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Ever since the reprogramming of human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), scientists have been trying to determine if hiPSCs can give rise to progeny akin to native terminally differentiated cells as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) do. Many different somatic cell types have been successfully reprogrammed via a variety of methods. In this review, we will discuss recent studies comparing hiPSCs and hESCs and their ability to differentiate to desired cell types as well as explore diabete...
In a recent study published in Cell Stem Cell, Hu et al. (2019) used human adipose stem cell-derived adipocytes to demonstrate that genetic variation predicts anti-diabetic response to thiazolidinediones (TZDs) by modulating PPARγ binding.
Mechanisms regulating maintenance of the stem cell pool in facultative niches of the mammalian testis are poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Kitadate et al. (2019) propose a minimal model in which stem cells compete for limited resources of fibroblast growth factors, which predicts their density during homeostasis and regenerative conditions.
T cell-replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) is a valid therapeutic option for adult patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) lacking an HLA-matched sibling or unrelated donor.
Evidence suggests that hematopoietic progenitor cells self-replenish in situ over prolonged time frames, centering the question on the identity and source of growth factors maintaining HPC fidelity. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Comazzetto et al. (2019) suggest that normal stem and progenitor function relies on stem cell factor provided by distinct cellular sources.
The molecular basis for the neural stem cell quiescence-to-activation transition has become an important focus in the study of adult neurogenesis. Recently in Cell, Kalamakis et al. (2019) show that aged neural stem cells face greater barriers to exiting quiescence, imposed by the niche through inflammation and altered Wnt signaling.
Female scientists play important leadership roles in the field and with the International Society for Stem Cell Research. We asked a number of these top researchers to share their personal stories and reflect on their career paths. Part II of this series will run in the October 2018 issue of Stem Cell Reports.
With respect to recent advantage in stem cell application, given the concern reported previously after stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal stem cell-derived conditioned media (MSC-CM) could be a potential approach to guarantee more safety and efficient outcomes than the current stem cell-based regenerative therapies.
This study aimed to compare the short-term complications and long-term prognosis between urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD), and explore the safety and feasibility of PD in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with diabetes.
Radial glia-like neural stem cells (RGLs) in the mouse hippocampus generate neurons throughout life, but RGL maintenance mechanisms remain unclear. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Zhou et al. (2018) identified Mfge8, a well-known mediator of the "eat-me" signal, as a factor that reinforces quiescence and protects the RGL niche from depletion.
Little is known about skeletal stem cell populations in vivo. Recently in Cell, Chan et al. (2018) identified a human skeletal stem cell population that can be isolated from multiple human bone locations and is capable of self-renewal and differentiation into bone, cartilage, and stroma, but not fat.
Intracellular pH influences proliferation and differentiation in a range of stem-like and progenitor cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and cancer stem cells. Sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE1), a glycoprotein that plays a major role in regulating intracellular pH, has a major role in the proliferation and cell differentiation in multiple cell types. We review observations collected on the influence of pH on multiple stem-like cell populations. Alter...
Identification of key stemness regulators is critical for developing more effective therapies against acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (LSCs). In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Park et al. (2019) report that IKZF2, a member of the Ikaros family of transcription factors, drives self-renewal and suppresses differentiation in LSCs through modulation of chromatin accessibility.
November 2018 marks the 20 anniversary of the seminal human embryonic stem cell (hESC) publication, which reported the initial hESC derivations and launched the field of human pluripotent stem cell research. To commemorate this significant milestone, we reflect on the scientific, economic, and clinically relevant impact of this groundbreaking achievement.
The treatment options for diabetic retinopathy (DR) are limited. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising treatment option for diabetes and its complications. In this pilot clinical trial, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of intravenous autologous bone marrow MSCs (ABMSC) for the treatment of DR.
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) could potentially provide a potentially unlimited supply of T cells. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Montel-Hagen et al. (2019) take advantage of a three-dimensional mouse stromal cell-based system that combines mesoderm specification with organoid-induced hematopoietic differentiation to enable commitment, selection, and maturation of conventional human T cells.
Achilles tendon rupture is a common injury and the best treatment option remains uncertain between surgical and nonoperative methods. Biologic approaches using multipotent stem cells such as perivascular stem cells pose a possible treatment option, although there is currently a paucity of evidence regarding their clinical therapeutic use.
Hematopoietic stem cell function is closely tied to circadian rhythms. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Golan et al. (2018) identify crosstalk between circadian hormone signals, the inflammatory cytokine TNF, and bone marrow macrophages as a key regulator of HSC proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal in the bone marrow.
Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) describes clonal selection of a hematopoietic stem cell with a somatic mutation that confers increased fitness, influenced by a selective environment such as aging, inflammation, or therapeutic exposure. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Hsu et al. (2018) explore the role of cytotoxic therapy in disease-relevant CHIP.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has gained interest over the last decade as a viable option for early start dialysis. It is still unknown if shorter break-in periods and less time for proper patient evaluation and training could influence technique survival in comparison to planned-start PD.
Development of the vertebrate intestinal epithelial stem cell niche begins during embryogenesis but maturation occurs post-embryonic. The intestinal mammalian crypt contains stem cells interspersed by secretory cells that play a role in regulation of proliferation. Epithelial cells are specified as either secretory or enterocytes as they migrate up the villi in mammals or fold in zebrafish. Zebrafish forms a functional intestine by the end of embryogenesis but takes another four weeks to develop the adult p...
Diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 have become a global epidemic with dramatically increasing incidences. Poorly controlled diabetes is associated with severe life-threatening complications. Beside traditional treatment with insulin and oral anti-diabetic drugs, clinicians try to improve patient's care by cell therapies using embryonic stem cells (ESC), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). ESC display a virtually unlimited plasticity, including the differentiation i...