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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a significant public health issue in New Zealand. Effective management and glycaemic control is critical for reducing diabetes-related complications. Treatment guidelines are well established in New Zealand. Using dispensing data as a proxy for prescribing data, this paper aims to describe the pattern of first- and second-line antidiabetic agent (AA) dispensing for T2DM in New Zealand and assess adherence with treatment guidelines.
From November 2014 to November 2015, an experiment in French community pharmacies replaced traditional pre-packed boxes by per-unit dispensing of pills in the exact numbers prescribed, for 14 antibiotics.
Antiviral drugs are likely to be a frontline countermeasure needed to minimize disease impact during an influenza pandemic. As part of pandemic influenza preparedness efforts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in coordination with state health departments, has plans in place to distribute and dispense antiviral drugs from public stockpiles. These plans are currently under review and include evaluation of the benefits of commercial distribution and dispensing through community pharmacies. To en...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic factors and pharmacy dispensing of medications for erectile dysfunction (ED) in the general population of middle-aged and elderly men. By considering a number of medical conditions that could promote or contraindicate use of ED medication, the analysis could help capture prescription patterns that might not be explained by medical needs.
To evaluate and describe outcomes of state and local medical countermeasure preparedness planning, which is critical to ensure rapid distribution and dispensing of a broad spectrum of life-saving medical assets during a public health emergency.
Prescription opioid abuse has rapidly increased in recent years and is now considered a national epidemic by the United States government. Community pharmacies are at the forefront of opioid abuse, given their role in dispensing opioid prescriptions. Despite this role, however, there are few known guidelines to help community pharmacists navigate the process of detecting and managing prescription opioid abuse.
We sought to understand how pharmacists viewed and used a newly implemented prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP). We also sought to understand pharmacist orientation toward dispensing of controlled substances and the people who obtain them.
Studies around the world have shown that interactions between pharmaceutical companies, pharmacists and physicians have a great influence on prescribing and drug dispensing practices. In middle-income countries, the nature and extent of these interactions have not been well researched. Our objectives were to qualitatively explore the nature of the interactions between pharmaceutical companies, physicians and pharmacists, their impact on drug prescription and dispensing practices in Lebanon.
This study investigated structural and organizational characteristics of the Pharmaceutical Services based on Primary Health Care (PHCPS) from the viewpoints of users and pharmacists. A mixed method design was applied, combining one-to-one semi-structured interviews with four pharmacists in charge of five public dispensing facilities and 69 users, with a secondary database analysis. Data were collected from February to August 2014 in Divinópolis, a municipality in Minas Gerais State. PHCPS were similar in ...
Multi-dose drug dispensing (MDD) is a dosing aid that provides patients with disposable bags containing all drugs intended for 1 dosing moment. MDD is believed to increase medication adherence, but studies are based on self-reported data, and results may depend on socially desirable answers. Therefore, our purpose was to determine the effect of MDD on medication adherence in non-adherent patients taking vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), and to compare with instructing patients on medication use.
Irrational use of antibiotics is a major driver of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), exacerbated by dispensing of antibiotics without a prescription especially for typically viral infections. Such dispensing is common despite legislation. Pharmacists play a key role advising on medicines especially in countries where most patients seek pharmacist help as they cannot afford both physician fees and medicines. Consequently, the objective was to ascertain skills and knowledge of pharmacists regarding antibiotics ...
Medication errors threaten patient safety by requiring admission, readmission, and/or a longer hospital stay, and can even be fatal. Near-misses indicate the potential for medication errors to have occurred. Therefore, reporting near-misses is a first step in preventing medication errors. The aim of this study was to estimate the reporting rate of near-misses among pharmacists in Korean hospitals, and to identify the factors that contributed to reporting medication errors.We surveyed 245 pharmacists from 32...
Inadequate medication dispensing and management by healthcare providers can contribute to poor outcomes among HIV-positive patients. Gaps in medication availability, often associated with pharmacy workforce shortages, are an important barrier to retention in HIV care in Uganda. An intervention to address pharmacy staffing constraints through strengthening pharmaceutical management, dispensing practices, and general competencies of facility clinical and pharmacy staff was implemented in 14 facilities in thre...
The increased world-wide availability of point-of-care (POC) tests utilizing fingerstick blood has led to testing scenarios in which multiple separate fingersticks are performed during a single patient encounter, generating cumulative discomfort and reducing testing efficiency. We have developed a device capable of a) collection of up to 100 μL of fingerstick blood from a single fingerstick by capillary action, and b) dispensing this blood in variable increments set by the user. We tested the prototype dev...
High antibiotic consumption rates are associated to high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Geographical differences in dispensing rates of antibiotics are frequently analysed using statistical methods addressing the central tendency of the data. Yet, examining extreme quantiles may be of equal or greater interest if the problem relates to the extremes of consumption rates, as is the case for antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate how geographic location (latitude) and...
To test if offering zero generic co-pays for oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) and statins increases generic dispensing for low-income subsidy (LIS) recipients with diabetes enrolled in Medicare Part D.
The aim was to describe medication errors (MEs) in hospitalized children reported to the national mandatory reporting and learning system, the Danish Patient Safety Database (DPSD). MEs were extracted from DPSD from the 5-year period of 2010-2014. We included reports from public hospitals on patients aged 0-17 years and categorized by reporters as medication-related. Reports from psychiatric wards and outpatient clinics were excluded. A ME was defined as any medication-related error occurring in the medica...
Low dose naltrexone (LDN) has become a popular off-label therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). A few small, randomized studies indicate that LDN may have beneficial effects in MS and other autoimmune diseases. If proven efficacious, it would be a cheap and safe alternative to the expensive treatments currently recommended for MS. We investigated whether a sudden increase in LDN use in Norway in 2013 was followed by changes in dispensing of other medications used to treat MS. We performed a quasi-experimental...
We sought to assess whether a high-profile publication that demonstrated serious clinical consequences of specific drug-drug interactions (DDIs) reduced the concomitant use of those drugs. We conducted a quasi-experimental study using 2000-2008 prescription claims from a commercial health insurer to examine trends in the dispensing of the interacting drug pairs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors[ACEI] + potassium-sparing diuretic, digoxin + clarithromycin, and glyburide + cotrimoxazole) and control d...
Evidence of safety issues associated with long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) treatment has led to multiple regulatory activities by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on this class of medications.
To determine whether local trainer-led TARGET antibiotic interactive workshops improve antibiotic dispensing in general practice.
Results of a study to determine behavioral factors that help explain why nurses often do not obtain and administer medications from automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) "one patient at a time" are reported.
Insurance-based "lock-in" programs (LIPs) have become a popular strategy to address controlled substance (CS) (e.g., opioid) misuse. However, little is known about their impacts. We examined changes in CS dispensing to beneficiaries in the 12-month North Carolina Medicaid LIP.
National guidelines recommend that patients with anaphylaxis be prescribed an epinephrine auto-injector (EAI) and referred to an allergy/immunology (A/I) specialist.