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Showing "Exercise Significantly Increases Size Hippocampus Humans Study Finds" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 76,000+

Astrocytes and radial glia-like cells, but not neurons, display a nonapoptotic increase in caspase-3 expression following exercise.

Exercise induces plasticity in the hippocampus, which includes increases in neurogenesis, the proliferation of new neurons, and angiogenesis, the sprouting of new capillaries from preexisting blood vessels. Following exercise, astrocytes also undergo morphological changes that parallel the events occurring in the neurovascular system. Interestingly, there have also been reports of apoptosis in the hippocampus following aerobic exercise. This experiment aimed to identify which population of hippocampal cells...

Exercise in muscle disorders: what is our current state?

Regular exercise improves muscle and cardiovascular function, which is why exercise is used as an adjuvant treatment in myopathies. In this review, we provide an update on recent exercise studies (from 2016) performed in humans with inherited myopathy.

Mobilizing Parkinson's Disease: The Future of Exercise.

Exercise is increasingly recognized as an important element in the treatment of Parkinson's disease but what is exercise targeting? What accounts for the benefits observed in Parkinson's disease? Is exercise disease modifying? Several modes of exercise have been studied in various doses across a heterogeneous Parkinson's population. Yet more clarity is needed as to who benefits most and when, from what type of exercise and at which intensity. In this paper, we briefly review the state of the art in key area...

Exercise and air pollutants exposure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

This review aims to systematically review and synthesize scientific evidence for the influence of air pollution exposure and outdoor exercise on health. We conducted a literature search in the PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Web of Science for articles that evaluated the combination effect of air pollution exposure and exercise on health. Questionnaires regarding exposure history, or studies examining indoor air pollution were excluded. Each included study needs to have clear exercise intervention plan. The p...

Irisin response to downhill running exercise in humans.

To determine the effects of exercise-induced muscle damage, we examined irisin responses during level running (LR), with less muscle damage, and downhill running (DHR), with greater muscle damage under equivalent exercise duration and oxygen consumption (⩒O2) conditions.

Preserved Left Atrial Mechanics Following a 5-h Laboratory Triathlon in Euhydrated Athletes.

The purpose of this study was to investigate echocardiographic changes in left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling and left atrial (LA) strain mechanics following prolonged exercise. Ten male triathletes completed a 60-min swim, 180-min bike exercise, and a 60-min all-out run in a laboratory environment. Special attention was paid to prevent dehydration and energy deficit during the exercise protocol. All participants underwent comprehensive echocardiographic analyses of Doppler- and volumetric-derived LV di...

Chronic forced exercise inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine conditioned place preference.

Stress increases the likelihood of cocaine relapse in humans and animals, even following a prolonged extinction/abstinence period. Exercise has previously been shown to reduce stress and decrease the likelihood of drug dependence, while also reducing cravings in humans and inhibiting relapse behaviors due to other risk factors in rodents. The present study evaluated the efficacy of exercise to reduce stress-induced relapse to cocaine in a rodent model. Young adult female Sprague Dawley rats were tested for ...

A systematic comparison of exercise training protocols on animal models of cardiovascular capacity.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major global cause of mortality, which has prompted numerous studies seeking to reduce the risk of heart failure and sudden cardiac death. While regular physical activity is known to improve CVD associated morbidity and mortality, the optimal duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise remains unclear. To address this uncertainty, various animal models have been used to study the cardioprotective effects of exercise and related molecular mechanism such as the mice traini...

Insect Neurobiology: Optical Illusions at the Cellular Level.

The reverse-phi illusion has been one key to understanding the use of correlation for motion perception in humans and many other animals. A new study finds the source of this illusion at the cellular level in fruit flies.

The response of meteorin-like hormone and interleukin-4 in overweight women during exercise in temperate, warm and cold water.

Background Meteorin-like hormone (Metrnl) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) are protein molecules that stimulate the production of brown adipose tissue to improve diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of Metrnl protein and IL-4 in overweight women during exercise in temperate, warm and cold water. Materials and methods Thirteen overweight young women (mean age 25.21 ± 3.27 years, body mass index 26.43 ± 1.34 kg/m2) were selected randomly and performed t...

Aerobic exercise promotes the expression of ERCC1 to prolong lifespan: A new possible mechanism.

Aerobic exercise can delay aging and extend lifespan, but its specific mechanism still remains unclear. One popular theory is that with age and the cell division times increasing, DNA damage will inevitably accumulate, leading to dysfunction and failure of various tissues and organs, which will eventually lead to aging. Thus, repairing damaged DNA is a key strategy to extend lifespan. Excision repair cross-complementary gene 1 (ERCC1) is a DNA repair enzyme that recognizes, excises and repairs damaged DNA. ...

Exercise Training Mitigates Multi-System Deconditioning during Bed Rest.

This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of a new integrated aerobic and resistance exercise training prescription (SPRINT) using two different sets of exercise equipment: a suite of large ISS-like exercise equipment similar to what is found on the International Space Station (ISS) and a single device with aerobic and resistance exercise capability in the spaceflight analog of bed rest (BR).

The effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice supplementation and FATMAX exercise on fat oxidation rates and cardio-metabolic markers in healthy humans.

Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) are rich in anthocyanins, compounds capable of augmenting fat oxidation and regulating metabolic dysfunction. The present study examined whether Montmorency tart cherry juice (MTCJ) supplementation could augment fat oxidation rates at rest and during FATMAX exercise, thus improve cardio-metabolic health. Eleven, healthy participants consumed MTCJ or placebo (PLA) twice daily, in a randomised, counterbalanced order for 20 days. Participants cycled at FATMAX for 1...

Effects of Taurine acute intake on cortical excitability and post-exercise facilitation: a TMS study.

Taurine (TAU) is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain. It has many important physiological functions. The effects of TAU supplementation on brain function need to be further characterized in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of Taurine (TAU) intake would modulate corticospinal excitability and post-exercise facilitation (PEF) of the motor evoked potentials (MEP).

Drosophila: Where the Wild Flies Are.

Drosophila melanogaster is a human commensal and dietary generalist. A new study in its ancestral range in Africa finds that wild Drosophila melanogaster are specialists on marula fruit - fruits cached in caves by Pleistocene humans.

Effects of regular endurance exercise on GlycA: Combined analysis of 14 exercise interventions.

GlycA is a relatively new biomarker for inflammation as well as cardiometabolic disease risk. However, the effect of exercise on GlycA is largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of regular exercise on the inflammatory marker GlycA across seven studies and 14 exercise interventions.

Impact of heat therapy on recovery following eccentric exercise in humans.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of heat therapy (HT) on functional recovery, the skeletal muscle expression of angiogenic factors, the content of macrophages, and on capillarization following eccentric exercise in humans. Eleven untrained individuals (23.8 ± 0.6 yrs) performed 300 bilateral maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. One randomly selected thigh was treated with five daily 90-minute sessions of HT, while the opposite thigh received a thermoneutral interven...

Hormonal Regulation of Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Implications for Depression and Exercise.

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis exists in all mammalian species, including humans, and although there has been considerable research investigating the function and regulation of neurogenesis, there remain many open questions surrounding the complexity of this phenomenon. This stems partially from the fact that neurogenesis is a multistage process that involves proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, and eventual integration of new cells into the existing hippocampal circuitry, each of which can ...

Anaerobic capacity estimated by the sum of both oxygen equivalents from the glycolytic and phosphagen pathways is dependent on exercise mode: Running versus cycling.

The purpose of this study was to verify whether the exercise modality (i.e., running and cycling) alters the magnitude of "anaerobic" capacity estimated by a single supramaximal effort (AC[La]+EPOCfast). Fourteen healthy men (age: 26±9 years) underwent a maximum incremental test and a supramaximal effort to exhaustion at 115% of the intensity associated with maximal oxygen uptake to determine the AC[La]+EPOCfast (i.e., the sum of both oxygen equivalents from the glycolytic and phosphagen pathways), perform...

Influence of Vitamin D Supplementation by Sunlight or Oral D3 on Exercise Performance.

To determine the relationship between vitamin D status and exercise performance in a large, prospective cohort study of young men and women across seasons (Study-1). Then, in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, to investigate the effects on exercise performance of achieving vitamin D sufficiency (serum 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol·L) by a unique comparison of safe, simulated-sunlight and oral vitamin D3 supplementation in wintertime (Study-2).

Evaluation of a New Exercise Program in the Treatment of Scapular Dyskinesis.

An abnormal motion of the scapula, or scapular dyskinesis (SD), can be effectively treated through conservative therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new specific exercise program to restore normal position. A standardized and specific exercise program was created. In a prospective multi-center approach, patients were randomized into two groups: one group received the specific exercise program over a period of six weeks and the controls received massage therapy. The visual-analog scale, QuickDASH ...

Acute aerobic exercise improves memory across intensity and fitness levels.

The present study was designed to examine the impact of exercise intensity and aerobic fitness on free recall, judgments of learning (JOLs), and metacognitive accuracy. In Experiment 1, 30 college students engaged in either (1) no exercise, (2) light exercise (55% of predicted maximal heart rate), or (3) moderate exercise (75% of predicted maximal heart rate) on three different days. In Experiment 2, 29 high-fit students (VO max ≥ 70th percentile) and 28 low-fit students (VO max ≤ 50th percentil...

Epigenetic modulation during hippocampal development.

The hippocampus is located in the limbic system and is vital in learning ability, memory formation and emotion regulation, and is associated with depression, epilepsy and mental retardation in an abnormal developmental situation. Several factors have been found to modulate the development of the hippocampus, and epigenetic modification have a crucial effect in this progress. The present review summarizes the epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and non-coding RNAs, regul...

Reproducibility of Inert Gas Rebreathing Method to Estimate Cardiac Output at Rest and During Cardiopulmonary Exercise Stress Testing.

The present study evaluated reproducibility of the inert gas rebreathing method to estimate cardiac output at rest and during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Thirteen healthy subjects (10 males, 3 females, ages 23-32 years) performed maximal graded cardiopulmonary exercise stress test using a cycle ergometer on 2 occasions (Test 1 and Test 2). Participants cycled at 30-watts/3-min increments until peak exercise. Hemodynamic variables were assessed at rest and during different exercise intensities (i. e....

Relationship between bite size per mouthful and dental arch size in healthy subjects.

Although multiple factors influence food bite size, the relationship between food bite size per mouthful and mandible or tongue size remains poorly understood. Here, we examined the correlations between food bite size and the lower dental arch size (an indicator of tongue size) in human subjects with good oral and general health, using fish sausage and bread as test foods. Notably, bite size of both foods was significantly positively correlated with the lower dental arch size, whereas masticatory performanc...

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