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PubMed Journals Articles About "Clinical Data Forgers Face Harsh Punishment China" RSS

20:47 EDT 20th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

Clinical Data Forgers Face Harsh Punishment China PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Clinical Data Forgers Face Harsh Punishment China articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Clinical Data Forgers Face Harsh Punishment China" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 53,000+

The association between punishment and cooperation in children with high-functioning autism.

This study examined judgment about punishment and whether punishment promoted cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing (TD) children. In total, 66 6- to 12-year-olds participated in this study. Children were first asked about judgments regarding rewards and punishment in stories, and then they were asked to play the PDG with a partner in conditions with and without punishment. Results showed that children with HFA believed that ...


Behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of punishment: implications for psychiatric disorders.

Punishment involves learning about the relationship between behavior and its adverse consequences. Punishment is fundamental to reinforcement learning, decision-making and choice, and is disrupted in psychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and psychopathy. However, little is known about the brain mechanisms of punishment and much of what is known is derived from study of superficially similar, but fundamentally distinct, forms of aversive learning such as fear conditioning and avoidance learnin...

Why Hate the Good Guy? Antisocial Punishment of High Cooperators Is Greater When People Compete to Be Chosen.

When choosing social partners, people prefer good cooperators (all else being equal). Given this preference, people wishing to be chosen can either increase their own cooperation to become more desirable or suppress others' cooperation to make them less desirable. Previous research shows that very cooperative people sometimes get punished ("antisocial punishment") or criticized ("do-gooder derogation") in many cultures. Here, we used a public-goods game with punishment to test whether antisocial punishment ...


The reward-like nature of social cues that indicate successful altruistic punishment.

Altruistic punishment is the attempt to penalize deviant behavior of another person even though it is accompanied by personal costs. Here, we investigated the influence of the reaction on the socioemotional level of the other person following altruistic punishment behavior on future decision making and neural responses. We used a modified ultimatum game, which included an emotional facial feedback of the proposer following the decision of the participant. We found higher acceptance rates for proposers showi...

Why we sometimes punish the innocent: The role of group entitativity in collective punishment.

Because punishments are expected to give offenders what they deserve proportionally to the severity of their offenses, the punishment of an entire group because of the misdeed of a few of its members is generally considered as unfair. Group entitativity might increase support for such collective punishment, because members of highly entitative groups are perceived as more similar and interchangeable. We designed three experiments comparing support for third-party collective punishment of low versus high ent...

A matter of fact? Adolescents' assumptions about crime, laws, and authority and their domain-specific beliefs about punishment.

This study examined adolescents' beliefs about the amount of punishment individuals should receive for violating different laws and whether these beliefs are connected with their informational assumptions (i.e., perceived facts) about crime, laws, and authority. American adolescents (N = 340; Mage = 16.64, 58.2% female) reported their judgments concerning the appropriate punishment for violating laws regulating domain-specific behaviors and their informational assumptions regarding the prevalence and ca...

Social structure, opportunistic punishment and the evolution of honest signaling.

Honest signaling is generally taken to be a necessary pre-condition for a stable signaling system, because deceptive signaling at a high enough rate should cause receivers to ignore the signal, which in turn undermines the utility of sending signals. Deception is normally thought to occur because of benefits it has to the deceiver. This raises the question of why signaling systems should exist and persist over time, especially in cases in which the interests of the senders and receivers are not well aligned...

Co-Occurring Psychosocial Problems and Multiple Sexual Partners among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shanghai, China: A Syndemic Approach.

We aimed to apply syndemic theory to verify the association and reinforcing effects between psychosocial problems and multiple sexual partners (MSP) of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 547 MSM in Shanghai, China using a face-to-face survey. Sociodemographic and psychosocial data were collected, as well as information on MSP and condomless anal sex. In the 6 months prior to the survey, 54.3% of the MSM sample had had MSP. Univariate analysis sho...

Evolution of cooperation in a hierarchical society with corruption control.

Punishment is widely recognized as a potential promoter in sustaining or even enhancing public cooperation, but it meanwhile induces the problem of second-order free-riders. Particularly, recent evidence shows that costly punishment can be maintained if punishers may engage in corruption. However, how to reduce or eliminate incidents of corruption has been the enduring conundrum in human society. As power asymmetries are associated with hierarchies, we investigate how costly punishment affects the evolution...

Genetic variation in serotonin function impacts on altruistic punishment in the ultimatum game: A longitudinal approach.

Growing evidence demonstrates that the serotonin system influences punishment behavior in social decision-making and that individual differences in the propensity to punish are, at least in part, due to genetic variation. However, the specific genes and their mechanisms by which they influence punishment behavior are not yet fully characterized. Here, we examined whether serotonin system-related gene variation impacts on altruistic punishment in the ultimatum game by using a longitudinal approach with three...

Punishment eliminates directed forgetting: an event-related potential study.

This study investigated motivational effect of reward and punishment on directed forgetting using the event-related potential technique. Participants were instructed to encode two-character words in Chinese, followed by the indicator of 'remember' or 'forget'. Then, participants were required accomplishing the judgment task of old and new words. The results suggest that (i) directed forgetting effect is significant in the punishment condition but not in the reward condition, and (ii) a positive amplitude is...

Differentiating corporal punishment from physical abuse in the prediction of lifetime aggression.

Corporal punishment and parental physical abuse often co-occur during upbringing, making it difficult to differentiate their selective impacts on psychological functioning. Associations between corporal punishment and a number of lifetime aggression indicators were examined in this study after efforts to control the potential influence of various forms of co-occurring maltreatment (parental physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, sibling abuse, peer bullying, and observed parental violence). College student...

Punishment and the potential for negative reinforcement with histamine injection.

The present study examined punishment of responding with histamine injection, and its potential to generate avoidance of punishment. Sprague-Dawley rats were trained under concurrent schedules in which responses on one lever (the punishment lever) produced food under a variable-interval schedule, and under some conditions intermittent injections of histamine, which suppressed behavior. Responses on a second (avoidance) lever prevented histamine injections scheduled on the punishment lever. After stabilizati...

Candidemia in Adults at a Tertiary Hospital in China: Clinical Characteristics, Species Distribution, Resistance, and Outcomes.

Candidemia is one of the most common nosocomial bloodstream infections. Early diagnosis and antifungal treatment improve clinical outcomes in some studies but not all, with diverse data reported from different institutions. Similarly, antifungal resistance is more common in the USA than in Europe, but there is little data regarding the microbiology and clinical course of candidemia in adult patients in Asia.

When is protection from impact needed for the face as well as the eyes in occupational environments?

The most commonly identified reason for requiring or using occupational eye and face protection is for protection against flying objects. Standards vary on what risk may require protection of the eyes alone and what requires protection for the whole face. Information on the minimum energy transfer for face damage to occur is not well-established.

"Evaluation of the Microbotox Technique: An Algorithmic Approach for Lower Face and Neck Rejuvenation and a Crossover Clinical Trial."

Microbotox consists of the injection of microdroplets of botulinum toxin into the dermis to improve the different lower-face and neck aging components. No clinical trial has evaluated its effect on the different face and neck components and no study has compared it to the "Nefertiti Lift" procedure.

Sex differences in default mode and dorsal attention network engagement.

Focusing on sex differences is necessary to fully understand basic neurobiological processes such as the engagement of large-scale brain networks involved in attention. Prior work suggests that women show enhanced attention during tasks of reward/punishment relative to men. Yet, sex differences in the engagement of neural networks sub serving internal and external focus has been unexplored in regard to reward and punishment. Using data from a large sample (n = 190) of healthy participants from the Human Con...

Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to azithromycin and ceftriaxone in China: A retrospective study of national surveillance data from 2013 to 2016.

Gonorrhea remains one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Successful treatment has been hampered by emerging resistance to each of the antibiotics recommended as first-line therapies. We retrospectively analyzed the susceptibility of gonorrhea to azithromycin and ceftriaxone using data from the China Gonococcal Resistance Surveillance Programme (China-GRSP) in order to provide evidence for updating the treatment recommendations in China.

The impact of the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Liberia on parent preferences for harsh discipline practices: a quasi-experimental, pre-post design.

This paper uses data from a cohort of parents and guardians of young children living in Monrovia, Liberia collected before and after the 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) to estimate the impact of EVD exposure on implicit preferences for harsh discipline. We hypothesized that parents exposed to EVD-related sickness or death would exhibit a stronger preference for harsh discipline practices compared with non-exposed parents.

Social reward and social punishment sensitivity in relation to dietary restraint and binge/purge symptoms.

Disordered eating symptoms are associated with disrupted sensitivity to reward and punishment, broadly assessed. However, it is unknown how eating pathology is related to sensitivity to social reward and social punishment specifically. Drawing on Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the current study utilized a multi-method design to test whether disordered eating symptoms, specifically dietary restraint (DR) and binge/purge (BP), were similarly or uniquely related to sensitivity to social punishment and socia...

Climate Change Impacts on the Potential Distribution of Eogystia hippophaecolus in China.

Seabuckthorn carpenter moth, Eogystia hippophaecolus (Hua, Chou, Fang, & Chen, 1990), is the most important boring pest of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in the northwest of China. It is responsible for the death of large areas of H. rhamnoides forest, seriously affecting the ecological environment and economic development in northwestern China. To clarify the potential distribution of E. hippophaecolus in China, the present study used the CLIMEX 4.0.0 model to project the potential distribution of...

CAREGIVER'S DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND YOUNG CHILDREN'S SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT DELAYS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN POOR RURAL AREAS OF CHINA.

Poverty and its associated factors put people at risk for depression. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) of primary caregivers and socioemotional development (SED) delays of young children in poor rural areas of China, and to explore the association between them. Cross-sectional data of 2,664 children aged 3 to 35 months and their primary caregivers were used for analysis. Characteristics of the child, caregiver, and family were collected through face-to-face ...

Resting-state functional connectivity underlying costly punishment: A machine learning approach.

A large number of studies have demonstrated costly punishment to unfair events across human societies. However, individuals exhibit a large heterogeneity in costly punishment decisions, whereas the neuropsychological substrates underlying the heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Here, we addressed this issue by applying a multivariate machine learning approach to compare topological properties of resting-state brain networks as a potential neuromarker between individuals exhibiting different punishment p...

Altered neural processing of reward and punishment in adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder.

Altered reward and punishment function has been suggested as an important vulnerability factor for the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Prior ERP studies found evidence for neurophysiological dysfunctions in reinforcement processes in adults with MDD. To date, only few ERP studies have examined the neural underpinnings of reinforcement processing in adolescents diagnosed with MDD. The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms of anticipatio...

Significant variations in the cervical cancer screening rate in China by individual-level and geographical measures of socioeconomic status: a multilevel model analysis of a nationally representative survey dataset.

Variations in cervical cancer screening rates in China have rarely been studied in depth. This study aimed to investigate cervical cancer screening rates in relation to both individual-level and geographical measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Data were obtained from women aged 21 years or older by face-to-face interviews between August 2013 and July 2014 as part of the Chinese Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance. The geographical variables were obtained from the 2010 Chinese population cens...


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