PubMed Journals Articles About "Environmental And Genetic Determinants Of NPC" RSS

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Showing "Environmental Genetic Determinants" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 16,000+

Socio-demographic, Clinical, and Genetic Determinants of Quality of Life in Lung Cancer Patients.

Patient reported health-related quality of life (QOL) is a major component of the overall well-being of cancer patients, with links to prognosis. In 6,420 lung cancer patients, we identified patient characteristics and genetic determinants of QOL. Patient responses from the SF-12 questionnaire was used to calculate normalized Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores. Further, we analyzed 218 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, a key med...

High burden of birthweight-lowering genetic variants in Africans and Asians.

Birthweight is an important predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes in childhood and adulthood. Birthweight and fetal growth show regional and population variations even under similar maternal conditions, and a large proportion of these differences are not explained by environmental factors. Whether and to what extent population genetic variations at key birthweight-associated loci account for the residual birthweight disparities not...

Genetic influences on neonatal cortical thickness and surface area.

Genetic and environmental influences on cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) are thought to vary in a complex and dynamic way across the lifespan. It has been established that CT and SA are genetically distinct in older children, adolescents, and adults, and that heritability varies across cortical regions. Very little, however, is known about how genetic and environmental factors influence infant CT and SA. Using structural MRI, we performed the first assessment of genetic and environmental influe...

Lifestyle, metabolite, and genetic determinants of formate concentrations in a cross-sectional study in young, healthy adults.

Formate is an important metabolite that serves as a donor of one-carbon groups to the intracellular tetrahydrofolate pool. However, little is known of its circulating concentrations or of their determinants.

Genetic Ancestry for Sleep Research: Leveraging Health Inequalities to Identify Causal Genetic Variants.

Recent evidence has highlighted the health inequalities in sleep behaviors and sleep disorders that adversely impact outcomes in select populations, including African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Race-related sleep health inequalities are ascribed to differences in multilevel and interlinked health determinants, such as sociodemographic factors, health behaviors and biology. African Americans and Hispanic Americans are admixed populations whose genetic inheritance combines two or more ancestral populat...

Genetic and evolutionary determinants of human population variation in immune responses.

Humans display remarkable immune response variation when exposed to identical immune challenges. However, our understanding of the genetic, evolutionary, and environmental factors that impact this inter-individual and inter-population immune response heterogeneity is still in its early days. In this review, we discuss three fundamental questions concerning the recent evolution of the human immune system: the degree to which individuals from different populations vary in their innate immune responses, the ge...

Genetic Determinants for Leisure-Time Physical Activity.

Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is a well-established modifiable lifestyle determinant for multiple cardio-metabolic outcomes. However, current understanding of the genetic architecture that may determine LTPA remains very limited. Therefore, we aimed to examine the role of genetic factors in affecting LTPA, which has yet to be investigated comprehensively and in-depth.

Genetic and environmental factors affecting birth size variation: a pooled individual-based analysis of secular trends and global geographical differences using 26 twin cohorts.

The genetic architecture of birth size may differ geographically and over time. We examined differences in the genetic and environmental contributions to birthweight, length and ponderal index (PI) across geographical-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia) and across birth cohorts, and how gestational age modifies these effects.

Age-Related Differences in the Structure of Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Types of Peer Victimization.

The goal of the present investigation was to clarify and compare the structure of genetic and environmental influences on different types (e.g., physical, verbal) of peer victimization experienced by youth in pre-/early adolescence and mid-/late adolescence. Physical, verbal, social, and property-related peer victimization experiences were assessed in two twin samples (306 pairs, ages 9-14 and 294 pairs, ages 15-20). Cholesky decompositions of individual differences in victimization were conducted, and inde...

Should NASA Collect Astronauts' Genetic Information for Occupational Surveillance and Research?

Humans exploring beyond low-Earth orbit face environmental challenges coupled with isolation, remote operations, and extreme resource limitations in which personalized medicine, enabled by genetic research, might be necessary for mission success. With little opportunity to test personalized countermeasures broadly, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will likely need to rely instead on collection of significant amounts of genomic and environmental exposure data from individuals. This ne...

LOXL1 Polymorphisms: Genetic Biomarkers that Presage Environmental Determinants of Exfoliation Syndrome.

An agnostic high throughput search of the genome revealed a robust association between LOXL1 genetic polymorphisms and exfoliation syndrome (XFS), a discovery that likely would not have been possible with candidate or family-based gene search strategies. While questions remain regarding how LOXL1 gene variants contribute to XFS pathogenesis, it is clear that the frequencies of disease-related alleles do not track with the varying disease burden throughout the world, prompting a search for environmental risk...

Longitudinal Twin Study of Subjective Health: Differences in Genetic and Environmental Components of Variance Across Age and Sex.

The current analysis examines sex differences in longitudinal changes in genetic and environmental influences on three measures of subjective health.

Genetic determinants of impaired awareness of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes.

Transmission traits of malaria parasites within the mosquito: Genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity, and consequences for control.

Evaluating the risk of emergence and transmission of vector-borne diseases requires knowledge of the genetic and environmental contributions to pathogen transmission traits. Compared to the significant effort devoted to understanding the biology of malaria transmission from vertebrate hosts to mosquito vectors, the strategies that malaria parasites have evolved to maximize transmission from vectors to vertebrate hosts have been largely overlooked. While determinants of infection success within the mosquito ...

Characterizing genetic and environmental influences on variable DNA methylation using monozygotic and dizygotic twins.

Variation in DNA methylation is being increasingly associated with health and disease outcomes. Although DNA methylation is hypothesized to be a mechanism by which both genetic and non-genetic factors can influence the regulation of gene expression, little is known about the extent to which DNA methylation at specific sites is influenced by heritable as well as environmental factors. We quantified DNA methylation in whole blood at age 18 in a birth cohort of 1,464 individuals comprising 426 monozygotic (MZ)...

Integrating Data On Social Determinants Of Health Into Electronic Health Records.

As population health becomes more of a focus of health care, providers are realizing that data outside of traditional clinical findings can provide a broader perspective on potential drivers of a patient's health status and can identify approaches to improving the effectiveness of care. However, many challenges remain before data related to the social determinants of health, such as environmental conditions and education levels, are as readily accessible and actionable as medical data are. Key challenges ar...

Re: The recent paper 'Genetic determinants of impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes'.

Genetic diversity of Avena ventricosa populations along an ecogeographical transect in Cyprus is correlated to environmental variables.

Avena ventricosa Balansa ex Coss. is considered the C-genome donor of the cultivated hexaploid oat and is a 'priority' species for conservation, since it has limited geographic distribution and the only recorded populations in Europe are present in Cyprus. The current study attempts to characterize the genetic structure and fragmentation of the species via the application of genotypic markers. It was revealed that the genetic variety was mainly allocated among the populations collected, since clustering obt...

Directional selection reduces developmental canalization against genetic and environmental perturbations in Drosophila wings.

Natural selection may enhance or weaken the robustness of phenotypes against genetic or environmental perturbations. However, important aspects of the relationship between adaptive evolution and canalization remain unclear. Recent work showed that the evolution of larger wing size in a high altitude natural population of Drosophila melanogaster was accompanied by decanalized wing development - specifically a loss of robustness to genetic perturbation. But this study did not address environmental robustness,...

Spatial Assessment of the Association between Long-Term Exposure to Environmental Factors and the Occurrence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Catalonia, Spain: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study.

It is believed that an interaction between genetic and non-genetic factors may be involved in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). With the exception of exposure to agricultural chemicals like pesticides, evidence of an association between environmental risk factors and ALS is inconsistent. Our objective here was to investigate the association between long-term exposure to environmental factors and the occurrence of ALS in Catalonia, Spain, and to provide evidence that spatial clusters of...

Neurogenetic Determinants and Mechanisms of Addiction to Nicotine and Smoked Tobacco.

The single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States is tobacco use. Decades of study show that the risk of becoming addicted to smoked cigarettes varies greatly amongst individuals and is heritable, yet environmental factors are also important contributors. In this review, we consider a wide range of methodologies and key published reports that have defined the inheritance of different stages of nicotine-dependent smoking behavior, including preference, initiation, regul...

On the genetic and environmental sources of social and political participation in adolescence and early adulthood.

Political participation (POP), social participation (SOP), and political interest (PI) are important indicators of social status and social inequality. Previous studies on related trait differences yielded genetic and environmental contributions. However, focusing on adult samples, classical twin designs, and convenience samples often restricts parameter estimation and generalizability, and limits the understanding of age differences. We investigated sources of variance in POP, SOP, and PI in late adolescen...

Association of Socio-Environmental Determinants with Diabetes Prevalence in the Athens Metropolitan Area, Greece: A Spatial Analysis.

The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial variation of diabetes in relation to the geographical variability of socio-environmental characteristics in the urban districts of Athens.

Representation of social determinants of health in German medical education: protocol of a content analysis study.

Action on the social determinants of health has been key for improving health and prolonging life in the past, and remains so today. Against this background, WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health has called for increased efforts to create health workforces trained in recognising, understanding and acting on the social determinants of health. However, little is known about the extent to which current medical education systems prepare graduates for this challenge. We, therefore, aim to analyse the...

Genome-wide analysis of genetic determinants of circulating factor VII activating protease (FSAP) activity.

Factor VII activating protease (FSAP) exerts a role in both coagulation and fibrinolysis. Recent data indicate involvement in several other processes such as vascular remodeling and inflammation. Plasma FSAP activity is highly variable among healthy individuals and, apart from the low frequency missense variant Marburg-I (rs7080536) in the FSAP encoding gene HABP2, determinants of this variation are unclear.

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