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PubMed Journals Articles About "Evaluating The Metabolic Effects Of Polylactose: A Novel Prebiotic" RSS

11:46 EST 29th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Evaluating Metabolic Effects Polylactose Novel Prebiotic" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 29,000+

Administration of dietary prebiotics improves growth performance and reduces pathogen colonization in broiler chickens.

Dietary prebiotics are thought to be potentially important alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production because of their beneficial performance and health effects. The administration of dietary prebiotics has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and microbial food safety in poultry production. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Saccharomyces-derived prebiotic refined functional carbohydrates (RFC) with yeast culture on growth performance and gastrointe...


Antioxidant capacity and prebiotic effects of Gracilaria neoagaro oligosaccharides prepared by agarase hydrolysis.

Gracilaria is a genus of red algae widely cultivated in Asia and is notable for its economic importance as food ingredients. Neoagaro oligosaccharides (NAOSs) are products of Gracilaria that have excellent water solubility, antioxidant activity and prebiotic effect. In this study, Gracilaria crude polysaccharide was treated with agarase and hydrolyzed into NAOSs with different degrees of polymerization (DP). The compositions of the hydrolyzed NAOSs were analyzed by electrospray ionization-time of flight-mas...

Comparative effects of 18 antipsychotics on metabolic function in patients with schizophrenia, predictors of metabolic dysregulation, and association with psychopathology: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Antipsychotic treatment is associated with metabolic disturbance. However, the degree to which metabolic alterations occur in treatment with different antipsychotics is unclear. Predictors of metabolic dysregulation are poorly understood and the association between metabolic change and change in psychopathology is uncertain. We aimed to compare and rank antipsychotics on the basis of their metabolic side-effects, identify physiological and demographic predictors of antipsychotic-induced metabolic dysregulat...


The Enduring Effects of Early Life Stress on the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis are Buffered by Dietary Supplementation with Milk Fat Globule Membrane and a Prebiotic Blend.

Nutritional interventions targeting the microbiota-gut-brain axis are proposed to modulate stress-induced dysfunction of physiological processes and brain development. Maternal separation (MS) in rats induces long-term alterations to behavior, pain responses, gut microbiome and brain neurochemistry. In this study, the effects of dietary interventions (milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and a polydextrose/galactooligosaccharide prebiotic blend (PDX/GOS)) were evaluated. Diets were provided from postnatal day 2...

Metagenomic analysis of gut microbiota modulatory effects of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) polysaccharides in a colorectal cancer mouse model.

Accumulating evidence has reported that the gut microbiota could play important roles in the occurrence and progression of colorectal cancer. The nondigestible plant polysaccharides have always been fermented by the intestinal microbiota. Polysaccharides, the predominant functional composition found in jujube fruit, has been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in polysaccharides preventing carcinogenesis are still uncharacterized. The aim of this stud...

Coenzymes and their role in the evolution of Life.

The evolution of coenzymes, or the impact of coenzymes on the origin of Life, is fundamental for understanding our own existence and yet, this topic is rarely discussed in contemporary science. Coenzymes are small molecules that occupy an elementary role with respect to chemical reactivity and selectivity when associated with a macromolecular template. They are essential for functional biocatalysis in all living organisms and act as currency to regulate many basic metabolic processes. Having established rea...

Metabolic effects in the freshwater fish Geophagus iporangensis in response to single and combined exposure to graphene oxide and trace elements.

Graphene oxide (GO) is part of a new set of nanomaterials with particular characteristics related to its nanoscale size. Due to this feature, it presents high reactivity and other contaminants present in the environment could bind to them and affect its intrinsic toxicity. The metabolic effects of such nanomaterials and their combination with two common pollutants, zinc and cadmium, on the freshwater fish Geophagus iporangensis are analyzed. Moreover, metabolic rate and ammonia excretion were used as bioind...

Metabolic Network Reconstructions to Predict Drug Targets and Off-Target Effects.

The drug development pipeline has stalled because of the difficulty in identifying new drug targets while minimizing off-target effects. Computational methods, such as the use of metabolic network reconstructions, may provide a cost-effective platform to test new hypotheses for drug targets and prevent off-target effects. Here, we summarize available methods to identify drug targets and off-target effects using either reaction-centric, gene-centric, or metabolite-centric approaches with genome-scale metabol...

Effects of a whole diet approach on metabolic flexibility, insulin sensitivity and postprandial glucose responses in overweight and obese adults - A randomized controlled trial.

Metabolic flexibility is the ability to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. Metabolic inflexibility has been associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and can be improved by exercise or weight loss. Dietary changes can modulate metabolic flexibility; however, the effect of a whole diet approach on metabolic flexibility has never been studied. Therefore, our objective was to assess the effect of a healthy diet (HD), as compared to a typical Western diet (WD), on several f...

Dietary fiber isolated from sweet potato residues promotes a healthy gut microbiome profile.

This study investigated the impact of dietary fiber from sweet potato residue (SPDF) on the diversity of the gut microbiota. An in vitro batch culture system simulating the human gut was used to understand the prebiotic role of SPDF. The results showed that SPDF mediated a significant increase in the concentrations of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, whereas induced a significant decrease of Enterobacillus, Clostridium perfringens and Bacteroides. The prebiotic index and Bifidobacterium/Enterobacillus val...

Comparative prebiotic activity of mixtures of cereal grain polysaccharides.

The main components of the non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction of wheat flour are arabinoxylan (AX) and β-glucan. These are also present in other cereal grains, but their proportions vary with AX being the major component in wheat and rye and β-glucan in barley and oats. Therefore, it was hypothesised that these NSPs could act synergistically when fermented in vitro at the ratios present in the major foods consumed, resulting in increased prebiotic activity. AX and β-glucan were therefore tested in ...

Protective effects of the combination Bifidobacterium longum plus lactoferrin against NSAID-induced enteropathy.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can exert detrimental effects in the lower digestive tract. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects of a combination of the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 (Bifidobacterium) with the prebiotic lactoferrin in a rat model of diclofenac-induced enteropathy.

Gonadal Hormone-Dependent vs. -Independent Effects of Kisspeptin Signaling in the Control of Body Weight and Metabolic Homeostasis.

Kisspeptins, encoded by Kiss1, have emerged as essential regulators of puberty and reproduction by primarily acting on GnRH neurons, via their canonical receptor, Gpr54. Mounting, as yet fragmentary, evidence strongly suggests that kisspeptin signaling may also participate in the control of key aspects of body energy and metabolic homeostasis. However, characterization of such metabolic dimension of kisspeptins remains uncomplete, without an unambiguous discrimination between the primary metabolic actions o...

Urinary metabolic disturbance in the olfactory bulbectomized rats and the modulatory effects of fluoxetine.

The present study aims to investigate the impacts of olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) on urinary metabolic profile and tryptophan metabolites in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats, and to explore the regulation effects of fluoxetine.

Mechanisms of the protective effects of nitrate and nitrite in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

Within the body, NO is produced by nitric oxide synthases via converting -arginine to citrulline. Additionally, NO is also produced via the NOS-independent nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. Unlike the classical pathway, the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is oxygen independent and viewed as a back-up function to ensure NO generation during ischaemia/hypoxia. Dietary nitrate and nitrite have emerged as substrates for endogenous NO generation and other bioactive nitrogen oxides with promising protective effects on cardi...

Hydrogen sulfide potentiates the favorable metabolic effects of inorganic nitrite in type 2 diabetic rats.

Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and hydrogen sulfide (HS) deficiency have been linked with the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Restoration of NO levels by nitrite have been associated with favorable metabolic effects in T2D. Moreover, HS can potentiate the effects of NO in the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term co-administration of sodium nitrite and sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) on carbohydrate metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.

Potential toxicity effects of Anastatica hierochuntica aqueous extract on prenatal development of Sprague-Dawley rats.

Anastatica hierochuntica (A. hierochuntica) is a plant consumed in folk medicine for the treatment of reproductive system related problems and metabolic disorders. It is of concern that the herb is commonly consumed by pregnant women towards the end of pregnancy to ease the process of labour, despite the lack of studies evaluating its safety.

Effects of second-generation antipsychotics on human subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism.

Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in up to 50% of schizophrenia patients, which reduces their quality of life and their compliance with the treatment. It is unclear whether metabolic adverse effects of these agents are due to their direct effect on insulin-sensitive tissues or are secondary to increased adiposity. The study aimed to investigate the direct effects of the second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole on human subcutaneous adipose tissue and isolated adipocyte metabolism.

Predicting gastrointestinal drug effects using contextualized metabolic models.

Gastrointestinal side effects are among the most common classes of adverse reactions associated with orally absorbed drugs. These effects decrease patient compliance with the treatment and induce undesirable physiological effects. The prediction of drug action on the gut wall based on in vitro data solely can improve the safety of marketed drugs and first-in-human trials of new chemical entities. We used publicly available data of drug-induced gene expression changes to build drug-specific small intestine e...

Optimization of the Parameters of Different Purification Techniques and Comparison of Their Purification Efficiency and Their Effects on the Metabolic Activity of Adipose Tissue in Autologous Fat Transplantation.

There is still no unified standardized or optimal procedure for lipoaspirate purification and we explored the optimal parameters of 3 purification techniques and compared their efficiencies and effects on the metabolic activity of adipose tissue. The purification efficiency of each technique was compared by analyzing the composition ratio of the processed compounds. The effects of the purification techniques on the dynamic metabolic activity of adipose tissue were evaluated in vitro using the glucose transf...

Modification of the equine gastrointestinal microbiota by Jerusalem artichoke meal supplementation.

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of natural prebiotic active compounds on the microbial composition in different regions of the equine gastrointestinal tract. Twelve adult horses (body weight [bwt] 534 ± 64.5 kg; age 14 ± 7.5 years) were randomly divided into two feeding groups. Six horses received a basal diet consisting of 1.5 kg hay/100 kg bwt x d-1 and oat grains equal to 1.19 g starch/kg bwt x d-1, supplemented with Jerusalem artichoke meal providing prebiotic fructooligosacc...

Effects of the solubility of yeast cell wall preparations on their potential prebiotic properties in dogs.

Derivatives of yeast cell wall (YCW) have been studied for their potential prebiotic effects. Recently, new purified and soluble preparations have been developed in an attempt to increase their biological actions. Two YCW preparations, one conventional and another with higher solubility of the mannan oligosaccharide fraction, were evaluated on dogs. One food formulation was used, divided into the following treatments: CON-control, without yeast cell wall addition; YCW-addition of 0.3% of a conventional yeas...

Systematic minimization of RNA ligase ribozyme through large-scale design-synthesis-sequence cycles.

Template-directed RNA ligation catalyzed by an RNA enzyme (ribozyme) is a plausible and important reaction that could have been involved in transferring genetic information during prebiotic evolution. Laboratory evolution experiments have yielded several classes of ligase ribozymes, but their minimal sequence requirements remain largely unexplored. Because selection experiments strongly favor highly active sequences, less active but smaller catalytic motifs may have been overlooked in these experiments. We ...

The metabolic and vascular protective effects of Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract in diet-induced obesity in mice are related to the amelioration of gut microbiota dysbiosis and to its immunomodulatory properties.

Many studies have showed the beneficial effects of the olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract (OLE) in experimental models of metabolic syndrome, which have been ascribed to the presence of phenolic compounds, like oleuropeoside. This study evaluated the effects of a chemically characterized OLE in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice, describing the underlying mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects, with special attention to vascular dysfunction and gut microbiota composition.

Skeletal muscle adiponectin induction in obesity and exercise.

Recent scientific efforts have focused on the detrimental effects that obesity has on the metabolic function of skeletal muscles and whether exercise can improve this dysfunction. In this regard, adiponectin, with important metabolic functions (e.g. insulin-sensitizer and anti-inflammatory), has been recently described as a myokine that acts in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Earlier studies reported that muscle adiponectin could be induced by pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. lipopolysaccharide), cytokines, ...


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