PubMed Journals Articles About "Effects Of Dietary Fructose On Glucose And Lipid Metabolism In Healthy Human Subjects" RSS

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Showing "Effects Dietary Fructose Glucose Lipid Metabolism Healthy Human" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 49,000+


Fructose consumption has increased due to widespread use of high-fructose corn syrup by the food industry. Renal proximal tubules are thought to reabsorb fructose. However, fructose reabsorption (J) by proximal tubules has not yet been directly demonstrated, nor the effects of dietary fructose on J. This segment express sodium-glucose linked transporters (SGLTs) 1, 2, 4 and 5, and glucose transporters (GLUTs) 2 and 5. SGLT4 and 5 transport fructose but SGLT1 and 2 don't. Knocking out SGLT5 increases urinary...

6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 and 4: A pair of valves for fine-tuning of glucose metabolism in human cancer.

Cancer cells favor the use of less efficient glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to metabolize glucose, even in oxygen-rich conditions, a distinct metabolic alteration named the Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis. In adult cells, bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB) family members are responsible for controlling the steady-state cytoplasmic levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which allosterically activates 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, the key ...

Fibroblast growth factor 21 and fructose dynamics in humans.

Fructose consumption is a risk factor for metabolic disease. We recently demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a metabolic hormone involved in lipid and glucose metabolism, is acutely stimulated in humans by 75 g oral fructose, with peak levels occurring 2 h after consumption. This study reports on the dose dependency and reproducibility of the FGF21 response to fructose.

Effects of fructose-containing sweeteners on fructose intestinal, hepatic, and oral bioavailability in dual-catheterized rats.

Fructose is commonplace in Western diets and is consumed primarily through added sugars as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup. High consumption of fructose has been linked to the development of metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases. The majority of the harmful effects of fructose can be traced to its uncontrolled and rapid metabolism, primarily within the liver. It has been speculated that the formulation of fructose-containing sweeteners can have varying impacts on its adverse effects. Unfo...

Biglycan gene connects metabolic dysfunction with brain disorder.

Dietary fructose is a major contributor to the epidemic of diabetes and obesity, and it is an excellent model to study metabolic syndrome. Based on previous studies that Bgn gene occupies a central position in a network of genes in the brain in response to fructose consumption, we assessed the capacity of Bgn to modulate the action of fructose on brain and body. We exposed male biglycan knockout mice (Bgn) to fructose for 7 weeks, and results showed that Bgn mice compensated for a decrement in learning an...

Short-term tamoxifen treatment has long-term effects on metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice with involvement of Nmnat2 in POMC neurons.

Short-term tamoxifen treatment has effects on lipid and glucose metabolism in mice fed chow. However, its effects on metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that tamoxifen treatment for 5 days decreases fat mass for as long as 18 weeks in mice fed HFD. Tamoxifen alters mRNA levels of some genes involved in lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue and improves glucose and insulin tolerance as well as hepatic insulin signaling for 12 to 20 weeks. Pro...

Utilization of lactic acid in human myotubes and interplay with glucose and fatty acid metabolism.

Once assumed only to be a waste product of anaerobe glycolytic activity, lactate is now recognized as an energy source in skeletal muscles. While lactate metabolism has been extensively studied in vivo, underlying cellular processes are poorly described. This study aimed to examine lactate metabolism in cultured human myotubes and to investigate effects of lactate exposure on metabolism of oleic acid and glucose. Lactic acid, fatty acid and glucose metabolism were studied in myotubes using [C(U)]lactic acid...

Temporal dynamics of liver mitochondrial protein acetylation and succinylation and metabolites due to high fat diet and/or excess glucose or fructose.

Dietary macronutrient composition alters metabolism through several mechanisms, including post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins. To connect diet and molecular changes, here we performed short- and long-term feeding of mice with standard chow diet (SCD) and high-fat diet (HFD), with or without glucose or fructose supplementation, and quantified liver metabolites, 861 proteins, and 1,815 protein level-corrected mitochondrial acetylation and succinylation sites. Nearly half the acylation sites were...

Interleukin-4 Boosts Insulin-Induced Energy Deposits by Enhancing Glucose Uptake and Lipogenesis in Hepatocytes.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis as the major cause of fasting hyperglycemia, is closely associated with chronic inflammation. We previously demonstrated interleukin-4 (IL-4) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while reducing lipid deposits. The present study examined the effects of IL-4 on insulin signaling molecules, glucose uptake, and lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, as well as effects on hepatic adiposity, for elucidating the roles of IL-4 in h...

Nutrition and Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Chronic Kidney Diseases: Findings from 20 Years of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

The high prevalence of chronic diseases can be prevented or managed by specific changes in lifestyle patterns of individuals of which dietary factors is emphasized. The objective of this study was to review all findings of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study regarding validity and reliability of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), evaluating dietary quality and association of dietary factors in relation to diabetes, dysglycemia, cardiovascular (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Vitamin D controls the capacity of human dendritic cells to induce functional regulatory T cells by regulation of glucose metabolism.

Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs) instruct regulatory T cells (Tregs) to dampen autoimmunity. Active vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; 1α,25(OH)D) imprints human monocyte-derived DCs with tolerogenic properties by reprogramming their glucose metabolism. Here we identify the glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 4 (PFKFB4) as a critical checkpoint and direct transcriptional target of 1α,25(OH)D in determining the tolDC profile. Using tracer metabolomics, we show that ...

Role of Human Brown Fat in Obesity, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease: Strategies to Turn Up the Heat.

Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) was re-discovered in 2009 by several independent groups, who showed that it is present and active in adults, as judged from the profound uptake of the glucose analogue radiotracer F-fluorodeoxyglucose in positron-emission tomography and computed tomography scan analysis after cold exposure. A potential clinical implication of activating BAT relates to its high metabolic activity and its potential role in stimulating energy expenditure (i.e. resting energy expenditure, meal-i...

Improved glucose metabolism by Eragrostis tef potentially through beige adipocyte formation and attenuating adipose tissue inflammation.

Teff is a staple food in Ethiopia that is rich in dietary fiber. Although gaining popularity in Western countries because it is gluten-free, the effects of teff on glucose metabolism remain unknown.

Effects of dietary lipid sources on hepatic nutritive contents, fatty acid composition and proteome of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

Dietary oils of varying fatty acid composition have been used in tilapia feeds; nevertheless, investigation of their effects on metabolism and physiological processes has been limited. Therefore, in this study, using proteomic technology, the effects of different dietary lipids (DLs) on hepatic lipid metabolism and physiological processes were investigaed in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were fed with different DL, which included palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO) and soybean oil (SBO) for 90 da...

Erythroferrone is not required for the glucoregulatory and hematologic effects of chronic erythropoietin treatment in mice.

Erythropoietin (EPO) acts on erythroid progenitor cells to promote their survival and differentiation to mature erythrocytes. Along with this canonical role, EPO is also reported to modulate energy metabolism, resulting in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. EPO also stimulates the production of the hormone erythroferrone (ERFE) which acts to suppress hepcidin production, thus increasing dietary iron absorption and mobilizing stored iron for use in erythropoiesis. ERFE (initially termed myon...

Association between Toll-like receptors (TLR) and NOD-like receptor (NLR) polymorphisms and lipid and glucose metabolism.

Recent evidences had shown activation of TLR (toll-like receptors) and NLR (nod-like receptors) in response to imbalance in nutrients intake, such as lipid and glucose. The main aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between 11 SNPs in TLR2, TLR4, NLRC4, CARD8 and NEK7 genes and lipid and glucose metabolism. Sample was composed by healthy children and adolescents (n = 158) and adults (n = 115). DNA extraction was obtained by salting-out and sample genotyping by matrix-assisted la...

Interbreed variation of biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism in dogs.

Markers of lipid and glucose metabolism are used in both clinical practice and research. Detection of abnormal laboratory results often relies on species-specific reference intervals, but interbreed variation can also affect data interpretation.

A systematic meta-analysis of oxygen-to-glucose and oxygen-to-carbohydrate ratios in the resting human brain.

Glucose is the predominant fuel supporting brain function. If the brain's entire glucose supply is consumed by oxidative phosphorylation, the molar ratio of oxygen to glucose consumption (OGI) is equal to 6. An OGI of less than 6 is evidence of non-oxidative glucose metabolism. Several studies have reported that the OGI in the resting human brain is less than 6.0, but the exact value remains uncertain. Additionally, it is not clear if lactate efflux accounts for the difference between OGI and its theoretica...

Metabotypes Related to Meat and Vegetable Intake Reflect Microbial, Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism in Healthy People.

The objective of this study was to develop a new methodology to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolites indicative of food intake and metabolism.

Human placental glucose transport in fetoplacental growth and metabolism.

While efficient glucose transport is essential for all cells, in the case of the human placenta, glucose transport requirements are two-fold; provision of glucose for the growing fetus in addition to the supply of glucose required the changing metabolic needs of the placenta itself. The rapidly evolving environment of placental cells over gestation has significant consequences for the development of glucose transport systems. The two-fold transport requirement of the placenta means also that changes in expr...

Nutrition and Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors: Findings from 20 Years of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to review all findings of studies conducted in framework of the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) regarding the association of dietary factors with cardio-metabolic risk factors.

Blocking of STAT-3/SREBP1-mediated glucose-lipid metabolism is involved in dietary phytoestrogen-inhibited ovariectomized-induced body weight gain in rats.

Postmenopausal women have a decline in circulating estrogen levels and are more prone to obesity and its related metabolic diseases than premenopausal women are. The absence of safe and effective conventional treatments for postmenopausal obesity has changed the focus to natural products as alternative remedies. Here, ovariectomized rats and LO2 cells were used to study the molecular basis of the effect of dietary phytoestrogens on body weight gain and hepatic steatosis. Dietary phytoestrogens can inhibit o...

Effects of perinatal exposure to BPA and its alternatives (BPS, BPF and BPAF) on hepatic lipid and glucose homeostasis in female mice adolescent offspring.

The widespread application of bisphenols (BPs) makes them ubiquitous in the natural environment and poses many potential risks. In this study, we examined the effects of perinatal exposure to BPA and its 3 alternatives (BPS, BPF, and BPAF) on lipid and glucose homeostasis in female mice adolescent offspring. Specifically, BPA exposure promoted the expression of hepatic lipid synthesis and fatty acid accumulation genes, resulting in a significant increase in 2 free fatty acids contents. BPS exposure caused a...

Lipid metabolism in Alzheimer's disease.

Since the metabolic disorder may be the high risk that contribute to the progress of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Overtaken of High-fat, high-glucose or high-cholesterol diet may hasten the incidence of AD in later life, due to the metabolic dysfunction. But the metabolism of lipid in brain and the exact effect of lipid to brain or to the AD's pathological remain controversial. Here we summarize correlates of lipid metabolism and AD to provide more foundation for the daily nursing of AD sensitive patients.

Fructose at the crossroads of the metabolic syndrome and obesity epidemics.

In this review, we highlight the specific metabolic effects of fructose consumption that are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with obesity. The specifics effects of fructose on the liver are particularly germane to the development of a vicious cycle that starts with liver steatosis driving insulin resistance. These effects include 1) increased lipogenesis, 2) increased liver fat, 3) dyslipidemia 4) increased uric acid production which f...

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