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22:29 EDT 20th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Congo Ebola Outbreak Reports Confirmed Urban Case Daily" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 23,000+

Projections of Ebola outbreak size and duration with and without vaccine use in Équateur, Democratic Republic of Congo, as of May 27, 2018.

As of May 27, 2018, 6 suspected, 13 probable and 35 confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) had been reported in Équateur Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. We used reported case counts and time series from prior outbreaks to estimate the total outbreak size and duration with and without vaccine use. We modeled Ebola virus transmission using a stochastic branching process model that included reproduction numbers from past Ebola outbreaks and a particle filtering method to generate a probabilistic...

Neurological, cognitive, and psychological findings among survivors of Ebola virus disease from the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study.

Clinical sequelae of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have not been described more than three years post-outbreak. We examined survivors and close contacts from the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and determined prevalence of abnormal neurological, cognitive, and psychological findings and their association with EVD survivorship.

Comparative performance of four rapid Ebola antigen-detection lateral flow immunoassays during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

Without an effective vaccine, as was the case early in the 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa, disease control depends entirely on interrupting transmission through early disease detection and prompt patient isolation. Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFI) are a potential supplement to centralized reference laboratory testing for the early diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). The goal of this study was to assess the performance of commercially available simple and rapid antigen detection LFIs, submitted f...

Barriers to supportive care during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa: Results of a qualitative study.

During the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola outbreak, supportive care was the only non-experimental treatment option for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, providing care that would otherwise be routine for most clinical settings in the context of a highly contagious and lethal pathogen is much more challenging. The objective of this study was to document and deepen understanding of barriers to provision of supportive care in Ebola treatment units (ETUs) as perceived by those involved in care deli...

Survey of Ebola Viruses in Frugivorous and Insectivorous Bats in Guinea, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2015-2017.

To clarify the role of bats in the ecology of Ebola viruses, we assessed the prevalence of Ebola virus antibodies in a large-scale sample of bats collected during 2015-2017 from countries in Africa that have had previous Ebola outbreaks (Guinea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo) or are at high risk for outbreaks (Cameroon). We analyzed 4,022 blood samples of bats from >12 frugivorous and 27 insectivorous species; 2-37 (0.05%-0.92%) bats were seropositive for Zaire and 0-30 (0%-0.75%) bats for Sudan Ebol...

The Economic and Social Burden of the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa.

The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa was more devastating than all previous EVD outbreaks combined; however, many estimates of its economic burden did not capture its significant social costs. This study aimed to review all currently available estimates, identify social components missed by these estimates, and generate a comprehensive cost of the 2014 EVD outbreak.

Neglected patients, unexpected effects. Ebola virus disease suspected case experience.

In an epidemic context, the identification of suspected cases, among alert or contact cases, leads to caring for persons for whom only a minority will be confirmed cases, with a laboratory diagnosis positive for Ebola. How are suspected cases treated that are not subsequently confirmed and how do they feel about this experience ? What are the medical or social consequences ?

Ebola: Impact of hospital's admission policy in an overwhelmed scenario.

Infectious disease outbreaks sometimes overwhelm healthcare facilities. A recent case occurred in West Africa in 2014 when an Ebola virus outbreak overwhelmed facilities in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia. In such scenarios, how many patients can hospitals admit to minimize disease burden? This study considers what type of hospital admission policy during a hypothetical Ebola outbreak can better serve the community, if overcrowding degrades the hospital setting. Our result shows that which policy minimizes...

Faith and Global Health Practice in Ebola and HIV Emergencies.

We examined the relationship between religion and health by highlighting the influences of religion on the response to the 2014 to 2016 Ebola outbreak and the global HIV epidemic. We recounted the influences of religion on burial practices developed as an infection control measure during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. We also explored the influence of religion on community outreach and health education. We examined faith-based responses to the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, noting that religion conflicted wi...

Evaluating the frequency of operational research conducted during the 2014-16 West Africa Ebola epidemic.

The 2014-16 West Africa Ebola epidemic was the largest Ebola outbreak on record, and thousands of individuals were involved in the response, including local and national governments as well as numerous philanthropies and other non-governmental organizations. A number of after-action reports and other reviews of the global response to the epidemic routinely pointed out key challenges, including gaps in operational research.

Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Case control and ecological study.

During 2011 a large outbreak of typhoid fever affected an estimated 1430 people in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreak started in military camps in the city but then spread to the general population. This paper reports the results of an ecological analysis and a case-control study undertaken to examine water and other possible transmission pathways. Attack rates were determined for health areas and risk ratios were estimated with respect to spatial exposures. Approximately 15 months after the...

Implications of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Guinea: Qualitative findings to inform future health and nutrition-related responses.

Due to the close relationship between EVD and nutrition, the humanitarian community implemented various nutrition-specific and -sensitive interventions to stem the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. Little, however, is known about stakeholder and community members' perspectives toward this response in Guinea. Therefore, we aimed to firstly understand how EVD may have influenced the nutrition situation; and secondly to assess the perceived acceptability and effectiveness of the nutrition resp...

Extensive serological survey of multiple African non-human primate species reveals low prevalence of IgG antibodies to four Ebola virus species.

Bats are considered a reservoir species for Ebola viruses, but non-human primates (NHP) have represented a source of infection in several outbreaks in humans. Here we report serological screening of blood or fecal samples from monkeys (n=2,322) and apes (n=2,327). Thirty-six NHP species from Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo and Ivory Coast were tested with a sensitive and specific Luminex-based assay for IgG antibodies to four Ebolavirus species. Using the simultaneous presence of antibodies to NP and...

Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding Ebola disease in healthcare workers from a tertiary care hospital in Romania.

The National Institute for Infectious Diseases 'Prof. Dr. Matei Balș' was the designated centre for managing Ebola alerts in Romania during the 2014 African outbreak. We surveyed Ebola knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) among the institute's healthcare workers.

Update on Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks - Democratic Republic of the Congo and Horn of Africa, 2017-2018.

Widespread use of live attenuated (Sabin) oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has resulted in marked progress toward global poliomyelitis eradication (1). However, in underimmunized populations, extensive person-to-person transmission of Sabin poliovirus can result in genetic reversion to neurovirulence and paralytic vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) disease (1). This report updates (as of February 26, 2019) previous reports on circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks during 2017-2018 in the Democratic Republic...

One year of infectious diseases in review.

New data were published regarding fœtal damage of Zika virus infection, and its sexual transmission. An outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo emphasizes the importance of vaccine development. In Switzerland, hospitals in the Canton of Bern were affected by a large outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Despite the availability of new treatments, a significant decrease in the incidence of hepatitis C has not been achieved yet. Adjunctive rifampicin for Staphylococcus...

What motivates Ebola survivors to donate plasma during an emergency clinical trial? The case of Ebola-Tx in Guinea.

During the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic, the Ebola-Tx trial evaluated the use of convalescent plasma (CP) in Guinea. The effectiveness of plasmapheresis trials depends on the recruitment of plasma donors. This paper describes what motivated or deterred EVD survivors to donate CP, providing insights for future plasmapheresis trials and epidemic preparedness.

Review of international efforts to strengthen the global outbreak response system since the 2014-16 West Africa Ebola Epidemic.

The 2014-16 West Africa Ebola epidemic was a watershed moment for global health. The outbreak galvanized global action around strengthening infectious disease prevention, detection and response capabilities. We examined the nascent landscape of international programmes, initiatives and institutions established in the aftermath of the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak with the aim of assessing their progress to date to illustrate the current state of the world's global health security architecture. We also compare thes...

Randomized clinical trial examining safety and immunogenicity of heterologous prime-boost Ebola vaccines, Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo: 12-month data from Uganda and Tanzania.

Ebola vaccine development was accelerated in response to the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak. This Phase 1 study (VAC52150EBL1004) assessed safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of heterologous prime-boost Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo vaccination regimens in the Lake Victoria Basin of Tanzania and Uganda in mid-level altitude, malarial-endemic settings.

Assessing the effects of modeling the spectrum of clinical symptoms on the dynamics and control of Ebola.

Mathematical modelers have attempted to capture the dynamics of Ebola transmission and to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures, as well as to make predictions about ongoing outbreaks. Many of their models consider only infections with typical symptoms, but Ebola presents clinically in a more complicated way. Even the most common symptom, fever, is not experienced by 13% of patients. This suggests that infected individuals could be asymptomatic or have moderately symptomatic infections as reported ...

Ebola virus disease-related stigma among survivors declined in Liberia over an 18-month, post-outbreak period: An observational cohort study.

While qualitative assessments of Ebola virus disease (EVD)-related stigma have been undertaken among survivors and the general public, quantitative tools and assessment targeting survivors have been lacking.

Adherence to Universal Travel Screening in the Emergency Department During Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease.

During the 2014 West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that all emergency department (ED) patients undergo travel screening for risk factors of importing EVD.

In Vitro Characterization and In Vivo Effectiveness of Ebola Virus Specific Equine Polyclonal F(ab')2.

There is no vaccine or approved therapy against lethal Ebola virus (EBOV). We investigated a proven technology platform to produce polyclonal IgG fragments, F(ab')2, against EBOV. Horses immunized with nanoparticles harboring surface glycoprotein trimers of EBOV-Zaire/Makona produced anti-Ebola IgG polyclonal antibodies with high neutralization activity. Highly purified equine anti-Ebola F(ab')2 showed strong cross-neutralization of 2 Zaire EBOV strains (Gabon 2001 and Makona) and in vivo 3 or 5 daily F(ab'...

Development of a screening eye clinic for Ebola virus disease survivors: Lessons learned and rapid implementation at ELWA Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia 2015.

In the wake of the West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak of 2014-2016, thousands of EVD survivors began to manifest a constellation of systemic and ophthalmic sequelae. Besides systemic arthralgias, myalgias, and abdominal pain, patients were developing uveitis, a spectrum of inflammatory eye disease leading to eye pain, redness, and vision loss. To investigate this emerging eye disease, resources and equipment were needed to promptly evaluate this sight-threatening condition, particularly given o...

Distinguishing case study as a research method from case reports as a publication type.

The purpose of this editorial is to distinguish between case reports and case studies. In health, case reports are familiar ways of sharing events or efforts of intervening with single patients with previously unreported features. As a qualitative methodology, case study research encompasses a great deal more complexity than a typical case report and often incorporates multiple streams of data combined in creative ways. The depth and richness of case study description helps readers understand the case and w...

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