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Showing "Comment conditional cash transfer programme Brazil improves leprosy" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 7,800+

Conditional cash transfer and/or lipid-based nutrient supplement targeting the first 1000 d of life increased attendance at preventive care services but did not improve linear growth in young children in rural Mali: results of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

In 2014, the World Food Programme added to an ongoing health and nutrition program named "Santé Nutritionnelle à Assise Communautaire dans la région de Kayes" (SNACK), the distribution of cash to mothers and/or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) to children aged 6-23 mo, conditional upon attendance at community health centers (CHCs) during the first 1000 d of life.

Decision-making and cash spending patterns of adolescent girls and young women participating in a cash-transfer intervention in Tanzania: Implications for sexual health.

Although cash transfers (CT) have been recommended as a strategy to address structural drivers of HIV, the evidence of the effects of CT on sexual risk and HIV outcomes is mixed. This could partly be due to CT implementation dynamics and beneficiary interpersonal factors. We conducted an assessment of CT component of the DREAMS programme in Tanzania. We explored how AGYW spent their CT over time, to whom they disclosed cash receipt, and where they sought advice on CT use. The study employed qualitative rese...

A conditional cash transfer and Women's empowerment: Does Bolsa Familia Influence intimate partner violence?

We apply mixed methods to explore how a conditional cash transfer (CCT) may influence intimate partner violence (IPV). Qualitative interviews with female beneficiaries of Bolsa Familia, Brazil's CCT program, and service providers suggest positive, negative, and null associations between CCTs and IPV are all plausible. These associations result from a combination of economic and psychological motivations. We also use quantitative methods to examine if the expansion of Bolsa Familia between 2004 and 2009 affe...

Leprosy and social deprivation: Definition of priority areas in an endemic state Northeastern Brazil.

Leprosy is a disease that reserves close relation with social and economic conditions. Brazil is the only country that has not yet reached the goal of eliminating the disease as a public health problem.

Why we should stop using the word leprosy.

Leprosy is endemic in more than 100 countries worldwide, with over 200 000 new diagnoses each year and more than 4 million people living with some form of impairment related to leprosy. The term leprosy, as used in the Bible, designated a multitude of diseases with skin manifestations. Biblical leprosy carried huge stigma and was considered synonymous with impurity and divine punishment. Global actions to eliminate leprosy have been implemented but have yet to succeed, with stigmatisation and discriminati...

Knowledge on leprosy and its management among primary healthcare providers in two districts of Bangladesh.

In 2013, Lepra Bangladesh (a non-government organization) and the National Leprosy Programme of the Directorate General of Health Services under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Bangladesh implemented a 3 years project entitled "2015 and Beyond: Poverty Reduction through Strengthened Health Systems". The aims of this Health System Strengthening (HSS) project were to improve quality of leprosy services through service delivery, capacity development, curriculum development, improved collaboration, c...

Geographic and socioeconomic factors associated with leprosy treatment default: An analysis from the 100 Million Brazilian Cohort.

Although leprosy is largely curable with multidrug therapy, incomplete treatment limits therapeutic effectiveness and is an important obstacle to disease control. To inform efforts to improve treatment completion rates, we aimed to identify the geographic and socioeconomic factors associated with leprosy treatment default in Brazil.

Letter to editor in response to the article "Position statement: LEPROSY: Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up".

We read with great interest the position statement on Leprosy by Belachew et al and would like to congratulate the authors on a well written article. The different clinical presentations have been concisely summarized. It is prudent to note that the presentation of leprosy is not limited to those discussed in this article. Histoid leprosy is a distinct variant of leprosy which warrants special mention as it has unique clinical, histological and morphological features. This form of leprosy usually results f...

de novo Histoid leprosy: an expatriate case recently diagnosed in Johannesburg.

Histoid leprosy (HL) is a rare variant of lepromatous leprosy with unique clinical, histopathological, and microbiological features. A 32-year-old man from Malawi who immigrated to Johannesburg 1-year-ago, presented with a 4-month history of flesh-colored nodules on the face and trunk and hyperpigmented plaques on the chest and limbs. Skin slit smears confirmed multibacillary leprosy, and skin punch biopsies showed proliferation of spindled cells containing a large number of acid-fast bacilli. The prevalenc...

Importance of epidemiological surveillance of leprosy: analysis of the occurrence of leprosy in intra-domiciliary contacts in a capital in the Brazilian northeast region.

Intra-domiciliary contacts are a group with the highest risk of developing leprosy.

Comments to the letter to the editor of Dr Sweta Subhadarshani.

We thank dr Sweta Subhadarshani for his complements and for his addition to our article . We would like to make a few comments: He is right that there are more presentations of clinical leprosy than we mention in our paper. It is a continuous scale, just to mention a few: low resistant T and BT/BB, BB/BL and sub polar LL, histoid leprosy and lepra bonita. It is a gliding scale and each subtype has slightly different manifestations. But we are very glad he mentions histoid leprosy. It indeed is a fascinating...

Serological and molecular detection of infection with Mycobacterium leprae in Brazilian six banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus).

Leprosy was recognized as a zoonotic disease, associated with nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the Southern United States of America in 2011. In addition, there is growing evidence to support a role for armadillos in zoonotic leprosy in South America. The current study evaluated twenty specimens of the six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus), collected from rural locations in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Brazil for evidence of infection with Mycobacterium leprae. Serum was exa...

Trends of leprosy and multibacillary infection in the state of Georgia since the early 1900s.

Few investigations to date have analyzed the epidemiology of Hansen's disease (leprosy) in the United States, and in particular, if birth location is related to multibacillary versus paucibacillary leprosy. We collected data on 123 patients diagnosed with leprosy in Georgia from the National Hansen's Disease Program from 1923-January 2018. A logistic regression model was built to examine the relationship between country of origin (U.S.-born or immigrant) and the type of leprosy. While the model showed no si...

Leprosy pseudoimbricata: an unusual presentation of steroid-modified borderline lepromatous leprosy.

Treatment effects beyond the mean using distributional regression: Methods and guidance.

This paper introduces distributional regression also known as generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) as a modeling framework for analyzing treatment effects beyond the mean. In contrast to mean regression models, GAMLSS relate each distributional parameter to covariates. Therefore, they can be used to model the treatment effect not only on the mean but on the whole conditional distribution. Since they encompass a wide range of different distributions, GAMLSS provide a flexible fr...

Overlapping of new leprosy cases in household contact networks in two municipalities in North and Northeast Brazil, 2001-2014.

The study aimed to analyze the magnitude and sociodemographic profile of leprosy cases linked to household contact networks with overlapping of the disease in two Brazilian municipalities (counties), one in the North and the other in the Northeast, from 2001 to 2014. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study based on primary and secondary data from new leprosy cases in Picos, Piauí State, and Rolim de Moura, Rondônia State. "Overlapping" was defined as new cases with the occurrence of at l...

Effectiveness of single dose rifampicin after BCG-vaccination to prevent leprosy in close contacts of patients with newly diagnosed leprosy: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

To assess the effectiveness of SDR after BCG-vaccination in preventing leprosy in contacts.

Isolation of Mycobacterium lepromatosis and Development of Molecular Diagnostic Assays to Distinguish M. leprae and M. lepromatosis.

Mycobacterium leprae was thought the exclusive causative agent of leprosy until Mycobacterium lepromatosis was identified in a rare form of leprosy known as diffuse lepromatous leprosy (DLL).

Menstrual cups and cash transfer to reduce sexual and reproductive harm and school dropout in adolescent schoolgirls: study protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial in western Kenya.

Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionally vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) harms. In western Kenya, where unprotected transactional sex is common, young females face higher rates of school dropout, often due to pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Staying in school has shown to protect girls against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and HIV infection. This study evaluates the impact of menstrual cups and cash transfer interventions on a com...

Frequent testicular involvement in multibacillary leprosy.

Testicular involvement or atrophy is silent, unreported, and under-estimated in leprosy. This study aims to assess the frequency of testicular atrophy and its consequences through the examination of clinical manifestation, hormonal profile, and semen analysis in leprosy patients.

Leprosy in elderly people and the profile of a retrospective cohort in an endemic region of the Brazilian Amazon.

Leprosy has a global presence; more than 180 thousand new cases were registered in 2013, 15% of which were found in the Americas. The elderly are a very susceptible demographic in terms of developing illnesses, mainly because of characteristics natural to the senescence of the human organism. This study's goals were to analyze leprosy in an elderly population from a hyperendemic region of the Brazilian Amazon in a historical series from 2004 to 2013 and to determine the clinical and epidemiological profile ...

Diet and nutrition: An important risk factor in leprosy.

Leprosy, once considered as poor man's disease may cause severe neurological complications and physical disabilities. Classification of leprosy depends upon the cell mediated and humoral immune responses of the host, from tuberculoid to lepromatous stage. Current therapy to prevent the disease is not only very lengthy but also consists of expensive multiple antibiotics in combination. Treatment and the duration depend on the bacillary loads, from six months in paucibacillary to a year in multibacillary lepr...

Novel PCR primers for improved detection of Mycobacterium leprae and diagnosis of leprosy.

Diagnosis of leprosy, a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae, predominantly depends on clinical manifestations and histopathological analysis, hampering rapid and accurate diagnostics. Our aim was to increase accuracy of leprosy diagnosis by improving M. leprae's DNA detection based on Polimerase chain reaction (PCR) technique using new specific primers for the RLEP repetitive sequence.

Skin Disease in the Tropics and the Lessons that can be Learned from Leprosy and Other Neglected Diseases.

Skin disease is a common illness in most tropical regions where the pattern of clinical, presentations is dominated by infections. Along with common diseases such as pyodermas and fungal infections, a group of conditions known collectively as the neglected tropical diseases of the skin or Skin NTDs, which are the targets for worldwide control or elimination are also seen in health care facilities. These diseases range from the common, such a scabies, to those that are less frequent including leprosy and myc...

Expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in leprosy indicates immune evasion of Mycobacterium leprae.

Leprosy is an infectious-contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that remain endemic in 105 countries. This neglected disease has a wide range of clinical and histopathological manifestations that are related to the host inflammatory and immune responses. More recently, the inflammasome has assumed a relevant role in the inflammatory response against microbiological agents. However, the involvement of inflammasome in leprosy remains poorly understood.

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