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PubMed Journals Articles About "Effects Of Dietary Fructose On Glucose And Lipid Metabolism In Healthy Human Subjects" RSS

04:09 EDT 22nd August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Effects Of Dietary Fructose On Glucose And Lipid Metabolism In Healthy Human Subjects PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Effects Of Dietary Fructose On Glucose And Lipid Metabolism In Healthy Human Subjects articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Effects Dietary Fructose Glucose Lipid Metabolism Healthy Human" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 49,000+

Metabolism of fructose in B-cells: A C NMR spectroscopy based stable isotope tracer study.

Earlier studies on glucose metabolism in B-cells suggested an active TCA cycle in both naïve B cells and differentiated IgA plasma cells. Glycolysis was shown to be more active in IgA plasma cells than naïve B-cells. There have been no reports on the metabolism of fructose in B-cells. Fructose is a major sugar present in the western diet. Thus, we have investigated the metabolism of fructose in B-cells including the effect of glucose on the metabolism of fructose. In this study, using C NMR spectroscopy a...


The Small Intestine Converts Dietary Fructose into Glucose and Organic Acids.

Excessive consumption of sweets is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. A major chemical feature of sweets is fructose. Despite strong ties between fructose and disease, the metabolic fate of fructose in mammals remains incompletely understood. Here we use isotope tracing and mass spectrometry to track the fate of glucose and fructose carbons in vivo, finding that dietary fructose is cleared by the small intestine. Clearance requires the fructose-phosphorylating enzyme ketohexokinase. Low doses of fructos...

Mechanistically different effects of fat and sugar on insulin resistance, hypertension and gut microbiota in rats.

Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are the first manifestations of diet-induced metabolic alterations leading to type-2 diabetes, while hypertension is the deadliest risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The roles of dietary fat and fructose in the development of IR, IGT and hypertension are controversial. We tested the long-term effects of an excess of fat or sucrose (fructose/glucose) on healthy male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Fat affects IR and IGT earlier than fructose through l...


Dietary Fructose Metabolism By Splanchnic Organs: Size Matters.

The initial metabolism of fructose is thought to primarily take place in the liver. Using stable isotope labeling combined with tissue and arterio-venous sampling, Jang et al. (2018) demonstrate that in mice, the small intestine is the primary site of fructose metabolism. This raises important questions about fructose handling in humans.

Ketohexokinase Knockout Mice, a Model for Essential Fructosuria, Exhibit Altered Fructose Metabolism and are Protected from Diet-induced Metabolic Defects.

Fructose consumption in humans and animals has been linked to enhanced de novo lipogenesis, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Hereditary deficiency of Ketohexokinase (KHK), the first enzymatic step in fructose metabolism, leads to essential fructosuria in humans, characterized by elevated levels of blood and urinary fructose following fructose ingestion, but is otherwise clinically benign. To address whether KHK deficiency is associated with altered glucose and lipid metabolism, a KHK knockout (KO) mouse...

The acute effects on duodenal gene expression in healthy men following consumption of a low-fat meal enriched with theobromine or fat.

Increasing apoA-I synthesis may improve HDL functionality and lower CVD risk. As theobromine and fat increase fasting apoA-I concentrations, and the intestine is involved in apoA-I production, the acute effects of both were studied on duodenal gene transcription to better understand underlying mechanisms. In this crossover study, 8 healthy men received once a low fat (LF) meal, a LF meal plus theobromine (850 mg), or a high fat (HF) meal. Five hours after meal intake duodenal biopsies were taken for micro...

Effects of short-term sex steroid suppression on dietary fat storage patterns in healthy males.

Hypogonadism in males is associated with increased body fat and altered postprandial metabolism, but mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using a cross-over study design, we investigated the effects of short-term sex hormone suppression with or without testosterone add-back on postprandial metabolism and the fate of dietary fat. Eleven healthy males (age: 29 ± 4.5 year; BMI: 26.3 ± 2.1 kg/m2 ) completed two 7-day study phases during which hormone levels were altered pharmacologically to produce a lo...

Evolution, regulation, and function of porcine selenogenome.

Much less research on regulation and function of selenoproteins has been conducted in domestic pigs than in rodents or humans, although pigs are an excellent model of human nutrition and medicine and pork is a widely consumed meat in the world. Phylogenetically, the 25 identified porcine selenoproteins fell into two primitive groups, and might be further divided into three parallel branches. Despite a high similarity to that of humans and rodents, the porcine selenoproteome exhibited the closest evolutionar...

Utilization of lactic acid in human myotubes and interplay with glucose and fatty acid metabolism.

Once assumed only to be a waste product of anaerobe glycolytic activity, lactate is now recognized as an energy source in skeletal muscles. While lactate metabolism has been extensively studied in vivo, underlying cellular processes are poorly described. This study aimed to examine lactate metabolism in cultured human myotubes and to investigate effects of lactate exposure on metabolism of oleic acid and glucose. Lactic acid, fatty acid and glucose metabolism were studied in myotubes using [C(U)]lactic acid...

Low expression of IL-18 and IL-18 receptor in human skeletal muscle is associated with systemic and intramuscular lipid metabolism-Role of HIV lipodystrophy.

Interleukin (IL)-18 is involved in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Mice lacking whole-body IL-18 signalling are prone to develop weight gain and insulin resistance, a phenotype which is associated with impaired fat oxidation and ectopic skeletal muscle lipid deposition. IL-18 mRNA is expressed in human skeletal muscle but a role for IL-18 in muscle has not been identified. Patients with HIV-infection and lipodystrophy (LD) are characterized by lipid and glucose disturbances and increased levels ...

Role of Human Brown Fat in Obesity, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease: Strategies to Turn Up the Heat.

Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) was re-discovered in 2009 by several independent groups, who showed that it is present and active in adults, as judged from the profound uptake of the glucose analogue radiotracer F-fluorodeoxyglucose in positron-emission tomography and computed tomography scan analysis after cold exposure. A potential clinical implication of activating BAT relates to its high metabolic activity and its potential role in stimulating energy expenditure (i.e. resting energy expenditure, meal-i...

A mathematical analysis of adaptations to the metabolic fate of fructose in essential fructosuria subjects.

Fructose is a major component of Western diets and is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In response to an oral challenge, the majority of fructose is cleared during "first-pass" liver metabolism, primarily via phosphorylation by ketohexokinase (KHK). A rare benign genetic deficiency in KHK, called essential fructosuria (EF), leads to altered fructose metabolism. The only reported symptom of EF is the appearance of fructose in the urine following either oral or intravenous fructo...

Neonatal intake of oleanolic acid attenuates the subsequent development of high fructose diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

Dietary manipulations during the early postnatal period are associated with the development of metabolic disorders including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or long-term protection against metabolic dysfunction. We investigated the potential hepatoprotective effects of neonatal administration of oleanolic acid (OA), a phytochemical, on the subsequent development in adulthood, of dietary fructose-induced NAFLD. Male and female suckling rats (n=112) were gavaged with; distilled water (DW), OA (60 mg...

Dose-dependent quantitative effects of acute fructose administration on hepatic de novo lipogenesis in healthy humans.

Fructose feeding increases hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Little is known, however, about individual variation in susceptibility to fructose stimulation of DNL. In this three-period, cross-over study, seventeen healthy male subjects were enrolled to evaluate the within and between subject variability of acute fructose feeding on hepatic fractional DNL. During each assessment, [1-C]-acetate was infused to measure DNL in the fasting state and during...

Influence of Probiotics Administration on Gut Microbiota Core: A Review on the Effects on Appetite Control, Glucose, and Lipid Metabolism.

An increasing number of studies has shown that dietary probiotics exert beneficial health effects in both humans and animals. It is well established that gut microbiota play a pivotal role in regulating host metabolism, and a growing number of studies has elucidated that probiotics positively interfere with gut microbiota. Accumulating evidence shows that probiotics, through their metabolic activity, produce metabolites that in turn contribute to positively affect host physiology. For these reasons, probiot...

Improved glucose metabolism by Eragrostis tef potentially through beige adipocyte formation and attenuating adipose tissue inflammation.

Teff is a staple food in Ethiopia that is rich in dietary fiber. Although gaining popularity in Western countries because it is gluten-free, the effects of teff on glucose metabolism remain unknown.

Basal Insulin Peglispro Increases Lipid Oxidation, Metabolic Flexibility, Thermogenesis And Ketone Bodies Compared To Insulin Glargine In Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

When treated with basal insulin peglispro (BIL), patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit weight loss and lower prandial insulin requirements versus insulin glargine (GL), while total insulin requirements remain similar. One possible explanation is enhanced lipid oxidation and improved ability to switch between glucose and lipid metabolism with BIL. This study compared the effects of BIL and GL on glucose and lipid metabolism in subjects with T1DM.

Effectiveness of a bioactive food compound in anthropometric measures of individuals with HIV/AIDS: A nonrandomized trial.

Highly Active Antiretroviral therapy (HAART) promotes anthropometric changes in lipid metabolism and glucose in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Functional foods play an important role on metabolism. Bioactive Food Compound (BFC) has shown effective results in changes arising from decompensated lipid metabolism due to the effects of HAART on HIV patients. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate anthropometric indicators and the body composition of patients undergoi...

ChREBP deficiency leads to diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

Fructose malabsorption is a common digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose in the small intestine is impaired. An abnormality of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins has been proposed as a cause for fructose malabsorption. However the underlying molecular mechanism for this remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) plays a role in intestinal fructose absorption through the regulation of genes involved in fructose tr...

Protective Effects of Ellagitannin-Rich Strawberry Extracts on Biochemical and Metabolic Disturbances in Rats Fed a Diet High in Fructose.

The present study compares the effects of two dietary strawberry extracts rich in monomeric (ME) or dimeric (DE) ellagitannins (ETs) on gastrointestinal, blood and tissue biomarkers in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diets. Both strawberry extracts beneficially affect the antioxidant status and lipid profile of the liver and serum. The ME extract shows a greater ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in kidneys, more effectively decreases serum and liver triglycerides, and exerts greater anti-inflammatory effe...

Role of rs670 variant of APOA1 gene on lipid profile, insulin resistance and adipokine levels in obese subjects after weight loss with a dietary intervention.

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of rs670 APOA1 gene polymorphism on obesity parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism markers, blood pressure and adipokine levels after a hypocaloric diet with Mediterranean pattern.

Continuous Glucose Monitoring at High Altitude-Effects on Glucose Homeostasis.

Exposure to high altitude has been shown to enhance both glucose and lipid utilization depending on experimental protocol. In addition, high and low blood glucose levels have been reported at high altitude. We hypothesized that gradual ascent to high altitude results in changes in glucose levels in healthy young adults.

The acute effects of citrus flavanones on the metabolism of glycogen and monosaccharides in the isolated perfused rat liver.

Citrus flavanones are often linked to their antihyperglycemic properties. This effect may be in part due to the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis through different mechanisms. One of the possible mechanisms appears to be impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, which may also interfere with glycogen metabolism. Based on these facts, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of three citrus flavanones on glycogenolysis in the isolated perfused rat liver. Hesperidin, hesperetin, and ...

GLUT5 increases fructose utilization and promotes tumor progression in glioma.

Fructose is now such an important component of human diets, and several studies have found that some cancer cells could utilize fructose to overcome low glucose micro-environment, but the study on the role of fructose in glioma is rare. To explore the role of fructose in glioma, we detected the proliferation and colony formation ability of glioma cells in fructose medium, and found that the abilities of proliferation and colony formation of glioma cells in fructose medium were similar with abilities in gluc...

Metabotypes Related to Meat and Vegetable Intake Reflect Microbial, Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism in Healthy People.

The objective of this study was to develop a new methodology to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolites indicative of food intake and metabolism.


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