PubMed Journals Articles About "Drug Keytruda Help Block Melanoma Return" RSS

08:29 EDT 20th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Drug Keytruda Help Block Melanoma Return" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Next-generation sequencing in drug development: target identification and genetically stratified clinical trials.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enabled high-throughput analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships on human populations, ushering in a new era of genetics-informed drug development. The year 2017 was remarkable, with the first FDA-approved gene therapy for cancer (Kymriah™) and for inherited diseases (LUXTURNA™), the first multiplex NGS panel for companion diagnostics (MSK-IMPACT™) and the first drug targeting a genetic signature rather than a disease (Keytruda). We envision that population-scale N...

Chitosan-carboxymethyl-5-fluorouracil-folate conjugate particles: Microwave modulated uptake by skin and melanoma cells.

5-Fluorouracil delivery profiles in the form of chitosan-folate submicron particles through skin and melanoma cells in vitro were examined using microwave as the penetration enhancer. Its in vivo pharmacokinetics profiles were also determined. Chitosan-carboxymethyl-5-fluorouracil-folate conjugate was synthesized and processed into submicron particles by spray drying technique. The size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content, drug release, as well as skin permeation and retention, pharmacokinetics, in vi...

Reversal of Deep Pipecuronium-Induced Neuromuscular Block With Moderate Versus Standard Dose of Sugammadex: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Noninferiority Trial.

Certain surgical interventions may require a deep neuromuscular block (NMB). Reversal of such a block before tracheal extubation is challenging. Because anticholinesterases are ineffective in deep block, sugammadex 4 mg/kg has been recommended for the reversal of rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced deep NMB. However, this recommendation requires opening 2 vials of 200 mg sugammadex, which results in an increase in drug costs. Therefore, we sought a less expensive solution for the induction and reversal of dee...

New antineoplastic agent based on a dibenzoylmethane derivative: Cytotoxic effect and direct interaction with DNA.

Melanoma accounts for only 4% of all skin cancers but is among the most lethal cutaneous neoplasms. Dacarbazine is the drug of choice for the treatment of melanoma in Brazil through the public health system mainly because of its low cost. However, it is an alkylating agent of low specificity and elicits a therapeutic response in only 20% of cases. Other drugs available for the treatment of melanoma are expensive, and tumor cells commonly develop resistance to these drugs. The fight against melanoma demands ...

Variation in daily ultraviolet light exposure and sun protection behaviours of melanoma survivors: an observational single-arm pilot study with a wearable sensor.

Melanoma survivors are at risk to develop another melanoma and the same patterns of sun exposure that caused the initial melanoma contribute to the risk for a second melanoma. Despite awareness of the risk of developing another melanoma and the benefit of sun protection in modifying that risk, melanoma survivors often engage in unprotected episodes of sun exposure resulting in sunburn. While melanoma survivors initially decrease sun exposure following diagnosis, these changes are not maintained. This proof-...

Impact of primary care provider density on detection and diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma.

Early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma is critical in preventing melanoma-associated deaths, but the role of primary care providers (PCPs) in diagnosing melanoma is underexplored. We aimed to explore the association of PCP density with melanoma incidence and mortality.

Bad Company: Microenvironmentally Mediated Resistance to Targeted Therapy in Melanoma.

This review will focus on the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in the development of drug resistance in melanoma. Resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors (MAPKi) in melanoma is observed months after treatment, a phenomenon that is often attributed to the incredible plasticity of melanoma cells but may also depend on the TME. The TME is unique in its cellular composition - it contains fibroblasts, immune cells, endothelial cells, adipocytes and amongst others. In addition, the TME p...

Thymoquinone induces apoptosis in B16-F10 melanoma cell through inhibition of p-STAT3 and inhibits tumor growth in a murine intracerebral melanoma model.

Prognosis of patients with melanoma brain metastasis is poor despite various chemotherapeutic agents. Researchers focus on finding effective treatment with low risk of toxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ) has been found to be effective on different types of cancer. However, no data exists on the effect of TQ in intracerebral melanoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of TQ in B16-F10 melanoma cell in vitro and intracerebral melanoma in vivo.

A Nonquiescent "Idling" Population State in Drug-Treated, BRAF-Mutated Melanoma.

Targeted therapy is an effective standard of care in BRAF-mutated malignant melanoma. However, the duration of tumor remission varies unpredictably among patients, and relapse is almost inevitable. Here, we examine the responses of several BRAF-mutated melanoma cell lines (including isogenic subclones) to BRAF inhibitors. We observe complex response dynamics across cell lines, with short-term responses (

Peptide-modified vemurafenib-loaded liposomes for targeted inhibition of melanoma via the skin.

Vemurafenib is a chemotherapeutic drug recently approved by the FDA to treat melanoma. Because the drug is usually delivered orally, the route of administration readily causes damage to major organs with limited antitumor efficacy and bioavailability. In this study, we developed a peptide-modified vemurafenib-loaded liposome for the targeted inhibition of subcutaneous melanoma via the skin. First, the peptide-modified vemurafenib-loaded liposomes (Vem-TD-Lip) were prepared and characterized with respect to ...

MicroRNA-211 loss promotes metabolic vulnerability and BRAF inhibitor sensitivity in melanoma.

The clinical management of malignant melanoma remains a challenge because these tumors are intrinsically aggressive and prone to therapeutic resistance. Micro-RNA (miR)-211 is an emerging melanoma oncogene. Melanoma metabolism adapts to promote survival, including in response to BRAF inhibition, but how miR-211 participates in this process is unknown. Here we generated miR-211 loss-of-function cell lines using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and show that miR-211 loss slowed growth and invasion in vitro, inhibited p...

Intratumoral administration of carboplatin bearing poly (ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles amalgamated with in situ gel tendered augmented drug delivery, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis in melanoma tumor.

In a phase II clinical trial, carboplatin (CBDCA) displayed the response rate of 19% equivalent to dacarbazine in the treatment of malignant melanoma. However, besides desirable therapeutic profile, intravenous (i.v) administration of CBDCA delivers a subtherapeutic concentration at the target site. This entails administration of CBDCA through an alternate route by using nanovectors to achieve therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of melanoma.

Malignant Melanoma: Diagnostic and Management Update.

After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Summarize the changes to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Eighth Edition Melanoma Staging System. 2. List advances in genetic, molecular, and histopathologic melanoma diagnosis and prognostication. 3. Recommend sentinel lymph node biopsy and appropriate surgical margins based on individualized patient needs. 4. Recognize the currently available treatments for in-transit metastasis and advanced melanoma. 5. Describe current and future t...

Glutathione Reductase-mediated Thiol Oxidative Stress Suppresses Metastasis of Murine Melanoma Cells.

Malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic and life-threatening cancer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in cancer initiation and progression including metastasis. It has been reported that the oxidative stress spontaneously generated in circulating melanoma cells was able to suppress distant metastasis in vivo. However, little is known regarding the effects and mechanism of glutathione reductase (GR) inhibition-induced oxidative stress in regulation of melanoma metastasis. Here, we demonst...

Decision to Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Part I: A Qualitative Investigation of Psychosocial Factors.

  Return-to-sport criteria after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are often based on "satisfactory" functional and patient-reported outcomes. However, an individual's decision to return to sport is likely multifactorial; psychological and physical readiness to return may not be synonymous.

Melanoma in US Hispanics: recommended strategies to reduce disparities in outcomes.

Cutaneous melanoma is the most fatal form of skin cancer and presents a considerable public health concern in the United States. Although the age-adjusted incidence of melanoma among US Hispanics is lower than that of non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), Hispanics who are diagnosed with melanoma are more likely to present with thicker primary tumors, metastatic disease, and lower 5-year melanoma-specific survival rates than NHWs. Melanoma risk factors and reasons for late presentation among Hispanics are not complet...

PD-L1 expression in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is a poor prognostic factor for primary acral melanoma patients.

Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade immunotherapy has shown notable therapeutic benefit in metastatic melanoma, while the clinical relevance of PD-L1 expression remains unclear in melanoma, especially in acral melanoma which is the most common subtype in Asians. Our study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of PD-L1 expression in primary acral melanoma.

Oxyfadichalcone C inhibits melanoma A375 cell proliferation and metastasis via suppressing PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways.

Melanoma remains to be one of the most incurable cancers. Discovery of novel antitumor agent for melanoma therapy is expected. We recently isolated Oxyfadichalcone C from Oxytropis falcate and investigated the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic activity on human melanoma A375 cells in vitro.

A lentiviral vector-based insertional mutagenesis screen identifies mechanisms of resistance to MAPK inhibitors in melanoma.

The treatment of melanoma patients has been revolutionized by the development of targeted therapies such as BRAF and MEK inhibitors which have achieved response rates above 50% and median overall survival of more than 12 months. Similarly, immunotherapies such as checkpoint inhibitors have been used to obtain response rates of up to 70%, with a proportion of patients having long-term durable responses (Luke et al., 2017). Despite these advances, the majority of melanoma patients cannot be cured with availa...

INSIGHT Study Maternal Return to Work and Infant Weight Outcomes.

Maternal return to work within 12 weeks of delivery is associated with poor child health and development. However, little is known about the impact of return to work on child obesity risk. We examined whether timing of maternal return to work is associated with rapid infant weight gain from 0-6 months and weight-for-length at 1 year.

Concomitant BCORL1 and BRAF Mutations in Vemurafenib-Resistant Melanoma Cells.

BRAF is the most frequently mutated gene in melanoma. Constitutive activation of mutant BRAFleads to aberrant Ras-independent MAPK signaling and cell transformation. Inhibition of mutant BRAF is a current frontline therapy for such cases, with improved survival compared with chemotherapy. Unfortunately, reactivation of MAPK signaling by several mechanisms has been shown to cause drug resistance and disease recurrence. In this work, we describe the co-occurrence of an in-frame deletion within an amplified BR...

MicroRNA-622 is a novel mediator of tumorigenicity in melanoma by targeting Kirsten rat sarcoma.

The network of molecular players is similar when comparing neural crest-derived, actively migrating melanoblasts to melanoma cells. However, melanoblasts are sensitive to differentiation-initiating signals at their target site (epidermis), while melanoma cells maintain migratory and undifferentiated features. We aimed at identifying downregulated genes in melanoma that are particularly upregulated in melanoblasts. Loss of such genes could contribute to stabilization of a dedifferentiated, malignant phenotyp...

Cutaneous melanoma in adolescents and young adults.

Cutaneous melanoma is rare in children, but has greater incidence in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Diagnosis may be challenging due to its rarity in these age groups. Few studies have specifically addressed the topic of AYA melanoma. Though young-age melanoma may have particular biological characteristics, available data suggest that its clinical history is similar to that of adults. However, advances in treatment of adult melanoma have not been reflected in the treatment of AYAs. There is no standar...

Targeting the (Un)differentiated State of Cancer.

Dedifferentation in cancer is associated with intrinsic and acquired resistance to therapies. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Tsoi et al. identify four differentiation states in melanoma and provide evidence that melanoma cells develop drug resistance through a stepwise dedifferentiation process, making them vulnerable to ferroptotic cell death-inducing compounds.

Melanoma risk prediction using a multi-locus genetic risk score in the Women's Health Initiative cohort.

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with melanoma have been identified though genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, the combined impact of these SNPs on melanoma development remains unclear, particularly in post-menopausal women who carry lower melanoma risk.

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