PubMed Journals Articles About "Drug Keytruda Help Block Melanoma Return" RSS

03:40 EDT 21st May 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Drug Keytruda Help Block Melanoma Return" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 11,000+

Escaping BRAF inhibition: a "linc" with non-coding RNAs?

One of the major challenges in the field remains the defeat of resistance towards BRAF inhibition, mainly caused by the high heterogeneity and plasticity of melanoma cells. Understanding mechanisms of drug resistance and finding new strategies to block the relapse are therefore major concerns in the melanoma field. So far however, most of the focus remained on the identification of genetic events affecting proteins-coding genes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Ultraviolet light and melanoma.

Melanoma is a clinically heterogeneous disease and current treatment strategies of the primary tumour are based on pathological criteria alone. In the recent past, several DNA and RNA sequencing studies of primary and advanced melanoma samples have identified unique relationships between somatic mutations, genomic aberrations and the genetic fingerprint of ultraviolet light radiation (UVR). The recurrent patterns of genomic alterations reveal different disease pathways, drug targets and mechanisms limiting ...

Next-generation sequencing in drug development: target identification and genetically stratified clinical trials.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enabled high-throughput analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships on human populations, ushering in a new era of genetics-informed drug development. The year 2017 was remarkable, with the first FDA-approved gene therapy for cancer (Kymriah™) and for inherited diseases (LUXTURNA™), the first multiplex NGS panel for companion diagnostics (MSK-IMPACT™) and the first drug targeting a genetic signature rather than a disease (Keytruda). We envision that population-scale N...

Synchronous conjunctival melanoma and lentigo maligna melanoma.

Lentigo maligna has an extensive and neoplastic character. It typically progresses slowly and may eventually develop into an invasive melanoma, which is called lentigo maligna melanoma. Ocular melanoma is the second most common type of melanoma. The uvea is the most common site of origin of ocular melanomas, while conjunctival melanoma accounts for about 1-5% of cases. In this article, we describe a rare case of synchronic conjunctival melanoma and lentigo maligna on the face.

Multicompartment Theranostic Nanoemulsions Stabilized by a Triphilic Semifluorinated Block Copolymer.

The presence of a perfluorocarbon block in an amphiphilic polymer has been shown to be an additional driving force towards nanoparticle assembly. In the preparation of nanoemulsions, this perfluorocarbon block also provides enhanced particle stability. Herein, the synthesis of a new triphilic, semifluorinated amphiphile, M2F8H18, is introduced. This ABC type block copolymer can be used to formulate extremely stable nanoemulsions, assembled around a lipophilic droplet, with lifetimes of one year or more. The...

Intercellular Resistance to BRAF Inhibition Can Be Mediated by Extracellular Vesicle-Associated PDGFRβ.

Treatment of BRAF mutant melanoma with kinase inhibitors has been associated with rapid tumor regression; however, this clinical benefit is short-lived, and most patients relapse. A number of studies suggest that the extracellular environment promotes BRAF inhibitor resistance and tumor progression. Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are functional mediators in the extracellular environment. They are small vesicles known to carry a concentrated group of functional cargo and serve as intercellular com...

Frustration stress (unexpected loss of alternative reinforcement) increases opioid self-administration in a model of recovery.

Engaging in alternative activities in the context where opioid use had occurred can constrain opioid use and helps to maintain recovery. However, "frustration stress" that occurs when contingencies on these alternative activities unexpectedly change (e.g., job loss or divorce) is thought to threaten recovery by prompting a return to drug use. Yet it remains unclear whether frustration stress can result in a return to drug use, and if so, whether it returns to prior levels or to even greater levels.

BRAF-inhibitors can exert control of disease in BRAF T599I mutated melanoma: a case report.

BRAF signaling is involved in melanoma growth in more than half of metastatic patients. In the last few years, new drugs that block this pathway have significantly improved the outcomes of patients with metastatic melanoma. Ninety percent of BRAF mutations involve exon 15, and the most frequent, V600E, results from the amino acid change from valine (V) to glutamic acid (E). BRAF inhibitor treatments have shown a notable overall response rate and improvements in progression-free and overall survival. Rare BR...

Rare germline variants in known melanoma susceptibility genes in familial melanoma.

Known high-risk cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) genes account for melanoma risk in 

Novel therapeutic strategies and targets in advanced uveal melanoma.

Currently, there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved or effective treatment options for advanced-stage uveal melanoma. In this article, we focus on therapeutic targets in pathways/mechanisms associated with common mutations in uveal melanoma. We review the challenges associated with targeting of these pathways and novel treatment strategies.

New antineoplastic agent based on a dibenzoylmethane derivative: Cytotoxic effect and direct interaction with DNA.

Melanoma accounts for only 4% of all skin cancers but is among the most lethal cutaneous neoplasms. Dacarbazine is the drug of choice for the treatment of melanoma in Brazil through the public health system mainly because of its low cost. However, it is an alkylating agent of low specificity and elicits a therapeutic response in only 20% of cases. Other drugs available for the treatment of melanoma are expensive, and tumor cells commonly develop resistance to these drugs. The fight against melanoma demands ...

Thymoquinone induces apoptosis in B16-F10 melanoma cell through inhibition of p-STAT3 and inhibits tumor growth in a murine intracerebral melanoma model.

Prognosis of patients with melanoma brain metastasis is poor despite various chemotherapeutic agents. Researchers focus on finding effective treatment with low risk of toxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ) has been found to be effective on different types of cancer. However, no data exists on the effect of TQ in intracerebral melanoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of TQ in B16-F10 melanoma cell in vitro and intracerebral melanoma in vivo.

A Nonquiescent "Idling" Population State in Drug-Treated, BRAF-Mutated Melanoma.

Targeted therapy is an effective standard of care in BRAF-mutated malignant melanoma. However, the duration of tumor remission varies unpredictably among patients, and relapse is almost inevitable. Here, we examine the responses of several BRAF-mutated melanoma cell lines (including isogenic subclones) to BRAF inhibitors. We observe complex response dynamics across cell lines, with short-term responses (

Melanoma in situ mimicking a Lichen planus-like keratosis.

The incidence of melanoma has steadily increased over the past three decades. Melanoma in situ (MIS),  defined as melanoma that is limited to the epidermis, contributes to a disproportionately high percentage of this rising incidence. Amelanotic melanoma presents as an erythematous macule or plaque and may initially be misdiagnosed as an inflammatory disorder. We report a case of amelonatic MIS raised on non-sun-exposed skin, inducing a lichen planus-like keratosis as inflammatory reaction, which clinicall...

Stabilization of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) star block copolymer micelles via aromatic groups for improved drug delivery properties.

The functionalization of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) block copolymers with moieties allowing for core-crosslinking is expected to result in improved micellar stability and drug delivery properties.

Prognostic Role of BRAFV600E Cellular Localization in Melanoma.

Approximately half of cutaneous melanoma tissues harbor BRAFV600E mutations, resulting in a constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport machinery is dysregulated in neoplastic cells and alters the key regulatory proteins that can lead to tumor progression, and drug resistance. The significance of nuclear localization of BRAFV600E has not been fully understood. Herein, we examined the clinical significance of intracellular localization of BRAFV600E in cutaneous melanoma.

MALDI MSI of MeLiM melanoma: Searching for differences in protein profiles.

Treatment of advanced cutaneous melanoma remains challenging, and new data on melanoma biology are required. The most widely accepted criteria for the prognostic evaluation of melanoma are histopathological and clinical parameters, and the identification of additional tumor markers is thus of paramount importance. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI), an important tool in cancer research, is useful for unraveling the molecular profile of melanoma.

Intratumoral administration of carboplatin bearing poly (ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles amalgamated with in situ gel tendered augmented drug delivery, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis in melanoma tumor.

In a phase II clinical trial, carboplatin (CBDCA) displayed the response rate of 19% equivalent to dacarbazine in the treatment of malignant melanoma. However, besides desirable therapeutic profile, intravenous (i.v) administration of CBDCA delivers a subtherapeutic concentration at the target site. This entails administration of CBDCA through an alternate route by using nanovectors to achieve therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of melanoma.

Marijuana use among adults: Initiation, return to use, and continued use versus quitting over a one-year follow-up period.

This study examined factors associated with marijuana use initiation among never users, prior-to-past year user who return to use, and users who continue use over a 12-month follow-up period.

Decision to Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Part I: A Qualitative Investigation of Psychosocial Factors.

  Return-to-sport criteria after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are often based on "satisfactory" functional and patient-reported outcomes. However, an individual's decision to return to sport is likely multifactorial; psychological and physical readiness to return may not be synonymous.

Bile acid-based drug delivery systems for enhanced doxorubicin encapsulation: Comparing hydrophobic and ionic interactions in drug loading and release.

Doxorubicin (Dox) is a drug of choice in the design of drug delivery systems directed towards breast cancers, but is often limited by loading and control over its release from polymer micelles. Bile acid-based block copolymers present certain advantages over traditional polymer-based systems for drug delivery purposes, since they can enable a higher drug loading via the formation of a reservoir through their aggregation process. In this study, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions are compared for thei...

In brief: Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for cancers with biomarkers.

Melanoma in US Hispanics: recommended strategies to reduce disparities in outcomes.

Cutaneous melanoma is the most fatal form of skin cancer and presents a considerable public health concern in the United States. Although the age-adjusted incidence of melanoma among US Hispanics is lower than that of non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), Hispanics who are diagnosed with melanoma are more likely to present with thicker primary tumors, metastatic disease, and lower 5-year melanoma-specific survival rates than NHWs. Melanoma risk factors and reasons for late presentation among Hispanics are not complet...

Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors (PDE5Is) and Risk of Melanoma.

The US Food and Drug Administration recently announced the need to evaluate the association between PDE5is and melanoma. We performed a meta-analysis on the association between PDE5i and melanoma using random effects models and examined whether it met Hill's criteria for causality. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 1998 to 2016 identified three case-control studies and two cohort studies, including a total of 866 049 men, of whom 41 874 were diagnosed with melanoma. W...

Lomefloxacin Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in COLO829 Melanoma Cells.

Although some fluoroquinolones have been found to exert anti-tumor activity, studies on the effect of these drugs on melanoma cells are relatively rare. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of lomefloxacin on cell viability, reactive oxygen species production, redox balance, cell cycle distribution, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis in COLO829 melanoma cells. Lomefloxacin decreases the cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. For COLO829 cells treated with the drug for 24, 48, and 72 h...

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