PubMed Journals Articles About "Cancer Stem Cells Hedge Their Bets With Noncanonical" RSS

19:07 EST 16th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Cancer Stem Cells Hedge Their Bets with Noncanonical" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 34,000+

Breast cancer stem cells: features, key drivers and treatment options.

The current view is that breast cancer is a stem cell disease characterized by the existence of cancer cells with stem-like features and tumor-initiating potential. These cells are made responsible for tumor dissemination and metastasis. Common therapies by chemotherapeutic drugs fail to eradicate these cells and rather increase the pool of cancer stem cells in tumors, an effect that may increase the likelyhood of recurrence. Fifteen years after the first evidence for a small stem-like subpopulation playing...

Prostate Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells.

Stem/progenitor cells play central roles in processes of organogenesis and tissue maintenance, whereas cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to drive tumor malignancy. Here, we review recent progress in the identification and analysis of normal prostate stem/progenitor cells as well as putative CSCs in both genetically engineered mouse models as well as in human tissue. We also discuss studies that have investigated the cell type of origin for prostate cancer. In addition, we provide a critical assessment of...

CD133 as a Regulator of Cancer Metastasis through the Cancer Stem Cells.

Cancer stem cells are the cancer cells that have abilities to self-renew, differentiate into defined progenies, and initiate and maintain tumor growth. They also contribute to cancer metastasis and therapeutic resistance, both of which are the major causes of cancer mortality. Among the reported makers of the cancer stem cells, CD133 is the most well-known marker for isolating and studying cancer stem cells in different types of cancer. The CD133 population of cancer cells are not only capable of self-renew...

Cysteine cathepsins: Their biological and molecular significance in cancer stem cells.

Cysteine cathepsins are lysosomal peptidases involved on one hand in general intracellular protein degradation and, on the other, in the regulation of a number of specific physiological processes. Their integral role in extracellular matrix degradation and in processing growth factors, hormones and adhesion proteins is a driving force in cancer progression, triggering tumor proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Cancer stem cells are proposed to be a main factor of tumor initialization, heter...

Wnt5a Contributes to the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Lentoid Bodies Through the Noncanonical Wnt/JNK Signaling Pathway.

Recent work has indicated that Wnt5a has a critical role in embryonic development. We investigate whether the Wnt5a-activated noncanonical Wnt pathway is capable of promoting embryonic lens differentiation.

Resistance of primary breast cancer cells with enhanced pluripotency and stem cell activity to sex hormonal stimulation and suppression.

Female sex steroid hormones have a fundamental role in breast cancer. Meanwhile, current evidence supports the contribution of breast cancer stem cells in carcinogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the interaction between breast cancer stem cells with sex hormones or key hormonal antagonists remains elusive.

CD44+/CD24+-Expressing Cervical Cancer Cells and Radioresistant Cervical Cancer Cells Exhibit Cancer Stem Cell Characteristics.

Radiation therapy is a mainstay in the treatment of cervical cancer. However, most advanced and metastatic cervical cancers are resistant to radiation therapy because of the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). To date, no specific markers were found for cervical CSCs.

Concise Reviews: Cancer Stem Cell Targeted Therapies: Toward Clinical Success.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells within tumors that possess the stem cell characteristics of self-renewal, quiescence, differentiation, and the ability to recapitulate the parental tumor when transplanted into a host. CSCs are correlated with poor clinical outcome due to their contribution to chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. Multiple cell surface and enzymatic markers have been characterized to identify CSCs within a heterogeneous tumor, and here we summarize ongoing preclinical ...

Mesenchymal stem cells: Cancer promoting effects or tumor suppression - A current overview.

The multimodal treatment of cancer deals with cancer cells as well as with the cancer surrounding stroma. This stroma contains non-malignant cells like fibroblasts, immune cells as well as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). MSC have the ability to migrate towards cancer tissue. In the current literature the impact of MSC on cancer cells is discussed divergently. The majority of the current publications reveal an induction of cancer progression by MSC. Four main processes namely the secretion of soluble factors a...

Cancer-testis antigens: unique cancer stem cell biomarkers and targets for cancer therapy.

Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are considered as unique and promising cancer biomarkers and targets for cancer therapy. CTAs are multifunctional protein group with specific expression patterns in normal embryonic and adult cells and various types of cancer cells. CTAs are involved in regulating of the basic cellular processes during development, stem cell differentiation and carcinogenesis though the biological roles and cell functions of CTA families remain largely unclear. Analysis of CTA expression patter...

Influence of pH on Skin Stem Cells and Their Differentiation.

Intracellular pH influences proliferation and differentiation in a range of stem-like and progenitor cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and cancer stem cells. Sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE1), a glycoprotein that plays a major role in regulating intracellular pH, has a major role in the proliferation and cell differentiation in multiple cell types. We review observations collected on the influence of pH on multiple stem-like cell populations. Alter...

Cigarette Smoke Induces Stem Cell Features of Pancreatic Cancer Cells via PAF1.

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Aggressive pancreatic tumors contain cancer cells with stem cell features. We investigated whether cigarette smoke induces stem cell features in pancreatic cancer cells.

Natural killer cell-based immunotherapy: From transplantation toward targeting cancer stem cells.

Natural killer (NK) cells are key players of the innate immune system. NK cells provide protection against infectious pathogens and malignancies in cell. This characteristic may be attributable to their intrinsic diverse potentialities and also their cooperation with adaptive immune lymphocytes, known as B and T cells. The growth, recurrence, and metastasis of cancer cells, and the failure of cytoreductive therapies against cancer cells are due to the small population of intratumor stem-like cells, called c...

Breast cancer stem cells characterized by CD70 expression preferentially metastasize to the lungs.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to form metastases. We sought to determine whether CD70 + subpopulation in human breast cancers represents the CSCs accounting for distant metastasis.

Deubiquitinating enzymes in cancer stem cells: functions and targeted inhibition for cancer therapy.

The ability of cancers to evade conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, has been attributed to a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are regulated by mechanisms similar to those that regulate normal stem cells (NSCs), including processes involving ubiquitination and deubiquitination enzymes (DUBs) that regulate the expression of various factors, such as Notch, Wnt, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), and Hippo. In this review, we discuss the roles of various DUBs involved in the r...

Natural killer cells target and differentiate cancer stem-like cells/undifferentiated tumors: strategies to optimize their growth and expansion for effective cancer immunotherapy.

Natural killer (NK) cells are known to select and differentiate cancer stem-like cells/undifferentiated tumors via lysis, and secreted/membrane bound IFN-γ and TNF-α respectively, resulting in the control of tumor growth. Several in vivo mouse models including humanized-BLT mice have been used to study the biology and significance of NK cells in selection/differentiation of stem-like tumors within the context of a reconstituted human immune system. In addition, we discuss the evidence and significance of ...

MiR-4319 Suppress the Malignancy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Regulating Self-Renewal and Tumorigenesis of Stem Cells.

High levels of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) correlate with risk of poor clinical outcome and possibly contribute to chemoresistance and metastasis in patients with highly malignant TNBC. Aberrant microRNA expression is associated with the dysfunction of self-renewal and proliferation in cancer stem cells, while there is little information about the TNBC-specific microRNAs in regulating CSC ability.

Whole exome sequencing approach to analysis of the origin of cancer stem cells in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a global public health problem, which increases in prevalence every year. Evidence brings up that small populations of stem cells, the cancer stem cells (CSC), are responsible for tumour initiation, tumorigenesis, progression, and metastasis. These cells play a crucial role in cancer development and treatment response, but the origin of CSCs remains unclear. In this research, we have sequenced the entire exome of the three different groups of cells of primary...

Isolation, Propagation, and Clonogenicity of Intestinal Stem Cells.

Intestinal stem cell research has greatly aided our understanding of the biology of intestinal self-renewal but has also shed light on the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in carcinogenesis, cancer growth, and dissemination. With new possibilities for CSC targeting, there is a need to have established techniques for quantifying (cancer) stem cell clonogenicity, particularly in organoid cultures. Here, we describe a detailed methodology for the isolation and expansion of mouse intestinal crypts from three di...

Long-term organoid culture reveals enrichment of organoid-forming epithelial cells in the fimbrial portion of mouse fallopian tube.

A recent paradigm shift in ovarian cancer research is the finding that many ovarian cancers may originate from fallopian tube epithelial (FTE) cells. As tissue stem and progenitor cells often serve as cells of origin of cancer, a better understanding of FTE stem/progenitor cells and how they become transformed is essential for early detection and prevention of ovarian cancer. To facilitate study of FTE stem/progenitor cells in model systems, we established an organoid culture system for mouse FTE cells. We ...

Identification and Characterization of Stem Cells in Oral Cancer.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells within a heterogeneous tumor that have enhanced biologic properties such as increased capacity for self-renewal, increased tumorigenicity, enhanced differentiation capacity, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapies. This unit describes protocols to isolate and characterize potential cancer stem cells from a solid tumor (oral cancer). This involves creating a single-cell suspension from tumor tissue, tagging the cell subpopulation of interest, and sort...

Secretome within the bone marrow microenvironment: A basis for mesenchymal stem cell treatment and role in cancer dormancy.

The secretome produced by cells within the bone marrow is significant to homeostasis. The bone marrow, a well-studied organ, has multiple niches with distinct roles for supporting stem cell functions. Thus, an understanding of mediators involved in the regulation of stem cells could serve as a model for clinical problems and solutions such as tissue repair and regeneration. The exosome secretome of bone marrow stem cells is a developing area of research with respect to the regenerative potential by bone mar...

Silencing Bmi1 expression suppresses cancer stemness and enhances chemosensitivity in endometrial cancer cells.

Bmi1, a polycomb group gene, is essential for self-renewal of stem cells and is frequently upregulated in various cancer cells. We aimed to investigate the effect of Bmi1 silencing on cancer stemness and chemosensitivity in endometrial cancer using targeted siRNA approach in HEC1A and Ishikawa cells.

Dysregulation of Iron Metabolism in Cancer Stem Cells.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a distinct subpopulation of tumor cells endowed with stem-like properties. Importantly, CSCs can survive current standard therapies, resulting in metastatic disease and tumor recurrence. Here we describe the alterations of iron homeostasis occurring in CSCs, which in general are characterized by high intracellular iron content. Importantly, abnormalities of iron metabolism correlate with faster tumor growth and adverse prognosis in cancer patients. In line with the dependence of...

Targeting cancer stem cells and their niche: perspectives for future therapeutic targets and strategies.

A small subpopulation of cells within the bulk of tumors share features with somatic stem cells, in that, they are capable of self-renewal, they differentiate, and are highly resistant to conventional therapy. These cells have been referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent reports support the central importance of a cancer stem cell-like niche that appears to help foster the generation and maintenance of CSCs. In response to signals provided by this microenvironment, CSCs express the tumorigenic chara...

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