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PubMed Journals Articles About "Exercise Significantly Increases Size Hippocampus Humans Study Finds" RSS

01:12 EDT 19th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Exercise significantly increases size hippocampus humans study finds" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 75,000+

Long-term treadmill exercise improves memory impairment through restoration of decreased synaptic adhesion molecule 1/2/3 induced by transient cerebral ischemia in the aged gerbil hippocampus.

Exercise improves cognitive impairments induced by transient cerebral ischemia and modulates synaptic adhesion molecules. In this study, we investigated effects of long-term treadmill exercise on cognitive impairments and its relation to changes of synaptic cell adhesion molecule (SynCAM) 1/2/3 in the hippocampus after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in aged gerbils. Animals were assigned to sedentary and exercised groups, given treadmill exercise for 4 consecutive weeks from 5 days after transient...


Exercise Alters Gut Microbiota Composition and Function in Lean and Obese Humans.

Exercise is associated with altered gut microbial composition, but studies have not investigated whether the gut microbiota and associated metabolites are modulated by exercise training in humans. We explored the impact of six weeks of endurance exercise on the composition, functional capacity, and metabolic output of the gut microbiota in lean and obese adults with multiple-day dietary controls prior to outcome variable collection.

Acute Effect of Aerobic and Strength Exercise on Heart Rate Variability and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Men with Autonomic Dysfunction.

The extent to which post-exercise cardiac autonomic control depends on exercise modality remains unclear, particularly among individuals with autonomic dysfunction (CAdysf). This study compared heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) responses to acute aerobic (AE) and strength exercise (SE) in men with CAdysf. Twenty men were assigned into control (n=10: 33.8±3.0 yr; 23.7±1.5 kg/m) and CAdysf (n=10: 36.2±9.8 yr; 28.4±2.6 kg/m) groups. CAdysf underwent AE, SE, and a non-exercise co...


A Supervised Exercise Intervention for Youth at Risk for Psychosis: An Open-Label Pilot Study.

A rapidly accumulating body of research suggests that exercise can improve symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from psychosis. Exercise may also promote neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a structure that plays an important role in the pathophysiology of psychosis. To date, there has not been an intervention focused on exercise prior to the onset of psychosis, a critical time for prevention of more serious illness.

Hyper-hippocampal glycogen induced by glycogen loading with exhaustive exercise.

Glycogen loading (GL), a well-known type of sports conditioning, in combination with exercise and a high carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 1 week enhances individual endurance capacity through muscle glycogen supercompensation. This exercise-diet combination is necessary for successful GL. Glycogen in the brain contributes to hippocampus-related memory functions and endurance capacity. Although the effect of HCD on the brain remains unknown, brain supercompensation occurs following exhaustive exercise (EE), a com...

The effects of treadmill exercise on autophagy in hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

The β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is one of the major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Dysfunction in autophagy has been reported to lead to the Aβ deposition. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on autophagy activity and the Aβ deposition and to demonstrate whether exercise-induced reduction in the Aβ deposition was associated with changes in autophagy activity. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were divided into transgenic sedentary (TG-SED, n=12) and transgenic ex...

Hormonal responses following eccentric exercise in humans.

Mechanically overloaded muscle and its subsequent damage are strong stimuli for eliciting acute hormonal changes, while the muscle adaptation which occurs following exercise-induced muscle damage may involve complex hormonal responses before the completion of muscle regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate systemic responses of various hormones, as well as secreted proteins that are exercise-regulated and associated with muscle adaptation, for several days after eccentric exercise-induced ...

Regulation of bone blood flow in humans: The role of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and adenosine.

The mechanisms that regulate bone blood flow (BBF) in humans are largely unknown. Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) could be involved and in the present study we investigated the effects of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) alone and in combination with inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, thus prostaglandin (PG) synthesis on femoral bone marrow blood flow by positron emission tomography in healthy young men at rest and during one leg dynamic exercise. In an additional group of hea...

Running Exercise Mitigates the Negative Consequences of Chronic Stress on Dorsal Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation in Male Mice.

In the hippocampus, learning and memory are likely mediated by synaptic plasticity, known as long-term potentiation (LTP). While chronic intermittent stress is negatively correlated, and exercise positively correlated to LTP induction, we examined whether exercise could mitigate the negative consequences of stress on LTP when co-occurring with stress. Mice were divided into four groups: sedentary no stress, exercise no stress, exercise with stress, and sedentary with stress. Field electrophysiology performe...

Effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate availability on fat oxidation and energy expenditure after a high-intensity exercise.

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) availability potentiates fat oxidation after an exhaustive high-intensity exercise bout. Eight physically active men underwent a high-intensity exercise (∼95% V̇O2max) until exhaustion under low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The protocol to manipulate pre-exercise CHO availability consisted of a 90-min cycling bout at ∼70% V̇O2max + 6 × 1-min at 125% V̇O2max with 1-min rest, followed by 48 h under ...

Voluntary apnea during dynamic exercise activates the muscle metaboreflex in humans.

Voluntary apnea during dynamic exercise evokes marked bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction and pressor responses. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the cardiovascular responses seen during apnea in exercising humans is unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the muscle metaboreflex contributes to the apnea-induced pressor response during dynamic exercise. Thirteen healthy subjects participated in apnea and control trials. In both trials, subjects performed a two-legged dynamic knee extension...

Effects of fatiguing, submaximal high- versus low-torque isometric exercise on motor unit recruitment and firing behavior.

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of repeated, high- (HT: 70% MVIC) versus low-torque (LT: 30% MVIC) isometric exercise performed to failure on motor unit (MU) recruitment and firing behavior of the vastus lateralis. Eighteen resistance-trained males (23.1 ± 3.8 years) completed familiarization, followed by separate experimental sessions in which they completed either HT or LT exercise to failure in random order. LT exercise resulted in a greater time to task failure and a mo...

Effects of Different Exercise Modes on Arterial Stiffness and Nitric Oxide Synthesis.

Aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) reduce arterial stiffness, whereas resistance training (RT) induces deterioration of or no change in arterial stiffness. However, the molecular mechanism of these effects of different exercise modes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference of different exercise effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway and arterial stiffness in rats and humans.

GABAergic contribution to the muscle mechanoreflex-mediated heart rate responses at the onset of exercise in humans.

Previous studies indicated that central GABAergic mechanisms are involved in the heart rate (HR) responses at the onset of exercise. Based on previous research that showed similar increases in HR during passive and active cycling, we reasoned that the GABAergic mechanisms involved in the HR responses at the exercise onset is primarily mediated by muscle mechanoreceptors afferents. Therefore, in this study we sought to determine if central GABA mechanisms are involved in the muscle mechanoreflex-mediated HR ...

The effect of IPC on central and peripheral fatiguing mechanisms in humans following sustained maximal isometric exercise.

What is the central question of this study? Does ischemic preconditioning (IPC) influence central and peripheral fatiguing mechanisms during sustained maximal isometric exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? Voluntary activation and pre- to post-exercise reductions in resting twitch torque values were unchanged by IPC. However, an effect on tissue oxygenation was observed within the IPC trials where greater concentrations of deoxyhaemoglobin were recorded with concurrent upward trends of tot...

Human hippocampal neurogenesis drops sharply in children to undetectable levels in adults.

New neurons continue to be generated in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus. This process has been linked to learning and memory, stress and exercise, and is thought to be altered in neurological disease. In humans, some studies have suggested that hundreds of new neurons are added to the adult dentate gyrus every day, whereas other studies find many fewer putative new neurons. Despite these discrepancies, it is generally believed that the adult human hippocampus con...

Effect Of Cold Water Immersion On Elbow Flexors Muscle Thickness After Resistance Training.

Cold Water Immersion (CWI) is commonly applied in order to speed up the recovery process after exercise. Muscle damage may induce a performance reduction, consequence of the intramuscular pressure induced by the muscular swelling. The aim of the study was to verify the CWI effects on muscle thickness (MT) behavior of the elbow flexors after a strength training protocol (ST). Eleven males were submitted to a RT, performed in two different weeks. In one of the weeks, subjects experienced a passive recovery. I...

Cardiorespiratory, enzymatic and hormonal responses during and after walking while fasting.

The aim of the present study was to observe whether performing a low intensity endurance exercise following an overnight fasted (FAST) or fed (FED) condition promotes different cardiorespiratory, enzymatic and hormonal responses. Nine male physical active subjects, (age 21.89 ± 2.52 years old, height 175.89 ± 5.16 cm, weight 72.10 ± 4.31 kg, estimated body fat 7.25 ± 2.11%), randomly performed two sessions of 45 minutes' low intensity exercise (individual ventilator threshold) interspersed by seven days...

New Reference Values for Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children.

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is an essential tool to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in children. There is a paucity of adequate pediatric reference values that are independent of body size and pubertal stage. The purpose of this study is to provide Z score equations for several maximal and sub-maximal CRF parameters derived from a prospectively recruited sample of healthy children.

Female hatchling American kestrels have a larger hippocampus than males: A link with sexual size dimorphism?

The brain and underlying cognition may vary adaptively according to an organism's ecology. As with all raptor species, adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) are sexually dimorphic with females being larger than males. Related to this sexual dimorphism, kestrels display sex differences in hunting and migration, with females ranging more widely than males, suggesting possible sex differences in spatial cognition. However, hippocampus volume, the brain region responsible for spatial cognition, has not bee...

What Predicts Exercise Maintenance and Well-Being? Examining The Influence of Health-Related Psychographic Factors and Social Media Communication.

Habitual exercising is an important precursor to both physical and psychological well-being. There is, thus, a strong interest in identifying key factors that can best motivate individuals to sustain regular exercise regimen. In addition to the importance of psychographic factors, social media use may act as external motivator by allowing users to interact and communicate about exercise. In this study, we examined the influence of health consciousness, health-oriented beliefs, intrinsic motivation, as willi...

Adult Human Hippocampus: No New Neurons in Sight.

In this issue of Cerebral Cortex, Cipriani et al. are following up on the recent report of Sorrels et al. to add novel immunohistological observations indicating that, unlike rodents, adult and aging humans do not acquire new neurons in the hippocampus. The common finding emerging from these 2 different, but almost simultaneous studies is highly significant because the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was, until recently, considered as the only structure in the human brain that may continue neurogenesis thr...

Dysfunction of Iron Metabolism and Iron-Regulatory Proteins in the Rat Hippocampus After Heat Stroke.

Heat stroke, the most serious type of heat illness, refers to the presence of hyperthermia (core temperature >40°C), accompanied by central nervous system dysfunction. The hippocampus is a particularly vulnerable region in the early stage of heat stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that dysregulation of brain iron metabolism is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether heat stroke causes dysfunction of iron metabolism, as well as iron-regulatory proteins, in the hippocampus remains unk...

Breakfast food health and acute exercise: Effects on state body image.

Food intake and exercise have been shown to alter body satisfaction in a state-dependent manner. One-time consumption of food perceived as unhealthy can be detrimental to body satisfaction, whereas an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can be beneficial. The current study examined the effect of exercise on state body image and appearance-related self-esteem following consumption of isocaloric foods perceived as healthy or unhealthy in 36 female college students (18-30 years old) in the Nort...

Pulmonary hemodynamics responses to hypoxia and/or COinhalation during moderate exercise in humans.

In this study, we hypothesized that adding COto an inhaled hypoxic gas mixture will limit the rise of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) induced by a moderate exercise. Eight 20-year-old males performed four constant-load exercise tests on cycle at 40% of maximal oxygen consumption in four conditions: ambient air, normobaric hypoxia (12.5% O), inhaled CO(4.5% CO), and combination of hypoxia and inhaled CO. Doppler echocardiography was used to measure systolic (s)PAP, cardiac output (CO). Total pulmonary resist...


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