PubMed Journals Articles About "Challenge" RSS

07:13 EST 17th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

Challenge PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Challenge articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Challenge" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 3,800+

Influenza Challenge and the Challenge of Drug Development.

Mobility Function and Recovery After Stroke: Preliminary Insights From Sympathetic Nervous System Activity.

Poststroke hemiparesis increases the perceived challenge of walking. Perceived challenge is commonly measured by self-report, which is susceptible to measurement bias. A promising approach to objectively assess perceived challenge is measuring sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity with skin conductance to detect the physiological stress response. We investigated the feasibility of using skin conductance measurements to detect task-related differences in the challenge posed by complex walking tasks in ad...

Auto-segmentation for Thoracic Radiation Treatment Planning: A Grand Challenge at AAPM 2017.

This report presents the methods and results of the Thoracic Auto-Segmentation Challenge organized at the 2017 Annual Meeting of American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The purpose of the challenge was to provide a benchmark dataset and platform for evaluating performance of auto-segmentation methods of organs at risk (OARs) in thoracic CT images.

Challenge and hindrance stressors in relation to sleep.

Research using the challenge-hindrance stressor framework shows hindrance stressors tend to have detrimental affective and work-related outcomes, whereas challenge stressors have relatively more salutary affective and work-related outcomes. The extent to which this pattern extends to health behaviors, such as sleep, is unknown.

Examination of viraemia and clinical signs after challenge with a heterologous PRRSV strain in PRRS Type 2 MLV vaccinated pigs: A challenge-dose study.

Vaccination with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) Type 2 modified-live vaccines (MLVs) has been shown to improve clinical signs and survival rates in PRRS virus (PRRSV)-challenged pigs. This study evaluated the dose of PRRSV challenge needed to cause and maintain viraemia in PRRS Type 2 MLV-vaccinated pigs and assessed clinical responses to various doses of virulent challenge. This controlled, randomised, blinded vaccination-challenge study involved 95 pigs who were either vaccinated wit...

Improving Dermoscopic Image Segmentation with Enhanced Convolutional-Deconvolutional Networks.

Automatic skin lesion segmentation on dermoscopic images is an essential step in computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma. However, this task is challenging due to significant variations of lesion appearances across different patients. This challenge is further exacerbated when dealing with a large amount of image data. In this paper, we extended our previous work by developing a deeper network architecture with smaller kernels to enhance its discriminant capacity. In addition, we explicitly included color info...

Re-challenge of afatinib after 1st generation EGFR-TKI failure in patients with previously treated non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutation.

Re-challenge of erlotinib after gefitinib failure is reported to yield some benefit in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. However, little is known about the re-challenge of afatinib after 1st generate on EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) failure.

Interoperability in Health and Social Care: Organizational Issues are the Biggest Challenge.

A great asset of any healthcare system is "information" which includes, but not limited to patient data, clinical history and treatments. It is no secret that there is a growing demand for healthcare, however, this demand is yet to be achieved due to the challenge in the limitation of resources and the complexity of the problem area.

A Dynamic Assessment of Children's Physical Competence: The Dragon Challenge.

The first aim was to develop a dynamic measure of physical competence that requires a participant to demonstrate fundamental, combined and complex movement skills, and for assessors to score both processes and products (Dragon Challenge; DC). The second aim was to assess the psychometric properties of the DC in 10-14 year old children.

A survey of human shoulder functional kinematic representations.

In this survey, we review the field of human shoulder functional kinematic representations. The central question of this review is to evaluate whether the current approaches in shoulder kinematics can meet the high-reliability computational challenge. This challenge is posed by applications such as robot-assisted rehabilitation. Currently, the role of kinematic representations in such applications has been mostly overlooked. Therefore, we have systematically searched and summarised the existing literature o...

Development of a web-based tool to evaluate competences of nursing students through the assessment of their clinical skills.

Assessing the clinical ability of nursing students continues to be a fundamental challenge within the nursing degree. Designing innovative teaching strategies while ensuring an educational experience that results in safe nursing practices is an additional challenge for all educators.

Monitoring haemodynamic response to fluid-challenge in ICU: Comparison of pressure recording analytical method and oesophageal Doppler.

The ability of the pressure recording analytical method (PRAM) in tracking change in cardiac output (ΔCO) after a fluid challenge in ICU needs to be evaluated with the most contemporary comparison methods recommended by experts.

The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in sudden cardiac arrest survivors: A 5-year nationwide inpatient analysis.

Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a major public health challenge in the United States (US). At present, the existence of limited literature on psychological sequelae post-cardiac arrest is a challenge in providing optimal care to survivors.

Evaluation of Simulated Lesions as Surrogates to Clinical Lesions for Thoracic CT Volumetry: The Results of an International Challenge.

To evaluate a new approach to establish compliance of segmentation tools with the computed tomography volumetry profile of the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA); and determine the statistical exchangeability between real and simulated lesions through an international challenge.

Aerosol prime-boost vaccination provides strong protection in outbred rabbits against virulent type A Francisella tularensis.

Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, is a severe zoonotic disease in humans caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft). While there have been a number of attempts to develop a vaccine for Ft, few candidates have advanced beyond experiments in inbred mice. We report here that a prime-boost strategy with aerosol delivery of recombinant live attenuated candidate Ft S4ΔaroD offers significant protection (83% survival) in an outbred animal model, New Zealand White rabbits, against aeros...

Transcriptomic analysis revealing hepcidin expression in Oryzias melastigma regulated through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway upon exposure to BaP.

Our previous study revealed that an antimicrobial peptide hepcidin, can be significantly up-regulated either with LPS challenge or upon exposure to Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in red sea bream, but the molecular mechanism involved in whether the transcriptional expression of hepcidin induced by LPS or BaP is regulated through a similar signaling pathway is not yet known. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism, the marine model fish Oryzias melastigma was exposed to 1 μg/L BaP as well as challenged with...

Innate immune cell signatures in a BCWD-Resistant line of rainbow trout before and after in vivo challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

Phenotypes of myeloid-lineage cells remain poorly understood in the rainbow trout, and were the focus of this study, including effects of in vivo challenge to Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), the cause of Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD). A genetic line was used that is highly resistant to BCWD (R-line) as well as a susceptible control line (S-line). Using flow cytometry, we describe two Pax5-negative, myeloid-lineage populations: Population 1 consisted of small cells with high SSC and strong staining ...

The author identified by his method: EuPA YPIC challenge solved.

Here we present the results of our attempt on the EuPA YPIC challenge. The task was to sequence the provided synthetic peptides, build the sentence encrypted in them and determine from which book the sentence originated. The task itself, while holding no direct scientific value, offers an insight in less formal terms (for participants at least) on how the overall process of a scientific study of a "new protein" looks like. Hence, we decided to look at the challenge as if it was a general task of sequencing ...

Enhanced prediction of RNA solvent accessibility with long short-term memory neural networks and improved sequence profiles.

The de novo prediction of RNA tertiary structure remains a grand challenge. Predicted RNA solvent accessibility provides an opportunity to address this challenge. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one method (RNAsnap) available for RNA solvent accessibility prediction. However, its performance is unsatisfactory for protein-free RNAs.

Memory deficits in males and females long after subchronic immune challenge.

Memory impairments and cognitive decline persist long after recovery from major illness or injury, and correlate with increased risk of later dementia. Here we developed a subchronic peripheral immune challenge model to examine delayed and persistent memory impairments in females and in males. We show that intermittent injections of either lipopolysaccharides or Poly I:C cause memory decline in both sexes that are evident eight weeks after the immune challenge. Importantly, we observed sex-specific patterns...

Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus AI (H5) Vaccine in Preventing Transmission of Heterologous Highly Pathogenic H5N8 Clade Challenge Virus in Commercial Broilers and Layer Pullets.

Outbreaks caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 subtype clade were first reported in 2014 in South Korea then spread very rapidly in Asia, to Europe, and for the first time, to North America. Efficacy of a recombinant HVT-AI (H5) vaccine (rHVT-H5) to provide clinical protection as well as to significantly reduce the shedding of an H5N8 challenge virus has already been demonstrated in SPF chickens. The aim of our studies was to test the efficacy of the same rHVT-H5 vaccin...

The Prevalence and correlates of texting while driving among a Population-Based Sample of Ontario Students.

Texting while driving (TWD) has a deleterious impact on driving performance, and may pose a significant challenge to traffic safety. This challenge may be particularly relevant for young and inexperienced drivers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of writing text messages or emails while driving during the past twelve months.

A challenge for healthcare but just another opportunity for illegitimate online sellers: Dubious market of shortage oncology drugs.

Drug shortages mean a challenge to healthcare systems. Exposed patients or health care providers may seek alternative resources for these products online. The purpose of our study was to analyze the online availability of oncology shortage drugs at national and at international levels in 2014 and 2016.

Direct oral amoxicillin challenge without preliminary skin testing in adult patients with allergy and at low risk with reported penicillin allergy.

Ten percent of hospitalized patients report penicillin allergy; however, recent studies indicate that ∼98% of these patients are not acutely hypersensitive. Unconfirmed penicillin allergy poses public health risks, and an evaluation of penicillin allergy labels is recommended to improve antibiotic stewardship. Although the most widely accepted protocol is penicillin skin testing, followed by oral amoxicillin challenge, time constraints and resources may preclude this. Recent literature supports the safety...

Fluid Challenge During Anesthesia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Assessing the volemic status of patients undergoing surgery is part of the routine management for the anesthesiologist. This assessment is commonly performed by means of dynamic indexes based on the cardiopulmonary interaction during mechanical ventilation (if available) or by administering a fluid challenge (FC). The FC is used during surgery to optimize predefined hemodynamic targets, the so-called Goal-Directed Therapy (GDT), or to correct hemodynamic instability (non-GDT).

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