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Showing "Dynamics Leptin Endocrine Function" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 18,000+

Leptin Function and Regulation.

We summarize the biological impact of leptin signaling as well as the molecular and cellular characteristics of leptin action. Our focus is principally in the central nervous system and we describe the properties of the neuronal networks that are mediators of leptin's effects on ingestive behavior, energy balance, and the reproductive system. The molecular targets of leptin's effects are also responsible for the attenuation and termination of the intracellular signal transduction pathway for leptin, providi...

Sex Differences in Leptin Control of Cardiovascular Function in Health and Metabolic Diseases.

Leptin, the adipocyte-derived hormone identified in 1994 for its major role in the control of satiety and body weight regulation, is an adipokine secreted in a sex-specific manner. Although it has clearly been established that females secrete three to four times more leptin than males and that this sexual dimorphism in leptin secretion is exacerbated with overweight and obesity, the origin and the physiological consequences of this sexual dimorphism remain ill-defined. The adipose tissue is the major site o...

TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA: Adipokines affect mammary growth and function in farm animals.

The essential role of mammary fat pads in mammary growth and morphogenesis was the first indication that biologically active molecules, secreted from adipocytes or other stromal cells, could regulate endocrine cues for growth and function of the mammary gland. The presence of leptin and adiponectin receptors in mammary tissues suggested that locally produced or circulating adipokines could affect mammary growth and function. Herein, we present the current knowledge on the role of adipokines in mammary cell ...

The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on serum leptin concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

The actual effects of L-carnitine administration on leptin serum level is inconsistent. In order to assess the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on serum leptin we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Association of adiponectin/leptin ratio with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism parameters in HIV-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy.

Adiponectin and leptin are adipose tissue hormones that regulate important lipid and glucose metabolic pathways. Our objective was to evaluate the interplay of these hormones described by the adiponectin/leptin ratio (ALR) in correlation to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism parameters in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Leptin Suppresses Glutamate-Induced Apoptosis Through Regulation of ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways in Rat Primary Astrocytes.

Leptin is a hormone expressed by adipose tissue that regulates body energy homeostasis and weight loss by activating leptin receptors in the hypothalamus. Leptin receptors are also expressed in astrocytes. An anti-apoptosis effect of leptin in brain has recently been reported. However, the anti-apoptosis mechanism of leptin in the brain is unknown.

Estimated prevalence of potentially damaging variants in the leptin gene.

Mutations in the leptin gene (LEP) can alter the secretion or interaction of leptin with its receptor, leading to extreme early-onset obesity. The purpose of this work was to estimate the prevalence of heterozygous and homozygous mutations in the leptin gene with the help of the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database ( ).

Regulation of the activins-follistatins-inhibins axis by energy status: Impact on reproductive function.

We have previously demonstrated that the adipose tissue derived hormone leptin controls reproductive function by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in response to energy deficiency. Here, we evaluate the activins-follistatins-inhibins (AFI) axis during acute (short-term fasting in healthy people) and chronic energy deficiency (women with hypothalamic amenorrhea due to strenuous exercise [HA]) and investigate their relation to leptin and reproductive function in healthy subjects and subjects ...

DICER1 gene mutations in endocrine tumors.

In this review, the importance of the DICER1 gene in the function of endocrine cells is discussed. There is conclusive evidence that DICER1 mutations play a crucial role in the development, progression, cell proliferation, therapeutic responsiveness and behavior of several endocrine tumors. We review the literature of DICER1 gene mutations in thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, pineal gland, endocrine pancreas, paragangliomas, medullary, adrenocortical, ovarian, and testicular tumors. Although significant prog...

Invited submission to the Diamond Jubilee Special Issue of Biochemical PharmacolLeptin induces SIRT1 expression through activation of NF-E2-related factor 2: implications for obesity-associated colon carcinogenesis.

Leptin, a representative adipokine secreted from the white adipose tissue, is considered as a potential linker between obesity and cancer. SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent histone/protein deacetylase speculated to function as an oncogene. In the present study, we found that leptin signaling-defective ob/ob and db/db mice had lower colonic expression of SIRT1 compared with leptin signaling-intact C57BL/6J mice, implying that leptin signaling is crucial for SIRT1 expression in vivo. Moreover, leptin induced up-regul...

Leptin reduces microRNA-122 level in hepatic stellate cells in vitro and in vivo.

Obese patients, often accompanied by hyperleptinemia, are more likely to develop liver fibrosis. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, augments inflammatory in liver and promotes hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation (a key step for liver fibrogenesis) and liver fibrosis. microRNA-122 (miR-122) is the most abundant liver-specific miRNA and can attenuate liver fibrosis. This study examined the effect of leptin on miR-122 level in HSCs in vivo and in vitro. Results demonstrated that leptin reduced the levels...

Associations between serum leptin levels, hyperlipidemia, and cholelithiasis in dogs.

Leptin and its receptor play several physiological roles in the canine gallbladder, and the dysregulation of leptin might play a role in the pathogenesis of gallbladder diseases such as gallbladder mucocele. Previous studies revealed a positive association between hyperlipidemia and gallstones in humans. However, the latter is still unclear in dogs with cholelithiasis. In this study, we examined the differences in leptin, leptin receptor, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between healthy dogs and d...

Sex-dependent interactions between leptin, wasting and humoral immunity in two ethnic communities of school-aged children differentially exposed to Schistosoma haematobium.

Leptin is a nutritional hormone whose production is generally higher in females. We investigated how leptin is associated with sex dimorphism during urinary schistosomiasis in relation with wasting.

Impaired endocrine-metabolic homeostasis: underlying mechanism of its induction by unbalanced diet.

: to characterize the intrinsic mechanism by which sucrose induces β-cell dysfunction.: Normal rats received for 3 weeks a standard diet supplemented with 10% sucrose in the drinking water (HS) with/out an antioxidant agent (R/S α-lipoic acid). We measured plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, leptin and lipid peroxidation levels; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-β indexes were also determined. Insulin secretion, β-cell apoptosis, intracellular insulin and leptin media...

Differential contribution of POMC and AgRP neurons to the regulation of regional autonomic nerve activity by leptin.

The autonomic nervous system is critically involved in mediating the control by leptin of many physiological processes. Here, we examined the role of the leptin receptor (LepR) in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in mediating the effects of leptin on regional sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity.

In Uncontrolled Diabetes, Hyperglucagonemia and Ketosis Result from Deficient Leptin Action in the Parabrachial Nucleus.

Growing evidence implicates neurons that project from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) to the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) in a neurocircuit that drives counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, including increased glucagon secretion. Among LPBN neurons in this circuit is a subset that expresses cholecystokinin (LPBNCCK neurons) and is tonically inhibited by leptin. Since uncontrolled diabetes is associated with both leptin deficiency and hyperglucagonemia, and since intracerebroventric...

Leptin: A new therapeutic target for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Leptin is an endogenous protein having 167 amino acids and is derived from adipocytes. It hass tertiary structure that resembles with that of the pro-inflammatory cytokines family. The fundamental role of leptin is to maintain the energy homeostasis with the aid of its counter hormone called ghrelin, known as the "hunger hormone". Small quantities of leptin are also present in various tissues like ovary, placenta, pituitary gland, mammary gland, skeletal muscle, stomach and lymphoid tissue. Expression of le...

Bioactive leptin is strongly related to parameters of fat mass and distribution than conventionally measured leptin: Findings from a longitudinal study in obese children participating in a lifestyle intervention.

This study analyzed the relationships between bioactive leptin, conventionally measured leptin, and parameters of fat mass and distribution in obese children before and after weight reduction.

Renal injury in Seipin-deficient lipodystrophic mice and its reversal by adipose tissue transplantation or leptin administration alone: adipose tissue-kidney crosstalk.

Seipin deficiency is responsible for type 2 congenital generalized lipodystrophy with severe loss of adipose tissue (AT) and could lead to renal failure in humans. However, the effect of Seipin on renal function is poorly understood. Here we report that Seipin knockout (SKO) mice exhibited impaired renal function, enlarged glomerular and mesangial surface areas, renal depositions of lipid, and advanced glycation end products. Elevated glycosuria and increased electrolyte excretion were also detected. Relati...

Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Is Essential in Leptin-Mediated Oocytes Maturation of Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

Although several studies have been conducted to study leptin function, information is very scarce on the molecular mechanism of leptin in fatty acid β-oxidation and oocytes maturation in fish. In this study, we investigated the potential role of fatty acid β-oxidation in leptin-mediated oocytes maturation in . Exp. 1 investigated the transcriptomic profiles of ovary and the differential expression of genes involved in β-oxidation and oocytes maturation following rt-hLEP injection; rt-hLEP injection was a...

Leptin reverses hyperglycemia and hyperphagia in insulin deficient diabetic rats by pituitary-independent central nervous system actions.

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been postulated to play a major role in mediating the antidiabetic effects of leptin. We tested if the pituitary is essential for the chronic central nervous system mediated actions of leptin on metabolic and cardiovascular function in insulin-dependent diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Male 12-week-old hypophysectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (Hypo, n = 5) were instrumented with telemetry probes for determination of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (H...

Maternal plasma leptin levels in relation to the duration of the active phase of labor.

Obese women have increased leptin levels and longer duration of labor compared to normal weight women. Leptin has an inhibitory effect on myometrial contractility in vitro. Our purpose was to examine whether maternal leptin levels in active labor were associated with the duration of the active phase of labor.

Association between leptin and IL-6 concentrations with cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as leptin and IL-6 play an important role in the development of cardiovascular risk. Determine the relationship between leptin and IL-6 concentrations with cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We determined IL-6 and leptin levels in 77 patients with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The cardiovascular risk was calculated using the modified Framingham scale. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22 considering a significant p 

Leptin promotes pulmonary fibrosis development by inhibiting autophagy via PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

Leptin, a protein-related product of the obesity gene, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases including pulmonary fibrosis. As a highly conservative process, autophagy regulates various biological functions. Otherwise, insufficient autophagy has been described in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) to cope with the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. Hence, this study is to investigate the effects of leptin on fibrosis in TGF-β1 induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the p...

Leptin and Physical Activity in Adult Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: Failure to Demonstrate a Simple Linear Association.

High physical activity (PA) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) is hypothesized to be, at least in part, a consequence of hypoleptinemia. However, most studies on the association of leptin and PA in AN were performed in adolescents or young adults, and PA was generally measured with subjective tools. We aimed to explore the association of leptin and PA in adults with AN using an objective technique to quantify PA. Using a cross-sectional, observational design, we analyzed body fat (bioelectrical impedanc...

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