PubMed Journals Articles About "Cortex Technology" RSS

20:32 EST 17th February 2018 | BioPortfolio

Cortex Technology PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Cortex Technology articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Cortex Technology" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 6,300+

Posterior parietal cortex.

The posterior parietal cortex, along with temporal and prefrontal cortices, is one of the three major associative regions in the cortex of the mammalian brain. It is situated between the visual cortex at the caudal pole of the brain and the somatosensory cortex just behind the central sulcus. Technically, any cortex covered by the parietal bone is referred to as 'parietal cortex', but the posterior sector, formally referred to as posterior parietal cortex, is indeed its own functional section of cortex, con...

So You Think You Don't Plunge? An Assessment of Far Cortex Drill Tip Plunging Based on Level of Training.

Drill bit tip plunging past the far cortex places critical anatomical structures at risk. This study measured plunging past the far cortex based on level of training. The time required for screw placement when a depth gauge was used to measure bone tunnel depth was compared to the time required for screw placement when bone tunnel depth was measured in real time.

Physiological and Anatomical Outputs of Rat Genital Cortex.

Rat somatosensory genital cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic representation of the penis in males and the clitoris in females. Genital cortex microstimulation-evoked movements of legs, trunk and genitals, which showed sex-specific differences related to mating behaviors and included thrusting in males and lordosis-like movements in females. Erections/tumescence of penis or clitoris could not be evoked, however. Anterograde tracer injections into penis/clitoris cortex revealed eleven corticocortica...

Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor drivin...

Differential Patterns of Subcortical Activity Evoked by Glial GLT-1 Blockade in Prelimbic and Infralimbic Cortex: Relationship to Antidepressant-Like Effects in Rats.

Glutamatergic neurotransmission has emerged as a novel target in antidepressant drug development, with a critical role of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. We recently reported that blockade of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid in infralimbic cortex (rodent equivalent of ventral anterior cingulate cortex), but not in the adjacent prelimbic cortex, evoked robust antidepressant-like effects through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor activation ...

Visual cortex activation decrement following cochlear implantation in prelingual deafened children.

Visual take-over of the auditory cortex in prelingual deaf children has been widely reported. However, there have been few studies on visual cortex plasticity after cochlear implantation (CI). In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that extrinsic auditory stimulation following CI in prelingual deafened children can induce visual cortex plasticity.

Distinct contributions by frontal and parietal cortices support working memory.

Although subregions of frontal and parietal cortex both contribute and coordinate to support working memory (WM) functions, their distinct contributions remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations to topographically organized human frontal and parietal cortex during WM maintenance cause distinct but systematic distortions in WM. The nature of these distortions supports theories positing that parietal cortex mainly codes for retrospective sensory information, while frontal cortex codes for prospe...

Neurological outcome after resection of parietal lobe including primary somatosensory cortex: implications of additional resection of posterior parietal cortex.

Postoperative neurological outcomes after primary somatosensory cortex (S1) resection have not been well-documented. This study was designed to evaluate the neurological deterioration that follows resection of the S1 areas and to assess the risk factors associated with these morbidities.

Circuit changes in motor cortex during motor skill learning.

Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. ...

Technology Games: Using Wittgenstein for Understanding and Evaluating Technology.

In the philosophy of technology after the empirical turn, little attention has been paid to language and its relation to technology. In this programmatic and explorative paper, it is proposed to use the later Wittgenstein, not only to pay more attention to language use in philosophy of technology, but also to rethink technology itself-at least technology in its aspect of tool, technology-in-use. This is done by outlining a working account of Wittgenstein's view of language (as articulated mainly in the Inve...

Technology Interventions to Manage Food Intake: Where Are We Now?

This review describes the state-of-the-art for dietary assessment using smartphone apps and digital technology and provides an update on the efficacy of technology-mediated interventions for dietary change.

CorteXpert: A model-based method for automatic renal cortex segmentation.

This paper introduces a model-based approach for a fully automatic delineation of kidney and cortex tissue from contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scans. The proposed framework, named CorteXpert, consists of two new strategies for kidney tissue delineation: cortex model adaptation and non-uniform graph search. CorteXpert was validated on a clinical data set of 58 CT scans using the cross-validation evaluation strategy. The experimental results indicated the state-of-the-art segmentation accuracies (as dice coef...

A Switch and Wave of Neuronal Activity in the Cerebral Cortex During the First Second of Conscious Perception.

Conscious perception occurs within less than 1 s. To study events on this time scale we used direct electrical recordings from the human cerebral cortex during a conscious visual perception task. Faces were presented at individually titrated visual threshold for 9 subjects while measuring broadband 40-115 Hz gamma power in a total of 1621 intracranial electrodes widely distributed in both hemispheres. Surface maps and k-means clustering analysis showed initial activation of visual cortex for both perceived ...

Visual Cortex Limits Pop-Out in the Superior Colliculus of Awake Mice.

We detect objects more readily if they differ from their surroundings in motion, color, or texture. This increased saliency is thought to be related to increased responses in the visual cortex. The superior colliculus is another brain area involved in vision and especially in directing gaze and attention. In this study, we show that differences in texture orientation also increase responses in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus that receive retinal and cortical input. We found that gratings e...

Ability to Resist Temptations of Technology Use: A Qualitative Analysis of Children's Views on Factors Associated with Delay of Gratification.

Excessive technology use among young children remains a public health concern with diverse serious consequences. It is important to find out how children resist the temptation to use technology. Using focus group interviews, the authors explored what factors influence children's ability to delay gratification in using technology. Four specific themes emerged from the interview data: they found (a) fear of punishment, (b) self-directed speech, (c) reinforcement, and (d) parental modeling are effective measur...

Metabolic profile of visual cortex in diabetic rats measured with in vivo proton MRS.

The purpose of the present study was to characterize the metabolic profile of the visual cortex in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetic rats by means of in vivo proton MRS. Several metabolite concentration ratios in the visual cortex were calculated. In addition, postmortem histologic analyses for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, optic nerve injury and visual cortex alterations were monitored. The results showed that diabetes induced several changes in visual cortex metabolites, such as reduced N-acetyla...

Individual variation in the propensity for prospective thought is associated with functional integration between visual and retrosplenial cortex.

It is well recognized that the default mode network (DMN) is involved in states of imagination, although the cognitive processes that this association reflects are not well understood. The DMN includes many regions that function as cortical "hubs", including the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, anterior temporal lobe and the hippocampus. This suggests that the role of the DMN in cognition may reflect a process of cortical integration. In the current study we tested whether functional connectivity f...

Cortical representation of different taste modalities on the gustatory cortex: A pilot study.

Right insular cortex is involved in taste discrimination, but its functional organization is still poorly known. In general, sensory cortices represent the spatial prevalence of relevant features for each sensory modality (visual, auditory, somatosensory) in an ordered way across the cortical space. Following this analogy, we hypothesized that primary taste cortex is organized in similar ordered way in response to six tastes with known receptorial mechanisms (sweet, bitter, sour, salt, umami, CO2).

Fibrin(ogen) and neurodegeneration in the progressive multiple sclerosis cortex.

Neuronal loss, a key substrate of irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), is a recognised feature of MS cortical pathology of which the cause remains unknown. Fibrin(ogen) deposition is neurotoxic in animal models of MS, but has not been evaluated in human progressive MS cortex. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and distribution of fibrin(ogen) in progressive MS cortex and elucidate its relationship with neurodegeneration.

Initial Clinical Experience with a Modulated Holmium Laser Pulse-Moses Technology: Does It Enhance Laser Lithotripsy Efficacy?

The Lumenis(®) High-power Holmium Laser (120H) has a unique modulated pulse mode, Moses™ technology. Moses technology modulates the laser pulse to separate the water (vapor bubble), then deliver the remaining energy through the bubble. Proprietary laser fibers were designed for the Moses technology. Our aim was to compare stone lithotripsy with and without the Moses technology.

Interactions between stimulus and response types are more strongly represented in the entorhinal cortex than in its upstream regions in rats.

Previously we reported results which suggested that response types are critical in dissociating the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) from the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) in a scene memory task (Yoo and Lee, 2017). Here, we investigated whether the perirhinal cortex (PER) and postrhinal cortex (POR), the upstream regions of the LEC and MEC, respectively, could be dissociated similarly. We conducted four tasks by combining different stimulus and response types. Our results suggest that the PER is important ...

Cortico-cerebellar Networks Drive Sensorimotor Learning in Speech.

The motor cortex and cerebellum are thought to be critical for learning and maintaining motor behaviors. Here we use transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to test the role of the motor cortex and cerebellum in sensorimotor learning in speech. During productions of "head," "bed," and "dead," the first formant of the vowel sound was altered in real time toward the first formant of the vowel sound in "had," "bad," and "dad." Compensatory changes in first and second formant production were used as a me...

Neurons in the Human Left Amygdala Automatically Encode Subjective Value Irrespective of Task.

The amygdala plays an important role in the computation of internal reward signals. In animals it has been shown to enable a stimulus to indicate the current value of a reinforcer. However, the exact nature of the current value representations in humans remains unknown. Specifically, do neurons of the human amygdala represent current value signals only in tasks requiring valuation? We recorded from 406 neurons in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus ...

Abnormal Concentration of GABA and Glutamate in The Prefrontal Cortex in Schizophrenia.-An in Vivo 1H-MRS Study.

The etiology and pathomechanism of schizophrenia are unknown. The traditional dopamine (DA) hypothesis is unable to fully explain its pathology and therapeutics. The glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypotheses suggest Glu or GABA concentrations are abnormal in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) show glutamate level increases in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) including the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) in those with schizophrenia.

Low cost assistive technology to support educational activities for adolescents with cerebral palsy.

The concept of assistive technology covers several areas of action; one of them is communication with the elaboration of accessible solutions to overcome daily difficulties. It contributes to the resumption of functional abilities, expanding and facilitating inclusion and independent living.

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