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Understanding which therapeutic innovations in diabetes represent the best value requires rigorous economic evaluation. Data from randomised controlled trials and observational studies indicate that insulin degludec has a hypoglycemia advantage versus insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100), the most widely prescribed basal insulin analogue in the UK. This analysis was done to more rigorously assess cost-effectiveness in a UK setting.
Second-generation basal insulin analogues (e.g. insulin degludec, insulin glargine 300 U/mL), were designed to further extend the duration of insulin action and reduce within-day and day-to-day variability, and consequently hypoglycaemia risk, versus earlier long-acting basal insulins. This review examines the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics of insulin degludec (100, 200 U/mL) and insulin glargine (100, 300 U/mL), and their influence on clinical outcomes.
To compare the real-world effectiveness of insulin degludec (degludec) and glargine 300 units/mL (glargine U300) in insulin-naïve adult patients with type 2 diabetes in routine US clinical practice.
In the DUAL (Dual Action of Liraglutide and Insulin Degludec in Type 2 Diabetes) VII trial, IDegLira (a combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide) was compared with insulin glargine U100 plus insulin aspart. Both treatment approaches achieved similar glycemic control, but there were differences in hypoglycemia, changes in body weight, and injection frequency. The aim of the present analysis was to assess the short-term cost effectiveness of IDegLira versus insulin glargine U100 plus insulin aspart for...
There are as yet no cohort studies of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes before starting insulin therapy. Our aim was to determine the frequency and clinical features of hypoglycemia in patients with type 1A diabetes prior to commencing insulin therapy.
It is proposed that the impaired counterregulatory response (CRR) to hypoglycemia in insulin deficient diabetes may be due to chronic brain insulin deficiency. To test this hypothesis, streptozotocin-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with either insulin (3mU/day) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) bilaterally into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) for 2 weeks and compared to nondiabetic rats. Rats underwent hyperinsulinemic (50 mU.kg.min) hypoglycemic (~45 mg/dl) clamps. Diabetic rats demons...
Effects of Insulin Degludec and Insulin Glargine U300 on Day-to-Day Fasting Plasma Glucose Variability in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes: A Multicenter, Randomized, Crossover Study (Kobe Best Basal Insulin Study 2).
Administered basal insulin markedly influences the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Insulin degludec (IDeg) and insulin glargine U300 (IGlar U300) are now available as ultra-long-acting insulin formulations, but whether or how their glucose-stabilizing effects differ remains unclear. We will compare the effects of these basal insulins on parameters related to blood glucose control, with a focus on day-to-day glycemic variability, in individuals with type 1 diabetes tre...
Similar glycaemic control with less nocturnal hypoglycaemia in a 38-week trial comparing the IDegAsp co-formulation with insulin glargine U100 and insulin aspart in basal insulin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
To confirm non-inferiority of insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) once-daily (OD) versus insulin glargine (IGlar) U100 OD+insulin aspart (IAsp) OD for HbA after 26 weeks, and compare efficacy and safety between groups at W26+W38.
First choice of therapy for severe hypoglycemia outside hospital environment is glucagon injection, an undertaught and underused remedy. Aim of this study was to investigate knowledge about glucagon therapy, possession rate and usage rate in insulin-treated diabetic patients, with special emphasis on history of hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia episodes.
Real-world evidence on effectiveness and safety of insulin degludec (IDeg) in patients with diabetes is a priority. The aim of the study was to evaluate patterns of use and the long-term effectiveness and safety of IDeg in routine clinical practice.
Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS, Hirata's disease) is a rare hypoglycemic disorder characterized by spontaneous hypoglycemia associated with extremely high circulating insulin levels and positive anti-insulin antibody results. Thus far, most cases have been reported in Asian countries, notably Japan, with few cases reported in western countries. As a possible cause, it is associated with the use of drugs containing sulfhydryl radicals, such as captopril. This report refers to a 63-year-old female Brazilian...
Hyperglycemia in inpatients is a major problem, especially when nutritional support is required. This study aims to assess the impact of treatment with insulin degludec (IDeg) on mean blood glucose (BG) and glycemic variability in noncritical hospitalized patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) receiving enteral and/or parenteral nutrition (EN, PN).
Association of Initiation of Basal Insulin Analogs vs Neutral Protamine Hagedorn Insulin With Hypoglycemia-Related Emergency Department Visits or Hospital Admissions and With Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.
In clinical trials of patients with type 2 diabetes, long-acting insulin analogs modestly reduced the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with human neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, but cost 2 to 10 times more. Outcomes in clinical practice may differ from trial results.
During labor, maintenance of maternal euglycemia is critical to decrease the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia and associated morbidities. When continuous intravenous insulin infusion is needed, standardized insulin dosing charts have been used for titration of insulin to maintain glucose in target range. GlucoStabilizer™ is a software-guided insulin dosing system that calculates the dose of intravenous insulin needed based on metabolic parameters, target glucose concentration, and an individual's response to...
The objective of this study was to ascertain the risk of hypoglycemia among youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on insulin therapy.
Background Tumor-induced hypoglycemia is a rare and serious complication that is usually a consequence of either excessive insulin secretion (insulinoma) or because of non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH). NICTH is a rare phenomenon seen most often in adult patients. It is associated with different tumor types. Here, we report the first case to the best of our knowledge in the literature of a pediatric patient with NICTH associated with desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRT). Case presentation This...
The I HART CGM study showed that real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) has greater beneficial impact on hypoglycemia than intermittent flash glucose monitoring (flash) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) at high risk. The impact of continuing RT-CGM or switching from flash to RT-CGM for another 8 weeks was then evaluated.
Study of MiniMed 640G Insulin Pump with SmartGuard in Prevention of Low Glucose Events in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes (SMILE): Design of a Hypoglycemia Prevention Trial with Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data as Outcomes.
Sensor-integrated pump systems with low-glucose suspend (also known as threshold suspend) functions have markedly transformed the management of type 1 diabetes, but most studies to date have excluded patients at high risk of hypoglycemia. The SMILE study is investigating the efficacy of the MiniMed™ 640G insulin pump with the SmartGuard™ predictive low-glucose management (PLGM) feature in the prevention of hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes, who are at high risk of hypoglycemia.
Postoperative hyperglycemia is associated with increased rate of surgical site infection, renal failure, and cardiovascular events. The study of insulin sensitivity state before surgery could help in treating postoperative hyperglycemia and preventing iatrogenic hypoglycemia. We studied the postoperative insulin secretion in patients who have a low insulin sensitivity (IR) before surgery compared to patients with normal preoperative insulin sensitivity (IS).
In children with presymptomatic type 1 diabetes, intermittent hyperglycemia and rising HbA1c levels are a known signal of progression towards insulin-dependency. Episodes of hypoglycemia, however, have also been reported in one published case. We investigated the prevalence of hypoglycemia and its association with disease progression in children with presymptomatic type 1 diabetes.
Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are insulin-dependent. Infection increases insulin resistance and subsequently increases insulin needs. We are reporting the first case of a patient with T1DM and severe infection who has reduced insulin needs after starting micafungin therapy.
In the past decade, there has been much advancement in oral antidiabetic agents, but few changes in insulin therapy. With the addition of the ultra-long-acting insulins, insulin glargine U300 (IGlar 300) and insulin degludec (IDeg 100 and IDeg 200), it is important to understand key aspects in the agents' clinical properties, efficacy, safety, dosing, packaging, and place in therapy.
In addition to assisting in achieving improved glucose control, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor technology may also aid in detection and prevention of hypoglycemia. In this paper, we report on the current scientific evidence on the effectiveness of this technology in the prevention of severe hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia unawareness.
Non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a rare but serious paraneoplastic syndrome associated with large tumors. The high molecular weight insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 2, known as "big" IGF2, is produced by culprit tumors and leads to severe hypoglycemia. The detailed mechanism of its production in NICTH, however, remains unclear.