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PubMed Journals Articles About "Exaggerated Physical Differences Between Male Female Superheroes" RSS

02:32 EDT 16th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Exaggerated physical differences between male female superheroes" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 21,000+

Female-male differences in prescription pain reliever dependence levels: Evidence on newly incident adolescent and young adult users in the United States, 2002-2014.

A comprehensive epidemiology of dependence on prescription opioid pain relievers requires evidence about age-specific female-male differences, possibly manifest during adolescent and early adult years. In this study, we identified newly incident extra-medical users of prescription pain relievers (EMPPR), all observed with onsets before the 22 birthday. We then quantified female-male differences in clinical features or manifestations of opioid dependence (OD), devised a measurement-equivalent OD dimension, a...


Motor unit firing rates of the first dorsal interosseous differ between male and female children aged 8-10 years.

The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in motor unit action potential amplitudes (MUAP) and firing rates of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) in male and female children aged 8-10 years. Eight male (mean ± SD, age = 8.8 ± 0.7 yrs; BMI = 16.5 ± 1.3 kg/m) and eight female (age = 9.3 ± 0.9 yrs; BMI = 16.1 ± 1.5 kg/m) children volunteered to complete isometric trapezoidal muscle actions of the first dorsal interosseous at 50% of maximal...

Female and male mouse lung group 2 innate lymphoid cells differ in gene expression profiles and cytokine production.

Epidemiological studies have shown sex differences in prevalence of non-allergic asthma. Recent reports demonstrated negative effects of androgen signaling on group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), explaining a potential mechanism behind sex bias in asthma prevalence. To further understand sex-related differences in ILC2 functions and ILC2 intrinsic or lung environmental mechanisms behind it, we have investigated the effects of sex and age on lung ILC2 function, the amounts of ILC2-activating cytokines in t...


Gender specific differences of immune competence in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus before and after spawning.

The gender differences of immunity have been elucidated in many vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the information of this difference was still not clear in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, which is one of the most valuable aquaculture species and susceptible to diseases caused by pathogen infection. In the present study, the transcriptome of coelomocytes from female and male A. japonicus before and after spawning was obtained by RNA-sequencing technology. A total of 4,538 and 8,248 differentia...

DNA methylation and mRNA expression of COL6A3 in antler mesenchyme of female and male reindeer.

Reindeer is the only deer species that both male and female produce antlers, which provides a particularly interesting case in studying the differences between antlers of the two sexes. Alpha 3(VI) Collagen Gene (COL6A3), forms a microfibrillar network associated with the structural integrity and biomechanical properties, has been found to be one of the differentially expressed genes in antler mesenchyme of female and male reindeer.

Effect of Body Coloration on Male-Male Competition in a Cyprinid Fish .

In some species, male traits are more exaggerated than female traits. To understand the evolution and maintenance of such male traits, it is important to clarify their function in contexts of both intra- and intersexual selection. However, information about the function of specific male traits in both male-male competition and female mate choice remains limited. Male assume a bright red, carotenoid-based coloration over the whole body. A previous study revealed that females in this species prefer to mate w...

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA: A NEW DRIVER FOR SEX DIFFERENCES IN SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSION.

The prevalence of arterial hypertension (AH) is higher in men than in premenopausal women of the same age. AH has been characterized as a chronic inflammatory disease and activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR) by damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) is involved. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may be released by end-organ damage, which is recognized and activates TLR9. The serum level of mtDNA is increased in AH. The aim of this study was to compare the serum mtDNA levels between male and female spontane...

Sex differences in sympathetic gene expression and cardiac neurochemistry in Wistar Kyoto rats.

The stellate ganglia are the predominant source of sympathetic innervation to the heart. Remodeling of sympathetic nerves projecting to the heart has been observed in several cardiovascular diseases, and sympathetic dysfunction contributes to cardiac pathology. Wistar Kyoto rats are a common model for the study of cardiovascular diseases, but we lack a profile of the baseline transcriptomic and neurochemical characteristics of their cardiac sympathetic neurons. Most studies of cardiovascular disease have us...

Gender differences for theory-based determinants of muscle-strengthening physical activity in college-aged students: a moderation analysis.

Researchers and practitioners have primarily focused on understanding and promoting aerobic forms of physical activity (PA), while leaving muscle-strengthening forms of PA less understood. There are also stark gender disparities for muscle-strengthening PA but not aerobic PA. The purpose of this study was to apply the reasoned action approach (RAA) toward understanding theory-based determinants of muscle-strengthening PA and to explore gender differences. Female (n = 272) and male (n = 120) college students...

Male and female bees show large differences in floral preference.

Intraspecific variation in foraging niche can drive food web dynamics and ecosystem processes. In particular, male and female animals can exhibit different, often cascading, impacts on their interaction partners. Despite this, studies of plant-pollinator interaction networks have focused on the partitioning of the floral community between pollinator species, with little attention paid to intraspecific variation in plant preference between male and female bees. We designed a field study to evaluate the stren...

Is sex a biological variable in corneal wound healing?

Wound healing differs significantly in men and women in a tissue-dependent manner. Dermal wounds heal faster in women whereas mucosal wounds heal faster in men. However, the effect of sex as a variable in corneal wound healing is largely unknown. The primary objective of this study was to test whether sex is a biological variable in corneal wound healing activated by the trauma or injury using an established in vivo rabbit model with male and female New Zealand White rabbits. Corneal wounds in rabbits were ...

Sports participation and muscle mass affect sex-related differences in bone mineral density between male and female adolescents: A longitudinal study.

Sports participation plays an important role in bone gain during childhood and adolescence. The aim here was to identify sex-related determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) differences between male and female adolescents, with emphasis on the role of sports participation.

Promoter hypermethylation in ductal carcinoma in situ of the male breast.

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the male breast is very rare and has hardly been studied molecularly. In males, we compared methylation status of 25 breast cancer-related genes in pure DCIS (N=18) and invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) with adjacent DCIS (DCIS-AIC) (N=44) using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results were compared to female breast cancer (BC). There were no significant differences in methylation features between male pure DCIS, DCIS-AIC and IBC after c...

Sex-related differences in the intratubular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in 2-kidney 1-clip hypertensive rats.

The intratubular renin-angiotensin system(RAS) is thought to play an essential role in hypertensive renal disease, but information regarding sex-related differences in this system is limited. This study investigated sex differences in the intratubular RAS in 2-kidney 1-clip(2K1C) rats. A 2.5-mm clip was placed on the left renal artery of Sprague Dawley rats, and the rats were euthanized 3 or 5 weeks following the operation. The systolic blood pressure(SBP) increased in the 2K1C rats in both sexes but was si...

Age and sex-related upper body performance differences in competitive young tennis players.

The aims of this study were to analyze the shoulder functional profile of young male and female tennis players and to establish the relationship among physical variables and serve speed.

The effect of gender on operative autonomy in general surgery residents.

Despite an increasing number of women in the field of surgery, bias regarding cognitive or technical ability may continue to affect the experience of female trainees differently than their male counterparts. This study examines the differences in the degree of operative autonomy given to female compared with male general surgery trainees.

Influence of ageing on the physical qualities of the longissimus thoracis et lumborum and biceps femoris muscles from male and female free-ranging common eland (Taurotragus oryx).

The physical quality changes (pH, purge loss, cooking loss, drip loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force and CIE Lab colour) of vacuum-packaged longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were determined for male (n = 6) and female (n = 6) eland during a 35-day post-mortem ageing period at 4 °C. The BF and LTL muscles reached maximum tenderness (57 to 67 N) at Day 17 and 21, respectively, but could still be considered tough after ageing. Purge losses increased throughout ag...

Sex differences in the reward deficit and somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal in rats.

Female smokers are more likely to relapse than male smokers, but little is known about sex differences in nicotine withdrawal. Therefore, male and female rats were prepared with minipumps that contained nicotine or saline and sex differences in precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal were investigated. The intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure was used to assess mood states. Elevations in brain reward thresholds reflect a deficit in reward function. Anxiety-like behavior was investigated a...

Heme Oxygenase-2 Protects Against Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury: The Influence of Age and Sex.

Heme oxygenase (HO) activity is possessed by inducible (HO-1) and constitutive (HO-2) proteins. HO-1 protects against ischemic and nephrotoxic acute kidney injury (AKI). We previously demonstrated that HO-2 protects against heme protein-induced AKI. This study examined whether HO-2 is protective in ischemic AKI. Renal ischemia was imposed on young and aged HO-2 and HO-2 mice. On days 1 and 2 after renal ischemia, there were no significant differences in renal function either between young male HO-2 and HO-2...

Gender differences in empathic responses to others' economic payoffs: an event-related potentials study.

Although gender differences in empathy have been well established through measuring subjective outcomes, some studies of the neural mechanisms of pain empathy have not found gender differences. This inconsistent evidence may be caused by different research methods or different paradigms. The present study adopted a different approach from the pain empathy paradigm to examine gender differences in empathic responses to others' economic payoffs using event-related potentials. The results showed that the N2 am...

Sex-specific differences in the intracellular proteome of human endothelial cells from dizygotic twins.

Differences between men and women are being continuously identified in many human diseases. The underlying reasons are not yet fully understood. Beside the influence of endogenous hormones and life style, intrinsic sex-specific dimorphisms at the cellular level may also play a role. HUVECs from twin pairs of opposite sex provide an excellent tool to address the question of sex-specific differences at the molecular level. We compared for the first time protein levels of male and female HUVECs from dizygotic ...

Low-dose in utero exposure to finasteride promotes developmental changes in both male and female gerbil prostates.

The prostate is an accessory reproductive gland that is sensitive to the action of exogenous compounds known as endocrine disrupters that alter normal hormonal function. Finasteride is a widely used chemical that acts to inhibit the conversion of testosterone in its most active form, dihydrotestosterone. It is known that intrauterine exposure to finasteride causes changes in the male prostate even at low dosages; however, it is not known whether these dosages are capable of causing changes in the female pro...

Sexually selected sexual selection: can evolutionary retribution explain female ornamental colour?

By preferring mates with increasingly costly ornaments or courtship displays, females cause an escalation of male reproductive costs. Such increased costs should promote male selectivity based on fecundity-linked female attributes, leading to female ornamentation in species with traditional sex roles. Consequently, female ornamentation should evolve more frequently in taxa where male reproduction is costly than in comparable taxa where it is cheaper. We assessed the prevalence of female ornamental colourati...

Female-specific decreases in alcohol binge-like drinking resulting from GABA receptor delta-subunit knockdown in the VTA.

Binge drinking is short-term drinking that achieves blood alcohol levels of 0.08 g/dl or above. It exhibits well-established sex differences in GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission, including extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing GABA receptors (δ-GABARs) that mediate tonic inhibition, or synaptic γ2-containing GABARs which underlie fast, synaptic, phasic inhibition have been implicated in sex differences in binge drinking. Ovarian hormones regulate δ-GABARs, further implicating these receptors in pote...

Mechanisms of Sex Differences in Exercise Capacity.

Sex differences are an important component of NIH rigor. The goal of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that female mice have greater exercise capacity than male mice, and that it is due to estrogen, nitric oxide, and myosin heavy chain expression. Female C57BL6/J wild-type mice exhibited greater, p


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