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04:17 EST 24th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Biosciences" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 162

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Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein: To Be or Not to Be a Translational Enhancer.

Editorial: Bioscience of D-amino Acid Oxidase From Biochemistry to Pathophysiology.

Two new usnic acid derivatives from the endophytic fungus Mycosphaerella sp.

Antimicrobial activity and active compounds of a Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract.

Epigenetics: ethics, politics, biosociality.

Epigenetics is a burgeoning field of contemporary biosciences, which has attracted a lot of interest both in biomedical and in social sciences.

New Insights on Intermediary Metabolism for a Better Understanding of Nutrition in Teleosts.

The rapid development of aquaculture production throughout the world over the past few decades has led to the emergence of new scientific challenges to improve fish nutrition. The diet formulations used for farmed fish have been largely modified in the past few years. However, bottlenecks still exist in being able to suppress totally marine resources (fish meal and fish oil) in diets without negatively affecting growth performance and flesh quality. A better understanding of fish metabolism and its regulati...

Photoperiodic Regulation of Reproduction in Vertebrates.

Organisms use changes in photoperiod for seasonal reproduction to maximize the survival of their offspring. Birds have sophisticated seasonal mechanisms and are therefore excellent models for studying these phenomena. Birds perceive light via deep-brain photoreceptors and long day-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) in the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland (PT), which cause local thyroid hormone activation within the mediobasal hypothalamus. The local bioactive thyroid hormone control...

Regulation of Muscle Growth in Early Postnatal Life in a Swine Model.

Skeletal muscle growth during the early postnatal period is rapid in the pig and dependent on the capacity of muscle to respond to anabolic and catabolic stimuli. Muscle mass is driven by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Among these processes, muscle protein synthesis in the piglet is exceptionally sensitive to the feeding-induced postprandial changes in insulin and amino acids, whereas muscle protein degradation is affected only during specific catabolic states. The developmental decl...

One-Carbon Metabolism: Linking Nutritional Biochemistry to Epigenetic Programming of Long-Term Development.

One-carbon (1C) metabolism comprises a series of interlinking metabolic pathways that include the methionine and folate cycles that are central to cellular function, providing 1C units (methyl groups) for the synthesis of DNA, polyamines, amino acids, creatine, and phospholipids. Sadenosylmethionine is a potent aminopropyl and methyl donor within these cycles and serves as the principal substrate for methylation of DNA, associated proteins, and RNA. We propose that 1C metabolism functions as a key biochemic...

Whole-Genome Alignment and Comparative Annotation.

Rapidly improving sequencing technology coupled with computational developments in sequence assembly are making reference-quality genome assembly economical. Hundreds of vertebrate genome assemblies are now publicly available, and projects are being proposed to sequence thousands of additional species in the next few years. Such dense sampling of the tree of life should give an unprecedented new understanding of evolution and allow a detailed determination of the events that led to the wealth of biodiversit...

Mammalian Sex Chromosome Structure, Gene Content, and Function in Male Fertility.

Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes. The X chromosome is highly conserved, whereas the Y chromosome varies among species in size, structure, and gene content. Unlike autosomes that contain randomly mixed collections of genes, the sex chromosomes are enriched in testis-biased genes related to sexual development and reproduction, particularly in spermatogenesis and male fertility. This review focuses on how sex chromosome dosage compensation takes place and why meiotic sex chr...

Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG): Current Achievements and Roadmap.

Functional annotation of genomes is a prerequisite for contemporary basic and applied genomic research, yet farmed animal genomics are deficient in such annotation. To address this, the FAANG (Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes) Consortium is producing genome-wide data sets on RNA expression, DNA methylation, and chromatin modification, as well as chromatin accessibility and interactions. In addition to informing our understanding of genome function, including comparative approaches to elucidate constr...

Canine Cancer Genomics: Lessons for Canine and Human Health.

Dogs are second only to humans in medical surveillance and preventative health care, leading to a recent perception of increased cancer incidence. Scientific priorities in veterinary oncology have thus shifted, with a demand for cancer genetic screens, better diagnostics, and more effective therapies. Most dog breeds came into existence within the last 300 years, and many are derived from small numbers of founders. Each has undergone strong artificial selection, in which dog fanciers selected for many trait...

The Role of Reproductive Technologies in Amphibian Conservation Breeding Programs.

Anthropogenic environmental change has led to unprecedented rates of species extinction, presenting a major threat to global biodiversity. Among vertebrates, amphibians have been most severely impacted, with an estimated 41% of species now threatened with extinction. In response to this biodiversity crisis, a moral and ethical obligation exists to implement proactive interventionist conservation actions to assist species recovery and decelerate declines. Conservation breeding programs have been established ...

Tolerance and Innate Immunity Shape the Development of Postpartum Uterine Disease and the Impact of Endometritis in Dairy Cattle.

Bacteria are ubiquitous in the bovine uterus after parturition, but 50 years ago, cows tolerated these bacteria and few animals developed uterine disease. Now, up to 40% of dairy cattle develop postpartum uterine disease. Uterine disease causes infertility by compromising the function of not only the endometrium but also the ovary. Animals defend themselves against pathogens using tolerance and resistance mechanisms. Tolerance is the ability to limit the disease severity induced by a given pathogen burden. ...

Meeting Global Feed Protein Demand: Challenge, Opportunity, and Strategy.

Feed protein supplements are one of the most expensive and limiting feed ingredients. This review offers a comprehensive analysis of how the expected expansion of animal production, driven by the rising world population and living standards for more animal-sourced foods, is creating a global shortage of feed protein supply. Because ruminants, chickens, and pigs contribute to 96% of the global supply of animal protein and aquaculture is growing fast, means of meeting the feed protein requirements of these sp...

Analysis of a mathematical model for brain lactate kinetics.

The aim of this article is to study the well-posedness and properties of a fast-slow system which is related with brain lactate kinetics. In particular, we prove the existence and uniqueness of nonnegative solutions and obtain linear stability results. We also give numerical simulations with different values of the small parameter ε and compare them with experimental data.

Muscle relaxant activities of pistagremic acid isolated from Pistacia integerrima.

The aim of the current work was to explore the muscle relaxant effect of pistagremic acid (PA) isolated from Pistacia integerrima in various animal paradigms. In a rotarod test, PA caused a significant (p

NanoAmpli-Seq: A workflow for amplicon sequencing for mixed microbial communities on the nanopore sequencing platform.

Amplicon sequencing on Illumina sequencing platforms leverages their deep sequencing and multiplexing capacity, but is limited in genetic resolution due to short read lengths. While Oxford Nanopore or Pacific Biosciences platforms overcome this limitation, their application has been limited due to higher error rates or smaller data output.

Prenatal Steroids and Metabolic Dysfunction: Lessons from Sheep.

Prenatal exposure to excess steroids or steroid mimics can disrupt the normal developmental trajectory of organ systems, culminating in adult disease. The metabolic system is particularly susceptible to the deleterious effects of prenatal steroid excess. Studies in sheep demonstrate that prenatal exposure to excess native steroids or endocrine-disrupting chemicals with steroidogenic activity, such as bisphenol A, results in postnatal development of numerous cardiometabolic perturbations, including insulin r...

Dynamics of an ultra-discrete SIR epidemic model with time delay.

We propose an ultra-discretization for an SIR epidemic model with time delay. It is proven that the ultra-discrete model has a threshold property concerning global attractivity of equilibria as shown in differential and difference equation models. We also study an interesting convergence pattern of the solution, which is illustrated in a two-dimensional lattice.

Nursing students' perceptions of a silent mentor program in an anatomy course.

Anatomy is a core course in undergraduate nursing curriculum. In today's nursing profession, the integration of biosciences and humanities is increasingly emphasized. Anatomy is considered one of the most essential bioscience subjects for nursing practice. Thus, integrating a silent mentor program into the anatomy course can enrich the knowledge of undergraduate nursing students regarding biosciences and humanities and enhance their future patient-centered care competencies. This paper aimed to understand s...

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