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PubMed Journals Articles About "Brain Motor Signals Sharpen Sound Perception Research Suggests" RSS

21:45 EDT 16th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Brain motor signals sharpen sound perception research suggests" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 38,000+

How Movement Modulates Hearing.

Hearing is often viewed as a passive process: Sound enters the ear, triggers a cascade of activity through the auditory system, and culminates in an auditory percept. In contrast to a passive process, motor-related signals strongly modulate the auditory system from the eardrum to the cortex. The motor modulation of auditory activity is most well documented during speech and other vocalizations but also can be detected during a wide variety of other sound-generating behaviors. An influential idea is that the...


Perception as a route for motor skill learning: perspectives from neuroscience.

Learning a motor skill requires physical practice that engages neural networks involved in movement. These networks have also been found to be engaged during perception of sensory signals associated with actions. Nonetheless, despite extensive evidence for the existence of such sensory-evoked neural activity in motor pathways, much less is known about their contribution to learning and actual changes in behavior. Primate studies usually involve an overlearned task while studies in humans have largely focuse...

Predicted sensory consequences of voluntary actions modulate amplitude of preceding readiness potentials.

Self-generated, voluntary actions, are preceded by a slow negativity in the scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signal recorded from frontal regions (termed 'readiness potential'; RP). This signal, and its lateralized subcomponent (LRP), is mainly regarded as preparatory motor activity associated with the forthcoming voluntary motor act. However, it is not clear whether this neural signature is associated with preparatory motor activity, expectation of its associated sensory consequences, or both. Here we re...


Causal inference and temporal predictions in audiovisual perception of speech and music.

To form a coherent percept of the environment, the brain must integrate sensory signals emanating from a common source but segregate those from different sources. Temporal regularities are prominent cues for multisensory integration, particularly for speech and music perception. In line with models of predictive coding, we suggest that the brain adapts an internal model to the statistical regularities in its environment. This internal model enables cross-sensory and sensorimotor temporal predictions as a me...

EEG beta desynchronization during hand goal-directed action observation in newborn monkeys and its relation to the emergence of hand motor skills.

Previous developmental research suggests that motor experience supports the development of action perception across the lifespan. However, it is still unknown when the neural mechanisms underlying action-perception coupling emerge in infancy. The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of action perception during the emergence of grasping abilities in newborn rhesus macaques. Neural activity, recorded via electroencephalogram (EEG), while monkeys observed grasping actions, mimed actions and ...

Absence of associative motor learning and impaired time perception in a rare case of complete cerebellar agenesis.

Primary cerebellar agenesis (PCA), a brain disease where the cerebellum does not develop, is an extremely rare congenital disease with only eleven living cases reported thus far. Studies of the PCA case will thus provide valuable insights into the necessity of cerebellar development for controlling and modulating cognitive functions of the brain. In this follow-up study, we further investigated the performance of associative learning and time perception of a 26-year-old female complete PCA case. We assessed...

Somatosensory Perceptual Training Enhances Motor Learning by Observing.

Action observation activates brain regions involved in sensory-motor control. Recent research has shown that action observation can also facilitate motor learning; observing a tutor undergoing motor learning results in functional plasticity within the motor system and gains in subsequent motor performance. However, the effects of observing motor learning extend beyond the motor domain. Converging evidence suggests that observation also results in somatosensory functional plasticity and somatosensory percept...

Invisible Flashes Alter Perceived Sound Location.

Information integration across the senses is fundamental for effective interactions with our environment. The extent to which signals from different senses can interact in the absence of awareness is controversial. Combining the spatial ventriloquist illusion and dynamic continuous flash suppression (dCFS), we investigated in a series of two experiments whether visual signals that observers do not consciously perceive can influence spatial perception of sounds. Importantly, dCFS obliterated visual awareness...

Where and how our brain represents the temporal structure of observed action.

Reacting faster to the behaviour of others provides evolutionary advantages. Reacting to unpredictable events takes hundreds of milliseconds. Understanding where and how the brain represents what actions are likely to follow one another is, therefore, important. Everyday actions occur in predictable sequences, yet neuroscientists focus on how brains respond to unexpected, individual motor acts. Using fMRI, we show the brain encodes sequence-related information in the motor system. Using EEG, we show visual ...

Auditory time perception in Huntington's disease.

Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by early involvement of the striatum. It affects the pace of repetitive motor activity, as motor timing depends on basal ganglia activity. However, data are lacking on the impact of this process on auditory time perception in motor non-affected gene carriers.

Ventral striatum links motivational and motor networks during operant-conditioned movement in rats.

Voluntary actions require motives. It is already known that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) assess the motivational values. However, it remains unclear how the motivational process gains access to the motor execution system in the brain. Here we present evidence that the ventral striatum (VS) plays a hub-like role in mediating motivational and motor processing in operant behavior. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to detect the neural activation areas associated with motivational action. Using ...

Cooperation of the vestibular and cerebellar networks in anxiety disorders and depression.

The discipline of affective neuroscience is concerned with the neural bases of emotion and mood. The past decades have witnessed an explosion of research in affective neuroscience, increasing our knowledge of the brain areas involved in fear and anxiety. Besides the brain areas that are classically associated with emotional reactivity, accumulating evidence indicates that both the vestibular and cerebellar systems are involved not only in motor coordination but also influence both cognition and emotional re...

White-matter functional networks changes in patients with schizophrenia.

Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a useful technique for investigating the functional organization of human gray-matter in neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Nevertheless, most studies have demonstrated the functional connectivity and/or task-related functional activity in the gray-matter. White-matter functional networks have been investigated in healthy subjects. Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a brain disorder involving insufficient or ineffective communication associated with white-matte...

Anticipating actions and corticospinal excitability: A preregistered motor TMS experiment.

Past research on action observation and imitation suggests that observing a movement activates a corresponding motor representation in the observer. However, recent research suggests that individuals may not only reflexively simulate the observed behavior but also simulate and engage in anticipated action without another person actually engaging in it. For example, it has been demonstrated that observing a triggering event (i.e., nose wrinkling) that potentially leads to the anticipation of an action (i.e.,...

MODULATION OF MOTOR CORTICAL EXCITABILITY WITH AUDITORY STIMULATION.

Loud sounds have been demonstrated to increase motor cortex excitability when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is synchronized with auditory evoked N100 potential measured from electroencephalography (EEG). The N100 potential is generated by an afferent response to sound onset and feature analysis, and upon novel sound it is also related to the arousal reaction. Arousal reaction is known to originate from the ascending reticular activating system of the brainstem and to modulate neuronal activity thr...

Single neurons may encode simultaneous stimuli by switching between activity patterns.

How the brain preserves information about multiple simultaneous items is poorly understood. We report that single neurons can represent multiple stimuli by interleaving signals across time. We record single units in an auditory region, the inferior colliculus, while monkeys localize 1 or 2 simultaneous sounds. During dual-sound trials, we find that some neurons fluctuate between firing rates observed for each single sound, either on a whole-trial or on a sub-trial timescale. These fluctuations are correlate...

Error-related Persistence of Motor Activity in Resting-state Networks.

The relationship between neural activation during movement training and the plastic changes that survive beyond movement execution is not well understood. Here we ask whether the changes in resting-state functional connectivity observed following motor learning overlap with the brain networks that track movement error during training. Human participants learned to trace an arched trajectory using a computer mouse in an MRI scanner. Motor performance was quantified on each trial as the maximum distance from ...

Improvements in event-related desynchronization and classification performance of motor imagery using instructive dynamic guidance and complex tasks.

The motor-imagery based brain-computer interface supplies a potential approach for motor-impaired patients, not only to control rehabilitation facilities but also to promote recovery from motor dysfunctions. To improve event-related desynchronization during motor imagery and obtain improved brain-computer interface classification accuracy, we introduce dynamic video guidance and complex motor tasks to the motor imagery paradigm.

Self-motion processing in visual and entorhinal cortices: Inputs, integration, and implications for position coding.

The sensory signals generated by self-motion are complex and multimodal, but the ability to integrate these signals into a unified self-motion percept to guide navigation is essential for animal survival. Here, we summarize classic and recent work on self-motion coding in the visual and entorhinal cortices of the rodent brain. We compare motion processing in rodent and primate visual cortices, highlighting the strengths of classic primate work in establishing causal links between neural activity and percept...

Neurolinguistics Research Advancing Development of a Direct-Speech Brain-Computer Interface.

A direct-speech brain-computer interface (DS-BCI) acquires neural signals corresponding to imagined speech, then processes and decodes these signals to produce a linguistic output in the form of phonemes, words, or sentences. Recent research has shown the potential of neurolinguistics to enhance decoding approaches to imagined speech with the inclusion of semantics and phonology in experimental procedures. As neurolinguistics research findings are beginning to be incorporated within the scope of DS-BCI rese...

Imagine squeezing a cactus: Cortical activation during affective motor imagery measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

The activation of different brain areas during kinaesthetic and visual motor imagery has been extensively studied, whereas little is known about affective motor imagery, i.e. the imagery of pleasant/unpleasant movements. In the present neuroimaging study we investigated cortical activation of kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) based on emotional stimulus content by means of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty healthy adult participants were instructed to imagine affective, and neutral motor ...

Study of Weak Periodic Signals in the EEG Signals and Their Relationship with Postsynaptic Potentials.

In this paper, weak periodic signals detected in the EEG signals were analysed for each region of the brain and its relationships with postsynaptic potentials were investigated. For this, EEG signals were collected from 16 different channels according to the international standard channel 10/20 system in the scalp of two patients, one epileptic and one non-epileptic. In our recent work, we have detected weak periodic signals in the EEG signals using Duffing oscillator system. In this paper, we have used a c...

Can a teacher-led RCT improve adolescent girls' physical self-perception and perceived motor competence?

Perceived and actual motor competence (MC) influence physical activity (PA) behaviour. Notably, both are lower in girls than in boys. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether a 12-week, teacher-led intervention that improves actual MC (Lander, N., Morgan, P. J., Salmon, J., & Barnett, L. M. (2017). Improving early-adolescent girls' motor skill: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 49(12), 2498-2505) could also improve adolescent girls' physical self-percepti...

Decisions are expedited through multiple neural adjustments spanning the sensorimotor hierarchy.

When decisions are made under speed pressure, "urgency" signals elevate neural activity toward action-triggering thresholds independent of the sensory evidence, thus incurring a cost to choice accuracy. While urgency signals have been observed in brain circuits involved in preparing actions, their influence at other levels of the sensorimotor pathway remains unknown. We used a novel contrast-comparison paradigm to simultaneously trace the dynamics of sensory evidence encoding, evidence accumulation, motor p...

Motor Impairment and Developmental Psychotic Risk: Connecting the Dots and Narrowing the Pathophysiological Gap.

The motor system in its manifold articulations is receiving increasing clinical and research attention. This is because motor impairments constitute a central, expressive component of the mental state examination and a key transdiagnostic feature indexing disease severity. Furthermore, within the schizophrenia spectrum, the integration of neurophysiological, developmental, and phenomenological perspectives suggests that motor impairment is not simply a generic, extrinsic proxy of an altered neurodevelopment...


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