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Showing "Comparision Different Methods Enviromennt Disinfection" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Guideline Implementation: Manual Chemical High-Level Disinfection: 1.5

The Spaulding system recommends sterilization or, at minimum, high-level disinfection for semicritical medical items (ie, items that come into contact with mucous membranes or nonintact skin). High-level disinfection deactivates all types of microorganisms except bacterial spores and prions. If high-level disinfection is not performed correctly, however, contaminated medical or surgical devices could transmit pathogens to patients. Reusable semicritical items may be processed using manual methods when manua...

Review of Disinfection and Sterilization - Back to the Basics.

In-depth knowledge of disinfection and sterilization is a key component of infection control. Sterilization completely removes a spore, whereas disinfection cannot. Disinfectants are classified as oxidants and non-oxidants. The decision regarding which method to apply is based on Spaulding's classification. In this article, disinfection and sterilization are thoroughly reviewed, and extensive information from basic to practical points is discussed.

Povidone-iodine versus the benzethonium chloride wipe for penile skin disinfection before semen collection from sperm donors.

To study the influence of povidone-iodine (PI) versus that of the benzethonium chloride wipe (BCW) on semen collection and semen quality of sperm donors undergoing penile skin disinfection and provide some evidence for the selection of disinfection methods for semen collection.

Evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of various root canal disinfection methods against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. An ex-vivo study.

Complete elimination of bacteria and their by-products from the root canal system is very difficult with current techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial efficacy of different disinfection protocols against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms.

The in vitro examination of the effectiveness of antiseptic substances for a surface disinfection of teeth inoculated with Escherichia coli.

The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of penetration of Escherichia coli bacteria into the dentinal tubules of the samples and determine the antimicrobial efficacy after 5 and 20 min exposition of 3% HO (groups I and II) and 1 and 5 min exposition of 3% NaOCl (groups III and IV) for surface disinfection of bovine teeth. The samples were subjected to inoculation with E. coli suspension. The quality of disinfection was assessed with the three methods. The surface disinfection of samples proved to...

Rotating packed bed as a novel disinfection contactor for the inactivation of E. coli by ozone.

The intensification of mass transfer and mixing in ozone-based disinfection processes is very important in order to achieve a certain disinfection effect at a reasonable cost. This study employed rotating packed bed (RPB), an efficient process intensification device, as an ozone-disinfection contactor, and its performance on disinfection and mass transfer was evaluated by the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and mass transfer coefficient (ka). The ozone exposure (Ct value) and the log inactivatio...

Electrochemical oxidation for stormwater disinfection: How does real stormwater chemistry impact on pathogen removal and disinfection by-products level?

Preliminary laboratory work has shown that electrochemical oxidation (ECO) is a promising technology for disinfection of harvested stormwater. This paper focuses on understanding how stormwater chemistry (e.g. pH, chloride, bicarbonate, ammonia and total organic carbon - that can vary substantially between sites) impacts the disinfection performance of ECO. Real stormwater samples from four different urban catchments were collected and tested for ECO performance in disinfecting stormwater pathogens using a ...

A critical review of protocols for conventional microwave oven use for denture disinfection.

The lack of proper denture hygiene may cause denture stomatitis and be detrimental to older adults' health. The cleaning of complete dentures should be quick, efficient, and easy to perform, although it might not guarantee disinfection. The use of a microwave oven has been suggested for aiding in the disinfection of complete dentures, but lacks a gold standard protocol.

Synergy of MS2 disinfection by sequential exposure to tailored UV wavelengths.

The advantages of polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) light for viral disinfection can be optimized for disinfection using emerging tailored wavelength sources including KrCl excimer lamps and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Disinfection of the common viral surrogate MS2 bacteriophage was measured after exposure to these emerging sources and conventional low pressure (LP) mercury UV lamps in individual or sequential exposures. The first dose response for any virus (MS2) exposed to a KrCl excimer lamp is reported, ...

Boron- and phenyl-codoped graphitic carbon nitride with greatly enhanced light responsive range for photocatalytic disinfection.

The development of metal-free photocatalyst to make maximum use of the solar energy for photocatalytic disinfection is highly desired. Herein, boron-and phenyl-codoped graphitic carbon nitride was prepared by thermal polycondensation of cyanamide with 3-aminobenzeneboronic acid and applied as photocatalyst to inactivate Escherichia coli (E. coli). The photocatalysts exhibited the enhanced light responsive range over ultraviolet to near infrared light and 99.9% bacteria could be inactivated within 3 h with...

Enhanced Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Removal from Wastewater Treatment Plant by Different Disinfection Technologies.

Based on the removal of total heterotrophic bacteria (HPC) and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), including the ampicillin resistant bacteria (AMP), erythromycin resistant bacteria (ERY), tetracycline resistant bacteria (TET), kanamycin resistant bacteria (KAN), and ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria (CIP), this study investigates the enhanced removal performance of ARB by different disinfection technologies. The experimental results showed that ARB removal by ultraviolet (UV) disinfection from the wastewat...

Formation kinetics of disinfection byproducts in algal-laden water during chlorination: A new insight into evaluating disinfection formation risk.

It is necessary and important to investigate the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water treatment systems for the management of disinfection formation risk. In the present study, the formation potential of trichloromethane (TCM) and haloacetic acids in different algal metabolites were compared, and the formation kinetics of these DBPs were investigated. The results indicated that DBP formation potential, the traditional index widely used to evaluate the disinfection formation risk, can represe...

Reusable magnetic Ag/Fe, N-TiO/FeO@SiO composite for simultaneous photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli and degradation of bisphenol A in sewage under visible light.

A visible-light-driven and magnetic photocatalyst Ag/Fe,N-TiO/FeO@SiO (AgFeNTFS) was synthesized through a multi-step method. AgFeNTFS was tested for the photocatalytic disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, separately and simultaneously. The results showed that a 6.3-log reduction in cell density of E. coli was achieved and BPA (2 mg/L) was completely removed by AgFeNTFS in the separated photocatalytic processes within 120 min....

Can CabECO technology be used for the disinfection of highly faecal-polluted surface water?

In this work, the disinfection of highly faecal-polluted surface water was studied using a new electrochemical cell (CabECO cell, manufactured by CONDIAS) specifically designed to produce ozone in water with very low conductivity. The disinfection tests were carried out in a discontinuous mode to evaluate the influence of the electrode current charge passed. The effect of the current density was also studied in order to optimize the disinfection conditions and to simultaneously prevent the formation of unde...

A comprehensive review on the use of second generation TiO photocatalysts: Microorganism inactivation.

Photocatalytic disinfection practices have been applied for decades and attract current interest along with the developments in synthesis of novel photocatalysts. A survey based investigation was performed for elucidation of photocatalytic treatment details as well as disinfection mechanism of microorganisms. The present work brings significant information on the utilization of second generation TiO photocatalysts for inactivation of microorganisms typically using E. coli as the model microorganism. Specia...

Application of UVOX Redox for swimming pool water treatment: Microbial inactivation, disinfection byproduct formation and micropollutant removal.

Alternative disinfection technologies may overcome some of the limitations of conventional treatment applied in swimming pools: chlorine-resistant pathogens (e.g. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts) and the formation of chlorinated disinfection byproducts. In this paper, results of full scale validation of an alternative disinfection technology UVOX Redox (hereinafter referred to as UVOX) that combines ozonation and UV irradiation are presented. The performance was assessed in terms of microbial inac...

Particle assisted removal of microbes from surfaces.

Increased reliance on kill based approaches for disinfection raises concerns of antimicrobial resistance development and has significantly elevated the need for alternate approaches for skin and substrate disinfection. This study focuses on reducing harmful microbes from substrates primarily via removal and to a lesser extent by kill.

Drinking water disinfection byproducts and risk of orofacial clefts in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

Maternal exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBP)s may contribute to orofacial cleft (OFC) development, but studies are sparse and beset with limitations.

A pilot study on the disinfection efficacy of localized UV on the flushing-generated spread of pathogens.

The process of toilet-flushing can generate flushing-associated water droplets which can potentially expose humans to pathogen-laden aerosols. Very little is known about such aerosol dissemination or the means for minimizing exposure to these aerosols. This study has evaluated the efficacy of ultraviolet waveband C (UV-C) for disinfection of flushing-generated pathogen-laden aerosols through tests with localized disinfection systems for airborne and surface contaminations. Three types of bacteria were chose...

The impact of disinfection Ct values on cytotoxicity of agricultural wastewaters: Ozonation vs. chlorination.

Toxicity arising from toxic disinfection byproducts is an unintended result of disinfection during water reclamation. To ensure safe water reclamation treatment, it is important to develop a disinfection strategy with minimal formation of overall toxicity in the reclaimed water. The cumulative disinfectant concentration over time (Ct) is a useful concept for pathogen control during reuse water disinfection. We evaluated the toxicity impact of Ct values and different methods to achieve identical Ct values by...

Microbiological surveillance of flexible bronchoscopes after a high-level disinfection with peracetic acid: preliminary results from an Italian teaching hospital.

Flexible bronchoscopes are heat labile, complex and difficult to clean, and some nosocomial outbreaks related to bronchoscopy have been reported in literature. The aim of our study was to determine, through a systematic monitoring, whether bronchoscopes' cleaning and disinfection procedures have been correctly adopted by health operators.

Prospective assessment of the effectiveness of standard high-level disinfection for echoendoscopes.

Duodenoscopes have been implicated in the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Echoendoscopes could also potentially transmit infection. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of standard high-level disinfection (sHLD) for radial and linear echoendoscopes and to compare it with that of duodenoscopes.

Viability of Candida albicans in Denture Base Resin After Disinfection: A Preliminary Study.

To quantify the depth of penetration of Candida albicans (C albicans) into a denture base resin and to investigate its viability after disinfection.

Urinary biomarker of late pregnancy exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and ultrasound measures of fetal growth in Wuhan, China.

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been shown to be reproductive and developmental toxicity. However, few studies examine the effect of prenatal exposure to DBPs on fetal growth via ultrasound measures.

Alternative use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as indicator for greywater disinfection.

Greywater presents great potential for reuse; if treated correctly and efficiently, it can be used for several residential uses. The objective of this work was to test advanced oxidation for greywater disinfection through UV/TiO, UV/TiO/HO, photo-Fenton, UV/HO and photolysis (UV) processes, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an alternative indicator. In general, the processes with hydrogen peroxide (150 mg.L) mixed in the pretreated greywater and exposed to solar radiation or artificial radiation from UV lamps...

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