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PubMed Journals Articles About "Cryofixation Chemical Fixation Electron Microscopy" RSS

08:58 EDT 18th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Cryofixation Chemical Fixation Electron Microscopy" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 14,000+

Chemical Fixation, Immunofluorescence, and Immunogold Labeling of Electron Microscopical Sections.

Knowledge about the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of proteins and other molecules of the cell is essential for understanding their function. A widely used technique is immunolabeling which uses specific antibodies to reveal the distribution of molecular components at various structural levels. Immunofluorescence gives an overview about the distribution of molecules at the level of the fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscope. Electron microscopy offers the highest resolution of morphologica...


Electron Microscopy to Study the Fine Structure of the Pneumococcal Cell.

Electron microscopy allows for studying bacterial ultrastructure at high resolutions. Two types of electron microscopes are used for this purpose. The transmission electron microscope allows for access to inner bacterial ultrastructure when imaging ultrathin sections as well as cell wall-attached structures by negative staining, whereas scanning electron microscopy allows for the detection of structures on the bacterial cell surface alone or to study the interplay between pneumococci and their host cells. T...

Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy to Analyze LC3 Proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryo.

In this chapter, we present a protocol to perform correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) on Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. We use a specific fixation method which preserves both the GFP fluorescence and the structural integrity of the samples. Thin sections are first analyzed by light microscopy to detect GFP-tagged proteins, then by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the ultrastructural anatomy of cells. The superimposition of light and electron images allows to determine the...


Improved Electron Microscopy Fixation Methods for Tracking Autophagy-Associated Membranes in Cultured Mammalian Cells.

Autophagy-related organelles, including omegasomes, isolation membranes (or phagophores), autophagosomes, and autolysosomes, are characterized by dynamic changes in lipid membranes including morphology as well as their associated proteins. Therefore, it is critical to define and track membranous elements for identification and detailed morphological analyses of these organelles. However, it is often difficult to clearly observe these organelles with good morphology in conventional electron microscopy (EM), ...

Antibodies raised against aldehyde-fixed antigens improve sensitivity for postembedding electron microscopy.

Antibodies are one of the most important tools in biological research. High specificity and sensitivity of antibodies are crucial to obtain reliable results. Tissue fixed with glutaraldehyde (GA) is commonly used in electron microscopical investigations. The fixation and embedding routine in preparation of tissue for post-embedding electron microscopy (EM) will mask and structurally alter epitopes, making antibody-antigen interaction inefficient, with low labeling intensities. One of the main factors in thi...

Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy of Autophagosomes.

Live-cell imaging has been widely used to study autophagosome biogenesis and maturation. When combined with correlative electron microscopy, this approach can be extended to reveal ultrastructural details in three dimensions. The resolution of electron microscopy is needed when membrane contact sites and tubular connections between organelles are studied.

Advances in metabolic engineering of heterotrophic microorganisms for CO₂ fixation: a review.

Environmental protection and energy supply are our two major concerns. Greenhouse gases released from energy consumption have serious impact on the environment. CO₂ fixation can be used to convert CO₂ into fuels or chemicals. However, natural carbon-fixing organisms usually have some disadvantages such as slow growth and low carbon fixation efficiency. Enhancing or remodeling CO₂ fixation pathways in model microorganisms can realize CO₂ recycling, which can further increase fuel or chemical producti...

Neurofilament-histomorphometry comparison in the evaluation of unmyelinated axon regeneration following peripheral nerve injury: an alternative to electron microscopy.

Currently, assessment of unmyelinated axon regeneration is limited to electron microscopy (EM), which is expensive, time consuming and not universally available. This study presents a protocol to estimate the number of unmyelinated axons in a regenerating peripheral nerve without the need for electron microscopy.

Preserve Cultured Cell Cytonemes through a Modified Electron Microscopy Fixation.

Immunocytochemistry of cultured cells is a common and effective technique for determining compositions and localizations of proteins within cellular structures. However, traditional cultured cell fixation and staining protocols are not effective in preserving cultured cell cytonemes, long specialized filopodia that are dedicated to morphogen transport. As a result, limited mechanistic interrogation has been performed to assess their regulation. We developed a fixation protocol for cultured cells that preser...

Development of novel correlative light and electron microscopy linkage system using silicon nitride film.

In this study, we investigated the optical properties of a silicon nitride (SiN) film. The thin SiN film (30 nm thick) exhibited good light transmittance and little autofluorescence and could be used as a microscope slide for optical microscopy (OM). In addition, we developed a novel correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) that combines OM with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using an SiN thin film. In this system, CLEM was performed by replacing a detachable retainer with a holder for TEM a...

Efficient Nitrogen Fixation Catalyzed by Gallium Nitride Nanowire Using Nitrogen and Water.

Ammonia is one of the most important bulk chemicals in modern society. However, the highly energy-extensive contemporary industrial production of ammonia was developed in the early 20th century and requires extensive heating of highly pressurized flammable hydrogen gas, whose global production still relies heavily on non-sustainable petroleum. The development of "sustainable" nitrogen fixation process represents a grand aspirational chemical pursuit concerning our future human well-being. Herein, we report ...

Design and simulation of a linear electron cavity for quantum electron microscopy.

Quantum electron microscopy (QEM) is a measurement approach that could reduce sample radiation damage, which represents the main obstacle to sub-nanometer direct imaging of molecules in conventional electron microscopes. This method is based on the exploitation of interaction-free measurements in an electron resonator. In this work, we present the design of a linear resonant electron cavity, which is at the core of QEM. We assess its stability and optical properties during resonance using ray-tracing electr...

Experimental steering of electron microscopy studies using prior X-ray computed tomography.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can provide unrivalled high-resolution images of specific features and volumes of interest. However, the regions interrogated are typically very small, and sample preparation is both time-consuming and destructive. Here we consider how prior X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) presents an opportunity to increase the efficiency of electron microscopy in biology. We demonstrate how it can be used to; select the most promising ...

Electron beam damage of perfluorosulfonic acid studied by soft X-ray spectromicroscopy.

Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) was used to study chemical changes to perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) spun cast thin films as a function of dose imparted by exposure of a 200 kV electron beam in a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The relationship between electron beam fluence and absorbed dose was calibrated using a modified version of a protocol based on the positive to negative lithography transition in PMMA [Leontowich et al, J. Synchrotron Rad. 19 (2012) 976]. STXM was used to charact...

The effect of composition and morphological features on the striation of .22LR ammunition.

In this paper, the effect of the chemical composition of .22LR bullets was studied and correlated to the extent and quality of the markings left after shooting them with the same gun. Scanning electron microscopy and optical comparator microscopy equipped with 3D and profilometry modules were used as non destructive techniques with two main purposes. The first is to assist the firearm examiner in the choice of the ammunition most suitable for preparing the test bullets. The second is to propose an approach,...

Size-dependent cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles to Azotobacter vinelandii: Growth inhibition, cell injury, oxidative stress and internalization.

The influence of nanomaterials on the ecological environment is becoming an increasingly hot research field, and many researchers are exploring the mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity on microorganisms. Herein, we studied the effect of two different sizes of nanosilver (10 nm and 50 nm) on the soil nitrogen fixation by the model bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii. Smaller size AgNPs correlated with higher toxicity, which was evident from reduced cell numbers. Flow cytometry analysis further confirmed this find...

Plan-view transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation for atomic layer materials using a focused ion beam approach.

Using the focused ion beam (FIB) to prepare plan-view transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens is beneficial for obtaining structural information of two-dimensional atomic layer materials, such as graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS) nanosheets supported on substrates. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image in a dual-beam FIB-SEM can accurately locate an area of interest for specimen preparation. Besides, FIB specimen preparation avoids damages and hydrocarbon contamination that are usually...

Direct-write crosslinking in vacuum-deposited small-molecule films using focussed ion and electron beams.

Recent advances in helium ion microscopy (HIM) have enabled the use of fine-focused He+ beams to image and shape materials at the nanoscale. In addition to traditional ion milling, the beam can also be used to induce reactions, such as cross-linking, in films of organic molecules. Here, we compare the use of focused ion and electron beams to fabricate spatially-defined cross-linked features in nanometre-thick films of tetracene. Ion and electron beam treatments were performed using the focussed energetic be...

Local Structure and Bonding of Carbon Nanothreads Probed by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy.

Carbon nanothreads are a new one-dimensional sp-bonded nanomaterial of CH stoichiometry synthesized from benzene at high pressure and room temperature by slow solid-state polymerization. The resulting threads assume crystalline packing hundreds of microns across. We show high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images of hexagonal arrays of well-aligned thread columns that traverse the 80-100 nm thickness of the prepared sample. Diffuse scattering in electron diffraction reveals that nanothreads are packe...

Application of Electron Microscopes in Nanotoxicity Assessment.

In this chapter, we highlight the applications of electron microscopes (EMs) in nanotoxicity assessment. EMs can provide detailed information about the size and morphology of nanomaterials (NMs), their localization in cells and tissues, the nano-bio interactions, as well as the ultrastructural changes induced by NMs exposure. Here, we share with the readers how we prepare the tissue sample, and the different types of EMs used among the nanotoxicologists. It is possible to deploy conventional EMs along or in...

Sample Preparation of Extracellular Matrix of Murine Colons for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for high-resolution morphological characterization of the extracellular matrix. In certain tissues and surfaces, imaging of the extracellular matrix requires cell removal before sample preparation. In this protocol, we will describe a method for preparing extracellular matrices derived from murine colon for imaging under a scanning electron microscope.

Electron-induced chemistry of surface-grown coordination polymers with different linker anions.

Electron beam processing of surface-grown coordination polymers is a versatile approach to the fabrication of nanoscale surface structures. Depending on their molecular components, these materials can be converted into pure metallic particles or they can be activated to become a template for the spatially selective decomposition of suitable gaseous precursor molecules and subsequent autocatalytic growth of deposits. However, insight into the fundamental electron-induced chemistry for such processes has been...

Uptake and persistence of bacterial magnetite magnetosomes in a mammalian cell line: Implications for medical and biotechnological applications.

Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize intracellular magnetic nanocrystals surrounded by a lipid bilayer called magnetosomes. Due to their unique characteristics, magnetite magnetosomes are promising tools in Biomedicine. However, the uptake, persistence, and accumulation of magnetosomes within mammalian cells have not been well studied. Here, the endocytic pathway of magnetite magnetosomes and their effects on human cervix epithelial (HeLa) cells were studied by electron microscopy and high spatial resolutio...

Taxonomic study of Triblemma by using light and scanning electron microscopy.

Triblemma Ching is a genus proposed by Ching Ren-Chang in 1978, and it is composed of two species, Triblemma lancea (Thunb.) Ching and Triblemma zeylanica (Hook.) Ching. There has been much debate on the systematic position of Triblemma, and this genus has always been included in Diplazium. Here, we have described new features of tracheary elements, epidermis, spore, scale, and rachis of Triblemma revealed using light and scanning electron microscopy and proposed that Triblemma is closely related to Athyrio...

The effects of osmium tetroxide post-fixation and drying steps on leafy liverwort ultrastructure study by scanning electron microscopy.

Leafy liverwort is one of the most abundant and diverse plants in Indonesia. Their high variation and beneficial secondary metabolites contained in the oil bodies have attracted researchers' attention. The ultrastructural analysis of leafy liverworts is important as a means of species identification and also for further exploration of their oil bodies. However, the optimization of the preparation steps for observing leafy liverworts by SEM is necessary to avoid sample destruction. Fixation and drying play i...


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