as a route for motor skill learning: perspectives from neuroscience.

Learning a motor skill requires physical practice that engages neural networks involved in movement. These networks have also been found to be engaged during perception of sensory signals associated with actions. Nonetheless, despite extensive evidence for the existence of such sensory-evoked neural activity in motor pathways, much less is known about their contribution to learning and actual changes in behavior. Primate studies usually involve an overlearned task while studies in humans have largely focuse...

The speech perception skills of children with and without speech sound disorder.

To investigate whether Australian-English speaking children with and without speech sound disorder (SSD) differ in their overall speech perception accuracy. Additionally, to investigate differences in the perception of specific phonemes and the association between speech perception and speech production skills.


Probing links between action perception and action production in Parkinson's disease using Fitts' law.

Information on how the subcortical brain encodes information required to execute actions or to evaluate others' actions remains scanty. To clarify this link, Fitts'-law tasks for perception and execution were tested in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). For the perception task, participants were shown apparent motion displays of a person moving their arm between two identical targets and reported whether they judged that the person could realistically move at the perceived speed without missing the tar...

Causal inference and temporal predictions in audiovisual perception of speech and music.

To form a coherent percept of the environment, the brain must integrate sensory signals emanating from a common source but segregate those from different sources. Temporal regularities are prominent cues for multisensory integration, particularly for speech and music perception. In line with models of predictive coding, we suggest that the brain adapts an internal model to the statistical regularities in its environment. This internal model enables cross-sensory and sensorimotor temporal predictions as a me...

EEG beta desynchronization during hand goal-directed action observation in newborn monkeys and its relation to the emergence of hand motor skills.

Previous developmental research suggests that motor experience supports the development of action perception across the lifespan. However, it is still unknown when the neural mechanisms underlying action-perception coupling emerge in infancy. The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of action perception during the emergence of grasping abilities in newborn rhesus macaques. Neural activity, recorded via electroencephalogram (EEG), while monkeys observed grasping actions, mimed actions and ...

Absence of associative motor learning and impaired time perception in a rare case of complete cerebellar agenesis.

Primary cerebellar agenesis (PCA), a brain disease where the cerebellum does not develop, is an extremely rare congenital disease with only eleven living cases reported thus far. Studies of the PCA case will thus provide valuable insights into the necessity of cerebellar development for controlling and modulating cognitive functions of the brain. In this follow-up study, we further investigated the performance of associative learning and time perception of a 26-year-old female complete PCA case. We assessed...

Combined fMRI- and eye movement-based decoding of bistable plaid motion perception.

The phenomenon of bistable perception, in which perception alternates spontaneously despite constant sensory stimulation, has been particularly useful in probing the neural bases of conscious perception. The study of such bistability requires access to the observer's perceptual dynamics, which is usually achieved via active report. This report, however, constitutes a confounding factor in the study of conscious perception and can also be biased in the context of certain experimental manipulations. One appro...

Sensorimotor Integration for Decision Making: How the Worm Steers.

Animals' movements actively shape their perception and subsequent decision making. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2018) show how C. elegans nematodes steer toward an odorant: a dedicated interneuron class integrates oscillatory olfactory signals, generated by head swings, with corollary discharge motor signals.

Neural representation of octave illusion in the human cortex revealed with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

The auditory "octave illusion" arises when dichotic tones, presented one octave apart, alternate rapidly between the ears. This study aimed to explore the link between the perception of illusory pitches and brain activity during presentation of dichotic tones. We conducted a behavioral study of how participants perceived binaural dichotic tones of octave illusions and classified them, based on the reported percepts, in an illusion (ILL) group, without an illusion (non-ILL) group, and others. We recorded bra...

A theory of how active behavior stabilises neural activity: Neural gain modulation by closed-loop environmental feedback.

During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here...

Noninvasive measurement of dynamic brain signals using light penetrating the brain.

Conventional techniques for the noninvasive measurement of brain activity involve critical limitations in spatial or temporal resolution. Here, we propose the method for noninvasive brain function measurement with high spatiotemporal resolution using optical signals. We verified that diffused near-infrared light penetrating through the upper jaw and into the skull, which we term as optoencephalography (OEG), leads to the detection of dynamic brain signals that vary concurrently with the electrophysiological...

Binaural model-based dynamic-range compression.

Binaural cues such as interaural level differences (ILDs) are used to organise auditory perception and to segregate sound sources in complex acoustical environments. In bilaterally fitted hearing aids, dynamic-range compression operating independently at each ear potentially alters these ILDs, thus distorting binaural perception and sound source segregation.

White-matter functional networks changes in patients with schizophrenia.

Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a useful technique for investigating the functional organization of human gray-matter in neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Nevertheless, most studies have demonstrated the functional connectivity and/or task-related functional activity in the gray-matter. White-matter functional networks have been investigated in healthy subjects. Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a brain disorder involving insufficient or ineffective communication associated with white-matte...

Static length changes of cochlear outer hair cells can tune low-frequency hearing.

The cochlea not only transduces sound-induced vibration into neural spikes, it also amplifies weak sound to boost its detection. Actuators of this active process are sensory outer hair cells in the organ of Corti, whereas the inner hair cells transduce the resulting motion into electric signals that propagate via the auditory nerve to the brain. However, how the outer hair cells modulate the stimulus to the inner hair cells remains unclear. Here, we combine theoretical modeling and experimental measurements...

What drives the perceptual change resulting from speech motor adaptation? Evaluation of hypotheses in a Bayesian modeling framework.

Shifts in perceptual boundaries resulting from speech motor learning induced by perturbations of the auditory feedback were taken as evidence for the involvement of motor functions in auditory speech perception. Beyond this general statement, the precise mechanisms underlying this involvement are not yet fully understood. In this paper we propose a quantitative evaluation of some hypotheses concerning the motor and auditory updates that could result from motor learning, in the context of various assumptions...

Anticipating actions and corticospinal excitability: A preregistered motor TMS experiment.

Past research on action observation and imitation suggests that observing a movement activates a corresponding motor representation in the observer. However, recent research suggests that individuals may not only reflexively simulate the observed behavior but also simulate and engage in anticipated action without another person actually engaging in it. For example, it has been demonstrated that observing a triggering event (i.e., nose wrinkling) that potentially leads to the anticipation of an action (i.e.,...

MODULATION OF MOTOR CORTICAL EXCITABILITY WITH AUDITORY STIMULATION.

Loud sounds have been demonstrated to increase motor cortex excitability when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is synchronized with auditory evoked N100 potential measured from electroencephalography (EEG). The N100 potential is generated by an afferent response to sound onset and feature analysis, and upon novel sound it is also related to the arousal reaction. Arousal reaction is known to originate from the ascending reticular activating system of the brainstem and to modulate neuronal activity thr...

Single neurons may encode simultaneous stimuli by switching between activity patterns.

How the brain preserves information about multiple simultaneous items is poorly understood. We report that single neurons can represent multiple stimuli by interleaving signals across time. We record single units in an auditory region, the inferior colliculus, while monkeys localize 1 or 2 simultaneous sounds. During dual-sound trials, we find that some neurons fluctuate between firing rates observed for each single sound, either on a whole-trial or on a sub-trial timescale. These fluctuations are correlate...

Improvements in event-related desynchronization and classification performance of motor imagery using instructive dynamic guidance and complex tasks.

The motor-imagery based brain-computer interface supplies a potential approach for motor-impaired patients, not only to control rehabilitation facilities but also to promote recovery from motor dysfunctions. To improve event-related desynchronization during motor imagery and obtain improved brain-computer interface classification accuracy, we introduce dynamic video guidance and complex motor tasks to the motor imagery paradigm.

Self-motion processing in visual and entorhinal cortices: Inputs, integration, and implications for position coding.

The sensory signals generated by self-motion are complex and multimodal, but the ability to integrate these signals into a unified self-motion percept to guide navigation is essential for animal survival. Here, we summarize classic and recent work on self-motion coding in the visual and entorhinal cortices of the rodent brain. We compare motion processing in rodent and primate visual cortices, highlighting the strengths of classic primate work in establishing causal links between neural activity and percept...

Imagine squeezing a cactus: Cortical activation during affective motor imagery measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

The activation of different brain areas during kinaesthetic and visual motor imagery has been extensively studied, whereas little is known about affective motor imagery, i.e. the imagery of pleasant/unpleasant movements. In the present neuroimaging study we investigated cortical activation of kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) based on emotional stimulus content by means of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty healthy adult participants were instructed to imagine affective, and neutral motor ...

Can a teacher-led RCT improve adolescent girls' physical self-perception and perceived motor competence?

Perceived and actual motor competence (MC) influence physical activity (PA) behaviour. Notably, both are lower in girls than in boys. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether a 12-week, teacher-led intervention that improves actual MC (Lander, N., Morgan, P. J., Salmon, J., & Barnett, L. M. (2017). Improving early-adolescent girls' motor skill: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 49(12), 2498-2505) could also improve adolescent girls' physical self-percepti...

What can autism teach us about the role of sensorimotor systems in higher cognition? New clues from studies on language, action semantics, and abstract emotional concept processing.

Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of ma...

Motor Impairment and Developmental Psychotic Risk: Connecting the Dots and Narrowing the Pathophysiological Gap.

The motor system in its manifold articulations is receiving increasing clinical and research attention. This is because motor impairments constitute a central, expressive component of the mental state examination and a key transdiagnostic feature indexing disease severity. Furthermore, within the schizophrenia spectrum, the integration of neurophysiological, developmental, and phenomenological perspectives suggests that motor impairment is not simply a generic, extrinsic proxy of an altered neurodevelopment...


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