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Drug Keytruda Help Block Melanoma Return PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Drug Keytruda Help Block Melanoma Return articles that have been published worldwide.
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Melanoma is a clinically heterogeneous disease and current treatment strategies of the primary tumour are based on pathological criteria alone. In the recent past, several DNA and RNA sequencing studies of primary and advanced melanoma samples have identified unique relationships between somatic mutations, genomic aberrations and the genetic fingerprint of ultraviolet light radiation (UVR). The recurrent patterns of genomic alterations reveal different disease pathways, drug targets and mechanisms limiting ...
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enabled high-throughput analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships on human populations, ushering in a new era of genetics-informed drug development. The year 2017 was remarkable, with the first FDA-approved gene therapy for cancer (Kymriah™) and for inherited diseases (LUXTURNA™), the first multiplex NGS panel for companion diagnostics (MSK-IMPACT™) and the first drug targeting a genetic signature rather than a disease (Keytruda). We envision that population-scale N...
5-Fluorouracil delivery profiles in the form of chitosan-folate submicron particles through skin and melanoma cells in vitro were examined using microwave as the penetration enhancer. Its in vivo pharmacokinetics profiles were also determined. Chitosan-carboxymethyl-5-fluorouracil-folate conjugate was synthesized and processed into submicron particles by spray drying technique. The size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content, drug release, as well as skin permeation and retention, pharmacokinetics, in vi...
BRAF signaling is involved in melanoma growth in more than half of metastatic patients. In the last few years, new drugs that block this pathway have significantly improved the outcomes of patients with metastatic melanoma. Ninety percent of BRAF mutations involve exon 15, and the most frequent, V600E, results from the amino acid change from valine (V) to glutamic acid (E). BRAF inhibitor treatments have shown a notable overall response rate and improvements in progression-free and overall survival. Rare BR...
Currently, there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved or effective treatment options for advanced-stage uveal melanoma. In this article, we focus on therapeutic targets in pathways/mechanisms associated with common mutations in uveal melanoma. We review the challenges associated with targeting of these pathways and novel treatment strategies.
Melanoma accounts for only 4% of all skin cancers but is among the most lethal cutaneous neoplasms. Dacarbazine is the drug of choice for the treatment of melanoma in Brazil through the public health system mainly because of its low cost. However, it is an alkylating agent of low specificity and elicits a therapeutic response in only 20% of cases. Other drugs available for the treatment of melanoma are expensive, and tumor cells commonly develop resistance to these drugs. The fight against melanoma demands ...
Early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma is critical in preventing melanoma-associated deaths, but the role of primary care providers (PCPs) in diagnosing melanoma is underexplored. We aimed to explore the association of PCP density with melanoma incidence and mortality.
Prognosis of patients with melanoma brain metastasis is poor despite various chemotherapeutic agents. Researchers focus on finding effective treatment with low risk of toxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ) has been found to be effective on different types of cancer. However, no data exists on the effect of TQ in intracerebral melanoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of TQ in B16-F10 melanoma cell in vitro and intracerebral melanoma in vivo.
Targeted therapy is an effective standard of care in BRAF-mutated malignant melanoma. However, the duration of tumor remission varies unpredictably among patients, and relapse is almost inevitable. Here, we examine the responses of several BRAF-mutated melanoma cell lines (including isogenic subclones) to BRAF inhibitors. We observe complex response dynamics across cell lines, with short-term responses (
The incidence of melanoma has steadily increased over the past three decades. Melanoma in situ (MIS), defined as melanoma that is limited to the epidermis, contributes to a disproportionately high percentage of this rising incidence. Amelanotic melanoma presents as an erythematous macule or plaque and may initially be misdiagnosed as an inflammatory disorder. We report a case of amelonatic MIS raised on non-sun-exposed skin, inducing a lichen planus-like keratosis as inflammatory reaction, which clinicall...
Approximately half of cutaneous melanoma tissues harbor BRAFV600E mutations, resulting in a constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport machinery is dysregulated in neoplastic cells and alters the key regulatory proteins that can lead to tumor progression, and drug resistance. The significance of nuclear localization of BRAFV600E has not been fully understood. Herein, we examined the clinical significance of intracellular localization of BRAFV600E in cutaneous melanoma.
Treatment of advanced cutaneous melanoma remains challenging, and new data on melanoma biology are required. The most widely accepted criteria for the prognostic evaluation of melanoma are histopathological and clinical parameters, and the identification of additional tumor markers is thus of paramount importance. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI), an important tool in cancer research, is useful for unraveling the molecular profile of melanoma.
The functionalization of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) block copolymers with moieties allowing for core-crosslinking is expected to result in improved micellar stability and drug delivery properties.
In a phase II clinical trial, carboplatin (CBDCA) displayed the response rate of 19% equivalent to dacarbazine in the treatment of malignant melanoma. However, besides desirable therapeutic profile, intravenous (i.v) administration of CBDCA delivers a subtherapeutic concentration at the target site. This entails administration of CBDCA through an alternate route by using nanovectors to achieve therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of melanoma.
Return-to-sport criteria after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are often based on "satisfactory" functional and patient-reported outcomes. However, an individual's decision to return to sport is likely multifactorial; psychological and physical readiness to return may not be synonymous.
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a drug of choice in the design of drug delivery systems directed towards breast cancers, but is often limited by loading and control over its release from polymer micelles. Bile acid-based block copolymers present certain advantages over traditional polymer-based systems for drug delivery purposes, since they can enable a higher drug loading via the formation of a reservoir through their aggregation process. In this study, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions are compared for thei...
Cutaneous melanoma is the most fatal form of skin cancer and presents a considerable public health concern in the United States. Although the age-adjusted incidence of melanoma among US Hispanics is lower than that of non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), Hispanics who are diagnosed with melanoma are more likely to present with thicker primary tumors, metastatic disease, and lower 5-year melanoma-specific survival rates than NHWs. Melanoma risk factors and reasons for late presentation among Hispanics are not complet...
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade immunotherapy has shown notable therapeutic benefit in metastatic melanoma, while the clinical relevance of PD-L1 expression remains unclear in melanoma, especially in acral melanoma which is the most common subtype in Asians. Our study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of PD-L1 expression in primary acral melanoma.
Nestin, a member of the intermediate filament protein family, has been described as a putative cancer stem cell marker (CSC) in uveal melanoma and poor prognostic factor in a variety of tumours, including cutaneous melanoma. In this study, we examined the expression of nestin in primary (PUM) and metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) samples, and correlated the findings with histological, clinical and survival data.
Melanoma remains to be one of the most incurable cancers. Discovery of novel antitumor agent for melanoma therapy is expected. We recently isolated Oxyfadichalcone C from Oxytropis falcate and investigated the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic activity on human melanoma A375 cells in vitro.
BRAF is the most frequently mutated gene in melanoma. Constitutive activation of mutant BRAFleads to aberrant Ras-independent MAPK signaling and cell transformation. Inhibition of mutant BRAF is a current frontline therapy for such cases, with improved survival compared with chemotherapy. Unfortunately, reactivation of MAPK signaling by several mechanisms has been shown to cause drug resistance and disease recurrence. In this work, we describe the co-occurrence of an in-frame deletion within an amplified BR...
Intratumor heterogeneity is a key factor contributing to therapeutic failure and, hence, cancer lethality. Heterogeneous tumors show partial therapy responses, allowing for the emergence of drug-resistant clones that often express high levels of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL. In melanoma, AXL-high cells are resistant to MAPK pathway inhibitors, whereas AXL-low cells are sensitive to these inhibitors, rationalizing a differential therapeutic approach. We developed an antibody-drug conjugate, AXL-107-MMAE,...
Dedifferentation in cancer is associated with intrinsic and acquired resistance to therapies. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Tsoi et al. identify four differentiation states in melanoma and provide evidence that melanoma cells develop drug resistance through a stepwise dedifferentiation process, making them vulnerable to ferroptotic cell death-inducing compounds.
The network of molecular players is similar when comparing neural crest-derived, actively migrating melanoblasts to melanoma cells. However, melanoblasts are sensitive to differentiation-initiating signals at their target site (epidermis), while melanoma cells maintain migratory and undifferentiated features. We aimed at identifying downregulated genes in melanoma that are particularly upregulated in melanoblasts. Loss of such genes could contribute to stabilization of a dedifferentiated, malignant phenotyp...