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PubMed Journals Articles About "Chemicals Scandinavia Updated 11022017 Prices From" RSS

02:10 EDT 20th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

Chemicals Scandinavia Updated 11022017 Prices From PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Chemicals Scandinavia Updated 11022017 Prices From articles that have been published worldwide.

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We have published hundreds of Chemicals Scandinavia Updated 11022017 Prices From news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Chemicals Scandinavia Updated 11022017 Prices From Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Chemicals Scandinavia Updated 11022017 Prices From for you to read. In addition to the medical data, news and clinical trials, BioPortfolio also has a large collection of Chemicals Scandinavia Updated 11022017 Prices From Companies in our database. You can also find out about relevant Chemicals Scandinavia Updated 11022017 Prices From Drugs and Medications on this site too.

Showing "Chemicals Scandinavia Updated 11022017 Prices from" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,600+

Pricing of monoclonal antibody therapies: higher if used for cancer?

The rising prices of specialty drugs have prompted a debate about how medications are priced. With the average price of cancer drugs doubling in the last decade, the unsustainability of drug prices is especially concerning in oncology and hematology. The objective of this study was to compare the prices of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) approved in the last 20 years by the FDA across disease states.


Galleria mellonella larvae allow the discrimination of toxic and non-toxic chemicals.

The acute toxicities of 19 chemicals were assessed using G. mellonella larvae. The results obtained were compared against LD50 values derived from in vitro cytotoxicity tests and against in vivo acute oral LD50 values. In general, cell culture systems overestimated the toxicity of chemicals, especially low toxicity chemicals. In contrast, toxicity testing in G. mellonella larvae was found to be a reliable predictor for low toxicity chemicals. For the 9 chemicals tested which were assigned to Globally Harm...

Interaction of toxic chemicals with microplastics: A critical review.

Occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in the environment has attracted great attention as it has become a global concern. This review aims to systematically demonstrate the role of marine microplastic as a novel medium for environmental partitioning of chemicals in the ocean, which can cause toxic effects in the ecological environment. This review assimilated and analyzed available data published between 1972 and 2017 on the interaction between MPs and selected chemicals. Firstly, the review analyzes the occurr...


Killing U.S. Slowly: Curing the Epidemic Rise of Cancer Drug Prices.

In August 2015, more than 110 U.S. oncologists published an article detailing the deleterious effects of rising cancer drugs prices and calling for numerous reforms to our prescription drug system. These prices are the result of decades of political maneuvering; they reflect the way our country has chosen to pay for healthcare, to foster and reward innovation, and to promote a national free market system. While these choices have resulted in immense profits for pharmaceutical companies—and subsidized the ...

Predictability of machine learning techniques to forecast the trends of market index prices: Hypothesis testing for the Korean stock markets.

The prediction of the trends of stocks and index prices is one of the important issues to market participants. Investors have set trading or fiscal strategies based on the trends, and considerable research in various academic fields has been studied to forecast financial markets. This study predicts the trends of the Korea Composite Stock Price Index 200 (KOSPI 200) prices using nonparametric machine learning models: artificial neural network, support vector machines with polynomial and radial basis functio...

White House Report on Drug Prices Is a Detailed Road Map: Price-Lowering Ideas Generated, Some Already in Motion.

White House report on drug prices is a detailed road map.

Thresholds for decision-making: informing the cost-effectiveness and affordability of rotavirus vaccines in Malaysia.

Cost-effectiveness thresholds (CETs) based on the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) are extensively used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) lacking locally defined CETs. These thresholds were originally intended for global and regional prioritization, and do not reflect local context or affordability at the national level, so their value for informing resource allocation decisions has been questioned. Using these thresholds, rotavirus vaccines are widely regarded as cost-effective inter...

Wastewater pond systems using chemical precipitation (fellings dams): state of the art in Sweden.

Chemical precipitation in wastewater stabilization ponds - in Scandinavia called fellings dams - has been in operation for more than 50 years. Slaked lime and aluminium salts are the most common chemicals used for precipitation. Long and narrow forms of the ponds and a detention time of at least 5 days have shown, even at a low water temperature and below an ice cover, to produce an average effluent quality of 70 mg CODCr/l, 0.2 mg Tot-P/l, 20 mg Tot-N/l (CODCr: chemical oxygen demand; Tot-P: total phosphor...

Screening tools for the bioconcentration potential of monovalent organic ions in fish.

Currently the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals is assessed in a first tier approach via their octanol-water partition coefficient. This approach has been developed for neutral chemicals and cannot work for ionizable and ionic chemicals because the latter have different sorption-mechanisms and -preferences. Thus, suitable screening tools for the bioconcentration potential of ionic and ionizable chemicals need to be developed because it cannot be expected that these chemicals are non-bioaccumula...

Alcohol taxes' contribution to prices in high and middle-income countries: Data from the International Alcohol Control Study.

Taxation is increasingly being used as an effective means of influencing behaviour in relation to harmful products. In this paper we use data from six participating countries of the International Alcohol Control Study to examine and evaluate their comparative prices and tax regimes.

The unsteady state and inertia of chemical regulation under the US Toxic Substances Control Act.

After 40 years, the 1976 US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) was revised under the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act. Its original goals of protecting the public from hazardous chemicals were hindered by complex and cumbersome administrative burdens, data limitations, vulnerabilities in risk assessments, and recurring corporate lawsuits. As a result, countless chemicals were entered into commercial use without toxicological information. Few chemicals of the many identified as p...

Low-level toxicity of chemicals: No acceptable levels?

Over the past 3 decades, in a series of studies on some of the most extensively studied toxic chemicals and pollutants, scientists have found that the amount of toxic chemical linked with the development of a disease or death-which is central to determining "safe" or "hazardous" levels-is proportionately greater at the lowest dose or levels of exposure. These results, which are contrary to the way the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other regulatory agencies assess the risk of chemic...

Prices of over-the-counter drugs used by 15-year-old adolescents in Germany and their association with socioeconomic background.

In Germany, over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are normally reimbursed up to the age of 12 years only. The aim of this study was to analyse prices of over-the-counter drugs used by adolescents in Germany and their association with socioeconomic factors.

Uncovering inequality through multifractality of land prices: 1912 and contemporary Kyoto.

Multifractal analysis offers a number of advantages to measure spatial economic segregation and inequality, as it is free of categories and boundaries definition problems and is insensitive to some shape-preserving changes in the variable distribution. We use two datasets describing Kyoto land prices in 1912 and 2012 and derive city models from this data to show that multifractal analysis is suitable to describe the heterogeneity of land prices. We found in particular a sharp decrease in multifractality, ch...

Evaluation of the 1B Equation to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate in Pediatric Patients with Cancer.

The 1B equation is recommended for calculating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Since few reports have evaluated the performance of the 1B equation, we investigated the performance of estimated GFR (eGFR) equations with the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) variable for pediatric cancer patients. In total, 203 children with cancer who underwent measured GFR (mGFR) assessment were enrolled. The median (range) mGFR and eGFR calculated using the updated Schwartz equation were 118 (43-241) and 135 (34-...

Pretty good or pretty bad? - The ovary and chemicals in personal care products.

Personal care products (PCP) contain a myriad of chemicals generally formulated to provide a safe and beneficial use. Nonetheless, an increasing amount of laboratory animal and human studies indicate that some chemicals in PCP are associated with decreased hormone production, diminished ovarian reserve, ovarian cancer, and early pregnancy loss. The ovary is key to female fertility by providing the eggs and sex steroid hormones for fertilization and maintenance of reproductive function, respectively. Thus, u...

Microbial synthesis of medium-chain chemicals from renewables.

Linear, medium-chain (C8-C12) hydrocarbons are important components of fuels as well as commodity and specialty chemicals. As industrial microbes do not contain pathways to produce medium-chain chemicals, approaches such as overexpression of endogenous enzymes or deletion of competing pathways are not available to the metabolic engineer; instead, fatty acid synthesis and reversed β-oxidation are manipulated to synthesize medium-chain chemical precursors. Even so, chain lengths remain difficult to control, ...

Evaluating In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation of Toxicokinetics.

Prioritizing the risk posed by thousands of chemicals potentially present in the environment requires exposure, toxicity, and toxicokinetic (TK) data, which are often unavailable. Relatively high throughput, in vitro TK (HTTK) assays and in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) methods have been developed to predict TK, but most of the in vivo TK data available to benchmark these methods are from pharmaceuticals. Here we report on new, in vivo rat TK experiments for 26 non-pharmaceutical chemicals with env...

A review of the evidence for endocrine disrupting effects of current-use chemicals on wildlife populations.

This review critically examines the data on claimed endocrine-mediated adverse effects of chemicals on wildlife populations. It focuses on the effects of current-use chemicals, and compares their apparent scale and severity with those of legacy chemicals which have been withdrawn from sale or use, although they may still be present in the environment. The review concludes that the effects on wildlife of many legacy chemicals with endocrine activity are generally greater than those caused by current-use chem...

A pragmatic approach to managing expensive therapies.

Inflated drug prices necessarily raise the issue of rational allocation of health care resources. The system operated by the NICE agency in the UK attempts to do this by calculating the cost per quality-adjusted life year gained (QALY) and recommending funding only for drugs whose cost per QALY falls under a certain threshold. The whole process is documented in detail and easily accessible, and often results in significant discounts on drug prices. Given that some kind of rationing of health care is inevita...

Identifying Financially Sustainable Pricing Interventions to Promote Healthier Beverage Purchases in Small Neighborhood Stores.

Residents of low-income communities often purchase sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) at small, neighborhood "corner" stores. Lowering water prices and increasing SSB prices are potentially complementary public health strategies to promote more healthful beverage purchasing patterns in these stores. Sustainability, however, depends on financial feasibility. Because in-store pricing experiments are complex and require retailers to take business risks, we used a simulation approach to identify profitable pricin...

Website Designs for Communicating About Chemicals in Cigarette Smoke.

The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act requires the US government to inform the public about the quantities of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. A website can accomplish this task efficiently, but the site's user interface must be usable to benefit the general public. We conducted online experiments with national convenience samples of 1,451 US adult smokers and nonsmokers to examine the impact of four interface display elements: the chemicals, their associated health effects, quantity info...

Equity impacts of price policies to promote healthy behaviours.

Governments can use fiscal policies to regulate the prices and consumption of potentially unhealthy products. However, policies aimed at reducing consumption by increasing prices, for example by taxation, might impose an unfair financial burden on low-income households. We used data from household expenditure surveys to estimate patterns of expenditure on potentially unhealthy products by socioeconomic status, with a primary focus on low-income and middle-income countries. Price policies affect the consumpt...

Brown bear (Ursus arctos) attacks resulting in human casualties in Scandinavia 1977-2016; management implications and recommendations.

Human persecution and habitat loss have endangered large carnivore populations worldwide, but some are recovering, exacerbating old conflicts. Carnivores can injure and kill people; the most dramatic form of wildlife-human conflict. In Scandinavia, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) population increased from ~500 bears in 1977 to ~3300 in 2008, with an increase in injuries, fatalities, and public fear of bear attacks. We reviewed media coverage and interviewed victims to explore how bear population trends, hunte...

Prices of Generic Drugs Associated with Numbers of Manufacturers.


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