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PubMed Journals Articles About "Development Of A Model-based Working Memory Training And Investigation Of Its Comparative Efficacy" RSS

06:56 EST 20th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Development Model based Working Memory Training Investigation Comparative" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 66,000+

A Robust Model of Gated Working Memory.

Gated working memory is defined as the capacity of holding arbitrary information at any time in order to be used at a later time. Based on electrophysiological recordings, several computational models have tackled the problem using dedicated and explicit mechanisms. We propose instead to consider an implicit mechanism based on a random recurrent neural network. We introduce a robust yet simple reservoir model of gated working memory with instantaneous updates. The model is able to store an arbitrary real va...


ERP Evidence for the Effect of Working Memory Span Training on Working Memory Maintenance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

There is a lot of debate in the literature with regards to whether the effects of working memory span training generalize to working memory tasks that are different from the trained task, however, there is little evidence to date supporting this idea. The present randomized controlled trial included 80 undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (N = 40) or the control group (N = 40) in order to receive a working memory span intervention for 20 sessions over the course...

Evidence for the contribution of COMT gene Val158/108Met polymorphism (rs4680) to working memory training-related prefrontal plasticity.

Genetic factors have been suggested to affect the efficacy of working memory training. However, few studies have attempted to identify the relevant genes.


Evaluation of the Working Memory Training Program for the Elderly.

To investigate the benefits of the Working Memory Training on DVD for the elderly.

The Influence of Individual Differences in Cognitive Ability on Working Memory Training Gains.

Working memory training research has produced mixed results in terms of finding benefits beyond the trained tasks (i.e., transfer). One potential limitation is that the research thus far has failed to isolate the specific combination of factors that makes working memory training work best. Individual differences in cognitive ability at pretest may be an important factor, suggesting possible aptitude-by-treatment interactions. Baseline cognitive ability could be (a) positively related, (b) negatively related...

Working Memory: Flexible but Finite.

There are inherent trade-offs between the flexibility and the capacity of working memory, or the ability to temporarily hold information "in mind." In a recent issue of Neuron, Bouchacourt and Buschman (2019) present a new model of working memory that demonstrates how coordinated activity between specialized sensory networks and flexible higher-order networks may support these competing constraints.

Comparing Web-based and Classroom-based Memory Training for Older Adults: The ACTIVE Memory WorksTM Study.

Compare the efficacy of a web-based versus a classroom-based memory training program in enhancing cognition and everyday functioning in older adults, and program satisfaction and acceptability.

No evidence for any effect of multiple sessions of frontal transcranial direct stimulation on mood in healthy older adults.

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is part of a network important for emotional regulation and the possibility of modulating activity in this region with transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) to change mood has gained great interest, particularly for application in clinical populations. Whilst results in major depressive disorder have been promising, less is known about the effects of TDCS on mood in non-clinical populations. We hypothesized that multiple sessions of anodal TDCS applied ove...

Investigating the mediating effect of working memory on intentional forgetting in dysphoria.

Our aim was to determine if deficits in intentional forgetting that are associated with depression and dysphoria (subclinical depression) could be explained, at least in part, by variations in working memory function. Sixty dysphoric and 61 non-dysphoric participants completed a modified version of the think/no-think (TNT) task and a measure of complex working memory (the operation span task). The TNT task involved participants learning a series of emotional cue-target word pairs, before being presented wit...

The effect of emotional working memory training on emotional and cognitive outcomes in individuals with elevated social anxiety.

Although cognitive-behavioural therapy is the gold standard psychological treatment for individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), it does not benefit everyone. Emotional working memory training (eWMT) is a promising alternative intervention. This study examined the effects of eWMT versus control training (CT) on emotional and cognitive outcomes in individuals with elevated social anxiety.

Visual working memory representation as a topological defined perceptual object.

The question of what the basic unit is of visual working memory remains one of the most fundamental and controversial issues. In the current study, we proposed a unique perspective based on early topological perception to describe the nature of representation in visual working memory. In a series of updating change-detection tasks, the repetition-benefit effect on color memory was not affected when items in the second memory array underwent massive changes of nontopological features from the first memory ar...

The Effect of Fatigue on Working Memory and Auditory Perceptual Abilities in Trained Musicians.

Purpose Many perceptual processing processes, such as cognition, vision, sensation, and audition, are affected due to fatigue. Musicians are prone to fatigue because of long working hours and demanding profession. The research on assessing working memory abilities in musicians is heterogeneous, as none of the studies has controlled the effect of fatigue. This study was thus designed to assess the effect of fatigue on working memory and auditory perception in trained instrumental musicians. Method Twenty-six...

Obesity is associated with poor working memory in women, not men: Findings from a nationally representative dataset of U.S. adults.

A growing body of research has linked obesity to lower working memory performance. However, sex differences are often found in associations between obesity and cognition, and little work has examined potential sex differences in the association between obesity and working memory. To address this issue, the present research uses data from Wave IV of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 4,769, mean age = 29) to examine whether sex moderated the association between excess ...

Hearing aid experience and background noise affect the robust relationship between working memory and speech recognition in noise.

The aim of this study was to examine how background noise and hearing aid experience affect the robust relationship between working memory and speech recognition. Matrix sentences were used to measure speech recognition in noise. Three measures of working memory were administered. Study sample: 148 participants with at least 2 years of hearing aid experience. A stronger overall correlation between working memory and speech recognition performance was found in a four-talker babble than in a stationary noise ...

Differential effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade during the second and third postnatal weeks on spatial working and reference memory in adult rats.

The present study investigated the effects of chronic NMDA receptor blockade during different developmental age after birth on the performance of two kinds of spatial memory tasks. Rats were chronically treated with MK-801 only during the 2nd or 3rd postnatal week or both, and later they were trained in radial maze and Morris water maze tasks. In radial maze training, MK-801 treatment in the 2nd postnatal week significantly impaired learning as well as the treatment of both the 2nd and 3rd weeks did. On the...

Visual working memory impairments for single items following medial temporal lobe damage.

A growing body of research indicates that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is essential not only for long-term episodic memory but also for visual working memory (VWM). In particular, recent work has shown that the MTL is especially important for VWM when complex, high-resolution binding is required. However, all of these studies tested VWM for multiple items which invites the possibility that working memory capacity was exceeded and patient impairments instead reflected deficits in long-term memory. Thus, th...

Does spatial attention modulate sensory memory?

According to some theoretical models, information contained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) consists of two main memory stages/storages: sensory memory, a system wherein information is stored for a brief time with high detail and low resistance to visual interference, and visual working memory, a low-capacity system wherein information is protected from visual interference and maintained for longer delays. Previous studies have consistently shown a strong relationship between attention and visual working...

Working memory updating training modulates a cascade of event-related potentials depending on task load.

The brain mechanisms of working memory (WM) training in humans remain unclear. Here we examined how WM updating training modulates a cascade of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited at different processing stages. We hypothesized that WM updating training results to decreases in the early responses reflecting stimulus selection and response preparation, and increases the late slow responses reflecting maintenance of to-be-remembered materials. Healthy adults were randomized to a WM updating group that tr...

Differential trajectories of memory quality and guessing across sequential reports from working memory.

Working memory enables the storage of few items for a short period of time. Previous research has shown that items in working memory cannot be accessed equally well, indicating that they are held in at least two different states with different capacity limitations. However, it is unclear whether differences between states are due to limitations of the number of items that can be stored, or the quality with which items are stored. We employed a sequential whole-report procedure where participants reported th...

Distinct role of flexible and stable encodings in sequential working memory.

The serial-position effect in working memory is considered important for studying how a sequence of sensory information can be retained and manipulated simultaneously in neural memory circuits. Here, via a precise analysis of the primacy and recency effects in human psychophysical experiments, we propose that stable and flexible codings take distinct roles of retaining and updating information in working memory, and that their combination induces serial-position effects spontaneously. We found that stable e...

The contents of visual working memory delay the perceived offset of matching visual stimuli.

Previous research suggests that the perception of stimulus onset can be accelerated by a match between the contents of visual working memory and the stimulus presented alone in the peripheral visual field. This onset acceleration effect might contribute to previously reported effects of working memory on perceived stimulus duration. However, it remains possible that the contents of visual working memory may also modulate the offset perception of matching visual stimuli, thereby contributing to the modulatio...

Compared to outcome pressure, observation pressure produces differences in performance of N-back tasks: an ERP study.

Previous studies have reported that observation pressure and outcome pressure impact working memory, but have not investigated whether they exert different effects on working memory. The neuronal activity in some brain areas encodes task-related information corresponding to working memory across delay periods. Therefore, changes in working memory under pressure can be further verified by exploring neuronal activity changes in brain areas under pressure. In this study, we used an N-back task and event-relate...

Measuring individual differences in cognitive abilities in the lab and on the web.

The present study compared lab-based and web-based versions of cognitive individual difference measures widely used in second language research (working memory and declarative memory). Our objective was to validate web-based versions of these tests for future research and to make these measures available for the wider second language research community, thus contributing to the study of individual differences in language learning. The establishment of measurement equivalence of the two administration modes ...

The effect of cognitive training in older adults: be aware of CRUNCH.

Cognitive training research has revealed support for both the magnification and compensation accounts, respectively predicting larger or smaller training benefits for individuals already having strong cognitive abilities. A recent study in older adults (OAs) revealed evidence for the Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis, which best fits a magnification account. Only few studies examined working memory (WM) training gains in OAs as a function of initial executive functioning level. ...

Influences of Cognitive Load on Sensorimotor Contributions to Working Memory: An EEG investigation of mu rhythm activity during speech discrimination.

Sensorimotor activity during speech perception is highly variable and is thought to be related to the underlying cognitive processes recruited to meet task demands. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of cognitive load on sensorimotor-based attention and working memory processes during speech perception with set size and signal clarity employed to alter cognitive load. Raw EEG data from 42 subjects during accurate discrimination of CV syllable pairs was decomposed by Independent comp...


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