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PubMed Journals Articles About "Brian Kennedy Rapamycin MTOR Interventions" RSS

08:45 EST 21st February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Brian Kennedy Rapamycin mTOR Interventions" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 4,500+

STAT3-miR-17/20 Signaling Axis Plays a Critical Role in Attenuating Myocardial Infarction following Rapamycin Treatment in Diabetic mice.

Deregulation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling occurs in diabetes, which exacerbates injury following myocardial infarction. We therefore investigated the infarct-limiting effect of chronic treatment with rapamycin (RAPA, mTOR inhibitor) in diabetic mice following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and delineated the potential protective mechanism.


Dynamic Modeling of Signal Transduction by mTOR Complexes in Cancer.

Signal integration has a crucial role in the cell fate decision and dysregulation of the cellular signaling pathways is a primary characteristic of cancer. As a signal integrator, mTOR shows a complex dynamical behavior which determines the cell fate at different cellular processes levels, including cell cycle progression, cell survival, cell death, metabolic reprogramming, and aging. The dynamics of the complex responses to rapamycin in cancer cells have been attributed to its differential time-dependent i...

Inflammation-induced mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is essential for retina regeneration.

Upon retina injury, Müller glia in the zebrafish retina respond by generating multipotent progenitors to repair the retina. However, the complete mechanisms underlying retina regeneration remain elusive. Here we report inflammation-induced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the Müller glia is essential for retina regeneration in adult zebrafish. We show after a stab injury, mTOR is rapidly activated in Müller glia and later Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs). Importantly, mTOR i...


Rapamycin attenuates liver injury caused by vinyl chloride metabolite chloroethanol and lipopolysaccharide in mice.

Vinyl chloride (VC) is a prevalent environmental toxicant that is rapidly metabolized within the liver. Its metabolites have been shown to directly cause hepatic injury at high exposure levels. We have previously reported that VC metabolite, chloroethanol (CE), potentiates liver injury caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Importantly, that study showed that CE alone, while not causing damage per se, was sufficient to alter hepatic metabolism and increase mTOR phosphorylation in mice, suggesting a possible ro...

mTOR: Role in cancer, metastasis and drug resistance.

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that gets inputs from the amino acids, nutrients, growth factor, and environmental cues to regulate varieties of fundamental cellular processes which include protein synthesis, growth, metabolism, aging, regeneration, autophagy, etc. The mTOR is frequently deregulated in human cancer and activating somatic mutations of mTOR were recently identified in several types of human cancer and hence mTOR is therapeutically targeted. mTOR inhibitors we...

Recent nanotechnological interventions targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway: A focus on breast cancer.

Breast cancer is the major cause of deaths in women worldwide. Detection and treatment of breast cancer at earlier stages of the disease has shown encouraging results. Modern genomic technologies facilitated several therapeutic options however the diagnosis of the disease at an advanced stage claim more deaths. Therefore more research directed towards genomics and proteomics into this area may lead to novel biomarkers thereby enhancing the survival rates in breast cancer patients. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase/...

Hyperactive Akt-mTOR pathway as a therapeutic target for pain hypersensitivity in Cntnap2-deficient mice.

Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2 or CASPR2) is a neuronal transmembrane protein of the neurexin superfamily that is involved in many neurological diseases, such as autism and pain hypersensitivity. We recently found that Cntnap2 mice showed elevated Akt-mTOR activity in the brain, and suppression of the Akt-mTOR pathway rescued the social deficit in Cntnap2 mice. In this study, we found that the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from Cntnap2 mice also showed hyperactive Akt-mTOR signaling. Treatment wi...

A Semi-Quantitative Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability (DARTS) assay for studying Rapamycin/mTOR interaction.

Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability (DARTS) is a robust method for detection of novel small molecule protein targets. It can be used to verify known small molecule-protein interactions and to find potential protein targets for natural products. Compared with other methods, DARTS uses native, unmodified, small molecules and is simple and easy to operate. In this study, we further enhanced the data analysis capabilities of the DARTS experiment by monitoring the changes in protein stability and estimatin...

Autophagy Dysfunction and mTOR Hyperactivation Is Involved in Surgery: Induced Behavioral Deficits in Aged C57BL/6J Mice.

Autophagy is crucial for cell survival, development, division, and homeostasis. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is the foremost negative controller of autophagy, plays a key role in many endogenous processes. The present study investigated whether rapamycin can ameliorate surgery-induced cognitive deficits by inhibiting mTOR and activating autophagy in the hippocampus. Both adult and aged C57BL/6J mice received an intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin (10 mg/kg/day) for 5 days per week fo...

Immunohistochemical Analysis of mTOR Pathway-Related Proteins in Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma.

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have been shown to have excellent effects in the management of kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE); however, the mechanism of action is unclear. This study identified the expressions of mTOR pathway-related proteins in different vascular tumors to provide insight into the pathogenesis of KHE.

Exploring mTOR inhibition as treatment for mitochondrial disease.

Leigh syndrome and MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) are two of the most frequent pediatric mitochondrial diseases. Both cause severe morbidity and neither have effective treatment. Inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been shown in model mice of Leigh syndrome to extend lifespan and attenuate both the clinical and pathological progression of disease. Based on this observation, we treated two children with everolimus, a rapamycin an...

A Conformational Restriction Strategy for the Identification of a Highly Selective Pyrimido-Pyrrolo-Oxazine mTOR Inhibitor.

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a pivotal role in growth and tumor progression and is an attractive target for cancer treatment. ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitors (TORKi) have the potential to overcome limitations of rapamycin-derivatives in a wide range of malignancies. Herein, we exploit a conformational restriction approach to explore a novel chemical space for the generation of TORKi. Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies led to the identification of compound with a ∼450...

Overexpression of p-Akt, p-mTOR and p-eIF4E proteins associates with metastasis and unfavorable prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

The Akt (protein kinase B)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which is dysregulated in various cancers, controls the assembly of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4E) complex. However, whether aberrant expression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) and phosphorylated eIF4E (p-eIF4E) is associated with clinicopathological characteristics in surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been rarely reported. Here, we investigated expression of p-Ak...

Modulation of oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammatory response by rapamycin in target and distant organs in rats exposed to hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion: The role of mTOR.

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been recognized with potential immunomodulatory properties playing an important role in various physiopathological processes including ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. I/R injury stimulate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), respectively. Controversial results have been obtained in different I/R models following localized I/R; however, the precise ...

Antileishmanial effect of rapamycin as an alternative approach to control Leishmania tropica infection.

Cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is a parasitic disease in animals and human with no satisfactory treatments and vaccination. Rapamycin is a potent inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with various applications. Here, the effect of rapamycin alone or in combination with two other drugs, namely amphotericin B (AmB) and glucantime, was investigated against Leishmania tropica infection. In vitro viability and electron microscopy evaluation of the parasites showed detrimental changes in their appearanc...

Rapamycin treatment maintains developmental potential of oocytes in mice and follicle reserve in human cortical fragments grafted into immune-deficient mice.

The ovarian follicle pool size is limited; it decreases with age and following germ cell-damaging chemo- or radiation therapies. Due to a trend of delaying child-bearing age in the modern society, it is important to investigate the possibility to maintain the follicle reserve for middle-aged women and cancer-bearing patients subject to therapies. Earlier studies demonstrated the important role of the mammalian targets of the rapamycin (MTOR) signaling pathway in the activation of primordial follicles and su...

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D induces human myeloid cell differentiation via the mTOR signaling pathway.

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D or 1,25(OH)D is known to play an important role in the differentiation of human myeloid cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the 1,25(OH)D-mediated differentiation of human myeloid cells is incompletely understood. Here, we report that 1,25(OH)D induces differentiation of human myeloid cell lines such as U937 and THP-1 cells via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Both the expression of the differentiation marker CD14 and activation of the mTOR...

The effects of Tel2 on cardiomyocyte survival.

Overexpression of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a member of the PIKK (phosphoinositide kinase-related kinase) family, protects cardiomyocytes from cell death induced by pathological stimuli such as ischemia. We previously reported that posttranslational modification of mTOR plays an important role in regulating cardiac mTOR expression. The aim of this study was to see if Tel2 (telomere maintenance 2), a protein that regulates the abundance of PIKKs, confers similar cardioprotective effects as ...

Exploring Molecular Descriptors and Fingerprints to Predict mTOR Kinase Inhibitors using Machine Learning Techniques.

Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase, and its role is integral to the autophagy pathway in cancer. Targeting mTOR for therapeutic interventions in cancer through autophagy pathway is challenging due to the dual roles of autophagy in tumor progression. The architecture of mTOR reveals two complexes - mTORC1 and mTORC2, each having multiple protein subunits. mTOR kinase inhibitors target the structurally and functionally similar catalytic subunits of both mTORC1 and mTORC2. In this...

Mammalian target of rapamycin and p70S6K mediate thrombin-induced nuclear factor-κB activation and IL-8/CXCL8 release in human lung epithelial cells.

Thrombin plays a crucial role in lung inflammatory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thrombin induces the release of interleukin-8 (IL-8)/CXCL8 by lung epithelial cells, and this phenomenon plays a vital role in lung inflammation. Our previous studies have indicated that thrombin stimulates IL-8/CXCL8 expression through PI3K/Akt/IκB kinase (IKK)α/β/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and p300 pathways in human lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we explored the ro...

Prognostic significance of MTOR expression in HPV positive and negative head and neck cancers treated by chemoradiation.

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) plays a key role in regulating cell growth and metabolism and is commonly overexpressed in head and neck cancer (HNSCC). This study investigated the association of MTOR with clinical outcome in human papilloma virus (HPV) positive and negative HNSCC patients treated by chemoradiation.

HIF-mediated Suppression of DEPTOR Confers Resistance to mTOR Kinase Inhibition in Renal Cancer.

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a fundamental regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism. mTOR is activated in renal cancer and accelerates tumor progression. Here, we report that the mTOR inhibitor, DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR), is strikingly suppressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tumors and cell lines. We demonstrate that DEPTOR is repressed by both hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1 and HIF-2, which occurs through activation of the HIF-target...

Enhanced mTOR complex 1 signaling attenuates diabetic cardiac injury in OVE26 mice.

The protein kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) performs diverse cellular functions through 2 distinct multiprotein complexes, mTOR complex (mTORC)1 and 2. Numerous studies using rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, have implicated a role for mTORC1 in several types of heart disease. People with diabetes are more susceptible to heart failure. mTORC1 activity is increased in the diabetic heart, but its functional significance remains controversial. To investigate the role of mTORC1 in the diabetic heart...

Hypothalamic orexin and mechanistic target of rapamycin activation mediate sleep dysfunction in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease related to hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and manifested by neurological symptoms, such as epilepsy and sleep disorders. The pathophysiology of sleep dysfunction is poorly understood and is likely multifactorial, but may involve intrinsic biological regulators in the brain. Here, we characterized a mouse model of sleep disorders in TSC and investigated mechanisms of sleep dysfunction in this conditional knockout mod...

Rapamycin blocks the neuroprotective effects of sex steroids in the adult birdsong system.

In adult songbirds the telencephalic song nucleus HVC and its efferent target RA undergo pronounced seasonal changes in morphology. In breeding birds, there are increases in HVC volume and total neuron number, and RA neuronal soma area compared to nonbreeding birds. At the end of breeding, HVC neurons die through caspase-dependent apoptosis, and RA neuron size decreases. Changes in HVC and RA are driven by seasonal changes in circulating testosterone (T) levels. Infusing T, or its metabolites 5α-dihydrotes...


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