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Showing "Dynamics Leptin Endocrine Function" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 19,000+

Leptin Function and Regulation.

We summarize the biological impact of leptin signaling as well as the molecular and cellular characteristics of leptin action. Our focus is principally in the central nervous system and we describe the properties of the neuronal networks that are mediators of leptin's effects on ingestive behavior, energy balance, and the reproductive system. The molecular targets of leptin's effects are also responsible for the attenuation and termination of the intracellular signal transduction pathway for leptin, providi...

TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA: Adipokines affect mammary growth and function in farm animals.

The essential role of mammary fat pads in mammary growth and morphogenesis was the first indication that biologically active molecules, secreted from adipocytes or other stromal cells, could regulate endocrine cues for growth and function of the mammary gland. The presence of leptin and adiponectin receptors in mammary tissues suggested that locally produced or circulating adipokines could affect mammary growth and function. Herein, we present the current knowledge on the role of adipokines in mammary cell ...

The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on serum leptin concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

The actual effects of L-carnitine administration on leptin serum level is inconsistent. In order to assess the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on serum leptin we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Changes in Satiety Hormones in Response to Leptin Treatment in a Patient with Leptin Deficiency.

We tested whether leptin treatment affects secretion of satiety-related gut peptides and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a regulator of energy homeostasis downstream of hypothalamic leptin signaling.

Association of adiponectin/leptin ratio with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism parameters in HIV-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy.

Adiponectin and leptin are adipose tissue hormones that regulate important lipid and glucose metabolic pathways. Our objective was to evaluate the interplay of these hormones described by the adiponectin/leptin ratio (ALR) in correlation to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism parameters in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Dual effects of leptin in perioperative gas exchange of morbidly obese patients.

Leptin has shown positive effects on respiratory function in experimental settings. The role of leptin on perioperative respiratory function in morbidly obese patients has not been established. We performed a retrospective analysis of morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Fasting serum leptin and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured preoperatively, and arterial blood gases were obtained pre- and postoperatively. Outcome variables were arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), art...

A Mathematical Model of Type 1 Diabetes Involving Leptin Effects on Glucose Metabolism.

Leptin, a hormone released from fat cells in adipose tissues, was recently found to be capable of normalizing glucose metabolism in animals. Clinical data on patients with lipodystrophy indicates that leptin may have a positive effect on glucose metabolism in individuals with diabetes. There are growing expectations that leptin can improve the current insulin treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. We investigated this possibility through in silico experiments based on a mathematical model of diabetes,...

Physiological responses to leptin levels in lipodystrophy: a model for other hypoleptinemias?

Brown et al. report that two weeks of exogenous leptin administration to leptin-naive individuals with lipodystrophy resulted in increased energy expenditure and lipolysis, decreased ectopic liver fat, improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and attenuated dyslipidemia. Leptin withdrawal in individuals with lipodystrophy did not produce reciprocal effects on these phenotypes and resulted in significant improvements only in hepatic insulin sensitivity. This asymmetry in responses to leptin initi...

Regulation of the activins-follistatins-inhibins axis by energy status: Impact on reproductive function.

We have previously demonstrated that the adipose tissue derived hormone leptin controls reproductive function by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in response to energy deficiency. Here, we evaluate the activins-follistatins-inhibins (AFI) axis during acute (short-term fasting in healthy people) and chronic energy deficiency (women with hypothalamic amenorrhea due to strenuous exercise [HA]) and investigate their relation to leptin and reproductive function in healthy subjects and subjects ...

Age-dependent regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at hippocampal temporoammonic-CA1 synapses by leptin.

The hippocampus is a key target for the hormone leptin and leptin regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at Schaffer-collateral-CA1 synapses during aging are well documented. However, little is known about the age-dependent actions of leptin at the temporoammonic (TA) input to CA1 neurons. Here we show that leptin induces a novel form of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) at adult (12-24 weeks old) TA-CA1 synapses. Leptin-induced LTD requires activation of canonical ...

DICER1 gene mutations in endocrine tumors.

In this review, the importance of the DICER1 gene in the function of endocrine cells is discussed. There is conclusive evidence that DICER1 mutations play a crucial role in the development, progression, cell proliferation, therapeutic responsiveness and behavior of several endocrine tumors. We review the literature of DICER1 gene mutations in thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, pineal gland, endocrine pancreas, paragangliomas, medullary, adrenocortical, ovarian, and testicular tumors. Although significant prog...

Association of Polymorphisms of leptin, leptin receptor and Apelin receptor genes with susceptibility to coronary artery disease and hypertension.

Apelin and leptin are factors which have a potential physiological and pathological role in cardiovascular homoeostasis. Apelin receptor (APLNR), leptin receptor (LEPR) and leptin variants may affect the vascular tone in heart or peripheral circulation, thereby predisposing patients to hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of APLNR genes (rs11544374 and rs948847), LEPR (rs1137101) and leptin (rs7799039) gene i...

Evidence for leptin receptor immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and gastric leptin regulation in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

In this study, evidence for leptin receptor (LR) and gastric leptin immunoreactivity along the digestive tract of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), is reported. Besides this, the regulation of gastric leptin and its transcript by fatty acids was analyzed in vitro. LR was detected mainly in the cells of the stomach gastric glands and in the brush border of the epithelium of the anterior, middle and distal intestine. In the stomach LR was co-distributed with leptin. The regulation of gastric leptin and...

Invited submission to the Diamond Jubilee Special Issue of Biochemical PharmacolLeptin induces SIRT1 expression through activation of NF-E2-related factor 2: implications for obesity-associated colon carcinogenesis.

Leptin, a representative adipokine secreted from the white adipose tissue, is considered as a potential linker between obesity and cancer. SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent histone/protein deacetylase speculated to function as an oncogene. In the present study, we found that leptin signaling-defective ob/ob and db/db mice had lower colonic expression of SIRT1 compared with leptin signaling-intact C57BL/6J mice, implying that leptin signaling is crucial for SIRT1 expression in vivo. Moreover, leptin induced up-regul...

Downregulation of leptin receptor and kisspeptin/GPR54 in the murine hypothalamus contributes to male hypogonadism caused by high-fat diet-induced obesity.

Obesity may lead to male hypogonadism, the underlying mechanism of which remains unclear. In the present study, we established a murine model of male hypogonadism caused by high-fat diet-induced obesity to verify the following hypotheses: 1) an increased leptin level may be related to decreased secretion of GnRH in obese males, and 2) repression of kisspeptin/GPR54 in the hypothalamus, which is associated with increased leptin levels, may account for the decreased secretion of GnRH and be involved in second...

Effects of valproate on reproductive endocrine function in male patients with epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Valproate (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED) that is generally used as a first line agent for most idiopathic and symptomatic generalized epilepsies. Many studies have indicated that AEDs cause reproductive endocrine disorders in males, but the exact etiology underpinning these dysfunctions is not clear. This meta-analysis and systematic review was intended to evaluate the effect of VPA on reproductive endocrine function in male patients with epilepsy.

Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with reduced left ventricular mass and left ventricular diastolic stiffness in black women: insights from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study.

Our previous experimental animal data suggest a beneficial effect of leptin on LV structure and function. We hypothesized that leptin levels are associated with lower LV mass and myocardial stiffness which are important risk factors for the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We evaluated 1172 blacks, in which the prevalence of HFpEF is quite high, with preserved LV ejection fraction (EF > 50%) from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy Study (mean age 62.9 ...

Sex-dependent interactions between leptin, wasting and humoral immunity in two ethnic communities of school-aged children differentially exposed to Schistosoma haematobium.

Leptin is a nutritional hormone whose production is generally higher in females. We investigated how leptin is associated with sex dimorphism during urinary schistosomiasis in relation with wasting.


It is debated whether sex differences in adiponectin and leptin are due to sex differences in body fat distribution. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, associations of measures of body fat and sex with serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations were examined using linear regression analysis (n = 6,494, VAT: n = 2,516). Sex differences were additionally adjusted for the measure of body fat that was most strongly associated with adiponectin or leptin co...

Problematic eating behaviours, changes in appetite, and weight gain in Major Depressive Disorder: The role of leptin.

Appetite and weight changes are core symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and those with MDD are at increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. Leptin promotes satiety, with leptin dysregulation and resistance noted in obesity. However, the role of leptin in weight changes in MDD is not established. This study investigates leptin levels in relation to appetite and weight changes and problematic eating behaviours in MDD.

Impaired endocrine-metabolic homeostasis: underlying mechanism of its induction by unbalanced diet.

: to characterize the intrinsic mechanism by which sucrose induces β-cell dysfunction.: Normal rats received for 3 weeks a standard diet supplemented with 10% sucrose in the drinking water (HS) with/out an antioxidant agent (R/S α-lipoic acid). We measured plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, leptin and lipid peroxidation levels; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-β indexes were also determined. Insulin secretion, β-cell apoptosis, intracellular insulin and leptin media...

Associations between lean mass and leptin in men with chronic spinal cord injury: Results from the FRASCI-muscle study.

Leptin is an adipo-myokine that regulates appetite and energy expenditure by a neuroendocrine feedback loop. Leptin levels are positively correlated with BMI in the spinal cord injury population and leptin levels are greater in individuals with spinal cord injury compared to uninjured controls. Leptin is produced in multiple tissues, including fat, bone, and skeletal muscle and is a putative biomarker of sedentary behavior in older adults. We assessed body composition leptin, adiponectin, and IL-6 levels in...

In Uncontrolled Diabetes, Hyperglucagonemia and Ketosis Result from Deficient Leptin Action in the Parabrachial Nucleus.

Growing evidence implicates neurons that project from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) to the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) in a neurocircuit that drives counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, including increased glucagon secretion. Among LPBN neurons in this circuit is a subset that expresses cholecystokinin (LPBNCCK neurons) and is tonically inhibited by leptin. Since uncontrolled diabetes is associated with both leptin deficiency and hyperglucagonemia, and since intracerebroventric...

Bioactive leptin is strongly related to parameters of fat mass and distribution than conventionally measured leptin: Findings from a longitudinal study in obese children participating in a lifestyle intervention.

This study analyzed the relationships between bioactive leptin, conventionally measured leptin, and parameters of fat mass and distribution in obese children before and after weight reduction.

Renal injury in Seipin-deficient lipodystrophic mice and its reversal by adipose tissue transplantation or leptin administration alone: adipose tissue-kidney crosstalk.

Seipin deficiency is responsible for type 2 congenital generalized lipodystrophy with severe loss of adipose tissue (AT) and could lead to renal failure in humans. However, the effect of Seipin on renal function is poorly understood. Here we report that Seipin knockout (SKO) mice exhibited impaired renal function, enlarged glomerular and mesangial surface areas, renal depositions of lipid, and advanced glycation end products. Elevated glycosuria and increased electrolyte excretion were also detected. Relati...

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