PubMed Journals Articles About "Effect Of South Beach Diet (SBD™) Using SBD™ Products Compared To The American Diabetic Association (ADA) Diabetes Meal Plan On Body Weight And Satiety In Diabetic Women" RSS

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Showing "Effect South Beach Diet trade Using trade Products" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 29,000+

Illicit Cigarette Trade in Five South American Countries: A Gap Analysis for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru.

Due to its nature, it is very hard to measure tobacco illicit trade in any product. In the case of Latin American countries, there is scant information on the magnitude and characteristics of this trade in the case of cigarettes. The goal of this article is to provide estimates on the evolution of the illicit cigarette trade in five South American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru.

Trade challenges at the World Trade Organization to national noncommunicable disease prevention policies: A thematic document analysis of trade and health policy space.

It has long been contested that trade rules and agreements are used to dispute regulations aimed at preventing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Yet most analyses of trade rules and agreements focus on trade disputes, potentially overlooking how a challenge to a regulation's consistency with trade rules may lead to 'policy or regulatory chill' effects whereby countries delay, alter, or repeal regulations in order to avoid the costs of a dispute. Systematic empirical analysis of this pathway to impact was pre...

Twists, turns and trade: a new look at the Indian Screw tree (Helicteres isora).

This is the first study of global trade in fruits of the widely used traditional medicine, Helicteres isora L.. It is used in Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani medical systems and/or local folk traditional medicines in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. The roots are used in Traditional Chinese Medicines in China and the fruits in jamu products in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. In addition, H. isora fruits are also used in "traditional" medical systems far beyond the natural distribition of this species, for example...

Assessing trade-offs in large marine protected areas.

Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources ...

Basic functional trade-offs in cognition: An integrative framework.

Trade-offs between advantageous but conflicting properties (e.g., speed vs. accuracy) are ubiquitous in cognition, but the relevant literature is conceptually fragmented, scattered across disciplines, and has not been organized in a coherent framework. This paper takes an initial step toward a general theory of cognitive trade-offs by examining four key properties of goal-directed systems: performance, efficiency, robustness, and flexibility. These properties define a number of basic functional trade-offs t...

Does trade liberalization reduce child mortality in low- and middle-income countries? A synthetic control analysis of 36 policy experiments, 1963-2005.

Scholars have long argued that trade liberalization leads to lower rates of child mortality in developing countries. Yet current scholarship precludes definitive conclusions about the magnitude and direction of this relationship. Here I analyze the impact of trade liberalization on child mortality in 36 low- and middle-income countries, 1963-2005, using the synthetic control method. I test the hypothesis that trade liberalization leads to lower rates of child mortality, examine whether this association vari...

The Geometry of Nutrient Space-Based Life-History Trade-Offs: Sex-Specific Effects of Macronutrient Intake on the Trade-Off between Encapsulation Ability and Reproductive Effort in Decorated Crickets.

Life-history theory assumes that traits compete for limited resources, resulting in trade-offs. The most commonly manipulated resource in empirical studies is the quantity or quality of diet. Recent studies using the geometric framework for nutrition, however, suggest that trade-offs are often regulated by the intake of specific nutrients, but a formal approach to identify and quantify the strength of such trade-offs is lacking. We posit that trade-offs occur whenever life-history traits are maximized in di...

International experience in the legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the world trade organization.

Introduction: The development of international legal cooperation in the field of health has largely been driven by the trade interests of states. The aim: The article analyzes the legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization.

Trade-induced atmospheric mercury deposition over China and implications for demand-side controls.

Mercury (Hg) is of global concern because of its adverse effects on humans and the environment. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, Hg emissions can be geographically relocated through economic trade. Here, we investigate the effect of China's interregional trade on atmospheric Hg deposition over China, using an atmospheric transport model and multiregional input-output analysis. In general, total atmospheric Hg deposition over China is 408.8 Mg yr-1, and 32% of this is embodied in China's inte...

Offline constraints in online drug marketplaces: An exploratory analysis of a cryptomarket trade network.

Cryptomarkets, or illegal anonymizing online platforms that facilitate drug trade, have been analyzed in a rapidly growing body of research. Previous research has found that, despite increased risks, cryptomarket sellers are often willing to ship illegal drugs internationally. There is little to no information, however, about the extent to which uncertainty and risk related to geographic constraints shapes buyers' behavior and, in turn, the structure of the global online drug trade network. In this paper, w...

Influence of land use change on the ecosystem service trade-offs in the ecological restoration area: Dynamics and scenarios in the Yanhe watershed, China.

Land use change can result in variations in ecosystem services (ESs) and their relationships. Studying the temporal dynamics of ESs and their relationships can support scenario analyses that provide the theoretical basis for policy decisions and regional ecosystem management. Previous studies have revealed the trade-offs between two ESs on multiple scales, while the trade-offs between multiple ESs require further analysis. Furthermore, trade-offs are rarely considered in scenario constructions, which weaken...

Virtual CO2 emission flows in the global electricity trade network.

Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions due to electricity consumption is crucial for climate mitigation in the electric power sector. Current practices primarily use production-based emission factors to quantify emissions for electricity consumption, assuming production and consumption of electricity take place within the same region. The increasingly intensified cross-border electricity trade complicates the accounting for emissions of electricity consumption. This study employs a network approach to account...

International trade drives global resource use: A structural decomposition analysis of raw material consumption from 1990 - 2010.

Globalization led to an immense increase of international trade and the emergence of complex global value chains. At the same time, global resource use and pressures on the environment are increasing steadily. With these two processes in parallel, the question arises whether trade contributes positively to resource efficiency, or to the contrary is further driving resource use? In this article, the socio-economic driving forces of increasing global raw material consumption (RMC) are investigated to assess t...

Rising trade, declining stocks: The global gugul (Commiphora wightii) trade.

Commiphora wightii is exploited in India and Pakistan for an oleo-resin (gum guggul) traditionally used in Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani medical systems. Processed C. wightii oleo-resin products are exported from India to 42 countries, including re-export to Pakistan, for anti-inflammatory use and as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-obesity treatment considered to lower cholesterol and lipid levels. The C. wightii export trade has particular relevance to the European Union because Belgium, France, Germany, Hu...

Risk of Stroke Among Survivors of the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center Disaster.

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 9/11-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dust cloud exposure, and subsequent development of stroke among 42,527 enrollees in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry.

Decision-Making and Environmental Implications under Cap-and-Trade and Take-Back Regulations.

To reduce carbon emissions during production and realize the recycling of resources, the government has promulgated carbon cap-and-trade regulation and take-back regulation separately. This paper firstly analyses the manufacturing, remanufacturing and collection decisions of a monopoly manufacturer under cap-and-trade regulation and take-back regulation conditions, and then explores the environmental impact (i.e., carbon emissions) of both carbon regulation and more stringent take-back regulation. Finally, ...

Patterns of change: the dynamics of medicinal plant trade in far-western Nepal.

Combined quantitative and qualitative environmental product trade studies, undertaken in the same location over time, are instrumental in identifying plant species with commercial demand and explaining what drives temporal changes. Yet such dynamic studies are rare, including for Himalayan medicinal plants that have been large-scale traded for millennia.

Discursive archaeology: constituting knowledge of militant nurses in trade associations.

To analyze the constituting knowledge of militant nurses in trade associations.

Head and Neck Cancer in World Trade Center Responders: A Case Series.

To report on cases of head and neck cancer (HNC) among World Trade Center (WTC) responders participating in the WTC Health Program and seen at Rutgers WTC Center of Clinical Excellence.

Shock transmission in the International Food Trade Network.

Food Security is a long-standing concern worldwide. The expansion of global food markets brings benefits but also risks, such as shock transmission within the global network of trade relations. We focus on this last issue, from an empirical point of view, by analysing the diffusion of trade shocks-defined as relevant drops in exported quantities-during the period 1986-2011, for four major staples (wheat, maize, rice, and soy-beans) both at country level and at global scale. We find that: (i) income per capi...

Import volumes and biosecurity interventions shape the arrival rate of fungal pathogens.

Global trade and the movement of people accelerate biological invasions by spreading species worldwide. Biosecurity measures seek to allow trade and passenger movements while preventing incursions that could lead to the establishment of unwanted pests, pathogens, and weeds. However, few data exist to evaluate whether changes in trade volumes, passenger arrivals, and biosecurity measures have altered rates of establishment of nonnative species over time. This is particularly true for pathogens, which pose si...

Transmission-clearance trade-offs indicate that dengue virulence evolution depends on epidemiological context.

An extensive body of theory addresses the topic of pathogen virulence evolution, yet few studies have empirically demonstrated the presence of fitness trade-offs that would select for intermediate virulence. Here we show the presence of transmission-clearance trade-offs in dengue virus using viremia measurements. By fitting a within-host model to these data, we further find that the interaction between dengue and the host immune response can account for the observed trade-offs. Finally, we consider dengue v...

Endogenous microbial contamination of melons (Cucumis melo) from international trade - an underestimated risk for the consumer?

Fruits and vegetables have increasingly been related to foodborne outbreaks. Besides surface contamination, a possible internalization of microorganisms into edible parts of plants during growth has already been observed. In order to examine an actual risk for the consumer, the microbial contamination of rind and pulp of 147 muskmelons from international trade was assessed using cultural and biochemical methods, PCR and MALDI-TOF MS.

Grasping at laws: Speed-accuracy trade-offs in manual prehension.

Most of human performance is subject to speed-accuracy trade-offs. For spatially constrained aiming, the trade-off is often said to take the specific form of Fitts' law, in which movement duration is predicted from a single factor combining target distance and target size. However, efforts to extend this law to the three-dimensional context of reaching to grasp (prehension) have had limited success. We suggest that there are potentially confounding influences in standard grasping, and we introduce a novel t...

Metabolic enzyme cost explains variable trade-offs between microbial growth rate and yield.

Microbes may maximize the number of daughter cells per time or per amount of nutrients consumed. These two strategies correspond, respectively, to the use of enzyme-efficient or substrate-efficient metabolic pathways. In reality, fast growth is often associated with wasteful, yield-inefficient metabolism, and a general thermodynamic trade-off between growth rate and biomass yield has been proposed to explain this. We studied growth rate/yield trade-offs by using a novel modeling framework, Enzyme-Flux Cost ...

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