PubMed Journals Articles About "Brazil Backlands Termites Built Millions Dirt Mounds" RSS

21:55 EDT 21st March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Brazil Backlands Termites Built Millions Dirt Mounds" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 2,300+

A vast 4,000-year-old spatial pattern of termite mounds.

The origins of many large-scale 'biogenic' earthen structures are controversial, because often the species that built them have vanished. This is especially true when they form regular (over-dispersed), self-organized vegetation patterns [1]. Here, we describe a vast array of soil mounds constructed by termites (Syntermes dirus) that has persisted for up to 4000 years and covers an estimated 230,000 km of seasonally dry tropical forest in a relatively undisturbed and climatically stable region of Northeast ...

Ecology: Termite Patterning at Multiple Scales.

A vast and ancient array of regularly spaced dirt mounds - the result of termite activities- has been discovered in Brazil. Might this inform our understanding of general mechanisms of spatial patterning at different scales?

Assessment of the mobility, bioaccessibility, and ecological risk of Pb and Zn on a dirt road located in a former mining area-Ribeira Valley-Brazil.

The inadequate transportation of foundry slags during the construction of a mining waste landfill accounted for the presence of slags in the dirt road that connects the working district of Vila Mota to the city of Adrianópolis. The objectives of this work were to assess the lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contamination of the dirt. Three samples separated by 2 km were collected along a dirt road (samples: Adrianópolis, Deposit, and Plant). The conducted assays were physico-chemical parameters, pseudototal concen...

Extended mutualism between termites and gut microbes: nutritional symbionts contribute to nest hygiene.

All higher eukaryotes have established symbiotic relationships with diverse microorganisms. One of the most well-characterized symbiotic systems is that of termites and their intestinal microorganisms, which digest cellulose. Recently, diverse types of symbioses between gut microbes and host organisms including humans have received growing attention for various features of their complex interactions beyond nutrition. In termites, researchers are beginning to explore such function of gut symbionts, but only ...

A Lab-Based Study of Temperate Forest Termite Impacts on Two Common Wood-Rot Fungi.

Termites and fungi are the primary decomposers of dead wood. Interactions between wood-feeding termites and wood-rot fungi are inevitable given their shared food source. Termites have developed multiple defense strategies against infectious fungi, such as Metarhizium spp., that include antifungal proteins in their saliva and fungal inhibition properties in their gut. The antifungal properties of termite salivary secretions depend on β-1,3-glucanases that are likely to be effective against a broad spectrum ...

Effect of Polyacrylamide/Attapulgite Composite on Foraging Behaviors of Formosan Subterranean Termites (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae).

Moisture conditions of food and soil are essential for the survival and foraging activities of subterranean termites. Polyacrylamide/attapulgite composite is a water-retaining agent that has been applied to increase moisture of agricultural soils. We hypothesize that polyacrylamide/attapulgite composite may increase the moisture of bait matrixes and soil surrounding baiting containers and therefore attract termites and increase their foraging activities. In the present study, aggregation and feeding prefere...

Association between built environment and the incidence of disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living in the older adults: Results of a cohort study in southern Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between subjective and objective characteristics of the built environment and the incidence of disability in the activities of daily living in the older adults. A cohort study was conducted with 1196 older adults from Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Incidences were evaluated after four years by the difficulty or inability to perform six basic and nine instrumental activities. The subjective built environment was evaluated by the adapted Neighborho...

RNA interference of endoglucanases in the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) by dsRNA injection or ingestion.

Termites obtain energy and nutrition from wood and wood-related materials by utilizing endogenous and symbiotic cellulases. Endoglucanase is one of the key cellulases in cellulose digestion. Previous studies have shown that the inhibition of the cellulase enzyme system would be a plausible approach for termite control. In the present study, we studied the effect of RNAi on termites by targeting a conserved region of five endoglucanase genes from Coptotermes formosanus (CfEGs). Both dsRNA injection and oral ...

Development of Baits for Population Management of Subterranean Termites.

The objective of bait application envisioned by early researchers was to eliminate the source of infestation, the colony, but because of the lack of adequate evaluation tools, results of field trials with mirex baits in the 1960s were mostly inconclusive. On-the-ground monitoring stations and markrecapture protocol developed in the 1970s marked the turning point in the field studies of termite baits. Results of field studies with metabolic inhibitors and chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) in the 1990s indic...

What features of the built environment matter most for mobility? Using wearable sensors to capture real-time outdoor environment demand on gait performance.

A growing body of research has demonstrated relationships between built environment characteristics and outdoor mobility. However, most of this work has relied on composite scores of the built environment.

Associations of neighborhood socioeconomic, natural and built environmental characteristics with a 13-year trajectory of non-work physical activity among civil servants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The Pro-Saude Study.

Positive influences of natural and built environment characteristics on human physical activity have been observed mainly in high-income countries, but mixed results exist. We explored these relationships in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where exuberant nature coexists with high levels of social inequality and urban violence. Data originated from questionnaires self-administered by 1731 civil servants at university campuses who participated in 4 waves (1999, 2001, 2007, 2012) of a longitudinal study, and had thei...

Adverse drug events identified in hospitalized patients in Brazil by International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) code listings.

Studies of adverse drug events (ADEs) are important in order not to jeopardize the positive impact of pharmacotherapy. These events have substantial impact on the population morbidity profiles, and increasing health system operating costs. Administrative databases are an important source of information for public health purposes and for identifying ADEs. In order to contribute to learning about ADE in hospitalized patients, this study examined the potential of applying ICD-10 (10th revision of the Internati...

Prevalence of and pathways to benzodiazepine use in Brazil: the role of depression, sleep, and sedentary lifestyle.

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of benzodiazepine (BZD) use in Brazil and to investigate the direct and indirect effects of alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle (SL), depressive symptoms (DS), and sleep dissatisfaction (SD) on BZD use.

Trends in suicide rates in Brazil from 1997 to 2015.

To analyze time trends of suicide rates in Brazil overall and in Brazilian states and compare the estimated suicide rates projected for 2020 with the World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan target.

Association of breast cancer with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Northeast Brazil: molecular evidence.

The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of human papillomavirus DNA and genotypes in breast cancer and normal breast tissue samples obtained from women from the northeast region of Brazil.

Comparison of Temperature-Dependent Survivorship and Wood-Consumption Rate Among Two Invasive Subterranean Termite Species (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes) and Their Hybrids.

Two invasive subterranean termite species, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae), established in South Florida have the potential to hybridize owing to their sympatric distribution, overlapping dispersal flight seasons, and interspecies mating behavior. This study examined the effects of temperature on survivorship and wood-consumption rate (WCR) to determine the potential of such hybrid termites as structural pests. Temperature tolerance was tested usin...

Consequences of shade management on the taxonomic patterns and functional diversity of termites (Blattodea: Termitidae) in cocoa agroforestry systems.

Termites have gained importance as major pests in cocoa agroforests. Proper identification of termite species and knowledge on their functional diversity are the first steps in developing environmentally compatible management strategies. We tested the hypothesis that patterns of termite species richness in different cocoa agroforests is related to responses by termite functional groups to changes in shade management. We compared termite assemblages under five cocoa agroforestry systems in Cameroon to assess...

The association between adolescent suicide rates and socioeconomic indicators in Brazil: a 10-year retrospective ecological study.

To examine suicide rates among adolescents from six large cities in Brazil and to analyze the relationship between adolescent suicide rates and socioeconomic indicators between 2006 and 2015.

Suicide rates in the United States continue to rise. Are rates in Brazil underestimated?

An approach to suicide among adolescents and youth in Brazil.

This essay article examines suicide among young people in Brazil on the basis of Durkheim's classical approaches as revisited in current discussions of social integration networks. It presents arguments regarding the behaviour of suicide mortality rates in the light of classical public health assumptions as to social causality in processes of health and illness. The mortality rates, updated in line with international statistics, review of data in Brazilian studies and recent series for Brazil, reveal suicid...

Influence of Maternity Leave on Exclusive Breastfeeding: Analysis from Two Surveys Conducted in the Federal District of Brazil.

Since the 1980s, Brazil has implemented several initiatives to support breastfeeding. Maternity leave, paid in full for 16 weeks, has been available since 1988. However, few studies in Brazil have analyzed the impacts of maternity leave on breastfeeding using population-based indicators. Research aim: The aim was to analyze the association between maternity leave and exclusive breastfeeding interruption in children younger than 4 months residing in the Federal District of Brazil, in 2008 and 2014.

Estimation of HTLV-1 vertical transmission cases in Brazil per annum.

Brazil has at least 800,000 HTLV-1 infected individuals. HTLV-1 can be transmitted via sexual intercourse, contact with blood and from mother to child, mainly by breastfeeding. Treatments for the high morbidity/mortality associated diseases (ATL and HAM/TSP) are limited, therefore, infection prevention is of utmost importance. However, antenatal screening is not routinely performed in Brazil. A lack of data regarding the number of individuals infected via breastfeeding impairs the development of government ...

A single introduction of Yersinia pestis to Brazil during the 3rd plague pandemic.

Yersinia pestis was introduced to Brazil during the third plague pandemic and currently exists in several recognized foci. There is currently limited available phylogeographic data regarding Y. pestis in Brazil. We generated whole genome sequences for 411 Y. pestis strains from six Brazilian foci to investigate the phylogeography of Y. pestis in Brazil; these strains were isolated from 1966 to 1997. All 411 strains were assigned to a single monophyletic clade within the 1.ORI population, indicating a single...

Modelling built infrastructure heights to evaluate common assumptions in aquatic conservation.

Built infrastructure, such as dams and weirs, are some of the most impactful stressors affecting aquatic ecosystems. However, data on the distribution and characteristics of small built infrastructure that often restrict fish movement, impede flows, and retain sediments and materials, remain limited. Collection of this necessary information is challenged by the large number of built infrastructure with unknown dimensions (e.g., height), which means scientists and practitioners need to make assumptions about...

Band Alignment and the Built-in Potential of Solids.

The built-in potential is of central importance to the understanding of many interfacial phenomena because it determines the band alignment at the interface. Despite its importance, its exact sign and magnitude have generally been recognized as ill-defined quantities for more than half a century. Here, we provide a common energy reference of bulk matter which leads to an unambiguous definition of the built-in potential and innate (i.e., bulk) band alignment. Further, we find that the built-in potential is e...

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