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Showing "Exercise significantly increases size hippocampus humans study finds" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 76,000+

Astrocytes and radial glia-like cells, but not neurons, display a nonapoptotic increase in caspase-3 expression following exercise.

Exercise induces plasticity in the hippocampus, which includes increases in neurogenesis, the proliferation of new neurons, and angiogenesis, the sprouting of new capillaries from preexisting blood vessels. Following exercise, astrocytes also undergo morphological changes that parallel the events occurring in the neurovascular system. Interestingly, there have also been reports of apoptosis in the hippocampus following aerobic exercise. This experiment aimed to identify which population of hippocampal cells...

The effects of treadmill exercise on autophagy in hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

The β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is one of the major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Dysfunction in autophagy has been reported to lead to the Aβ deposition. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on autophagy activity and the Aβ deposition and to demonstrate whether exercise-induced reduction in the Aβ deposition was associated with changes in autophagy activity. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were divided into transgenic sedentary (TG-SED, n=12) and transgenic ex...

Exercise in muscle disorders: what is our current state?

Regular exercise improves muscle and cardiovascular function, which is why exercise is used as an adjuvant treatment in myopathies. In this review, we provide an update on recent exercise studies (from 2016) performed in humans with inherited myopathy.

Effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate availability on fat oxidation and energy expenditure after a high-intensity exercise.

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) availability potentiates fat oxidation after an exhaustive high-intensity exercise bout. Eight physically active men underwent a high-intensity exercise (∼95% V̇O2max) until exhaustion under low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The protocol to manipulate pre-exercise CHO availability consisted of a 90-min cycling bout at ∼70% V̇O2max + 6 × 1-min at 125% V̇O2max with 1-min rest, followed by 48 h under ...

Effects of fatiguing, submaximal high- versus low-torque isometric exercise on motor unit recruitment and firing behavior.

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of repeated, high- (HT: 70% MVIC) versus low-torque (LT: 30% MVIC) isometric exercise performed to failure on motor unit (MU) recruitment and firing behavior of the vastus lateralis. Eighteen resistance-trained males (23.1 ± 3.8 years) completed familiarization, followed by separate experimental sessions in which they completed either HT or LT exercise to failure in random order. LT exercise resulted in a greater time to task failure and a mo...

The effect of IPC on central and peripheral fatiguing mechanisms in humans following sustained maximal isometric exercise.

What is the central question of this study? Does ischemic preconditioning (IPC) influence central and peripheral fatiguing mechanisms during sustained maximal isometric exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? Voluntary activation and pre- to post-exercise reductions in resting twitch torque values were unchanged by IPC. However, an effect on tissue oxygenation was observed within the IPC trials where greater concentrations of deoxyhaemoglobin were recorded with concurrent upward trends of tot...

Irisin response to downhill running exercise in humans.

To determine the effects of exercise-induced muscle damage, we examined irisin responses during level running (LR), with less muscle damage, and downhill running (DHR), with greater muscle damage under equivalent exercise duration and oxygen consumption (⩒O2) conditions.

Chronic forced exercise inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine conditioned place preference.

Stress increases the likelihood of cocaine relapse in humans and animals, even following a prolonged extinction/abstinence period. Exercise has previously been shown to reduce stress and decrease the likelihood of drug dependence, while also reducing cravings in humans and inhibiting relapse behaviors due to other risk factors in rodents. The present study evaluated the efficacy of exercise to reduce stress-induced relapse to cocaine in a rodent model. Young adult female Sprague Dawley rats were tested for ...

Female hatchling American kestrels have a larger hippocampus than males: A link with sexual size dimorphism?

The brain and underlying cognition may vary adaptively according to an organism's ecology. As with all raptor species, adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) are sexually dimorphic with females being larger than males. Related to this sexual dimorphism, kestrels display sex differences in hunting and migration, with females ranging more widely than males, suggesting possible sex differences in spatial cognition. However, hippocampus volume, the brain region responsible for spatial cognition, has not bee...

Adult Human Hippocampus: No New Neurons in Sight.

In this issue of Cerebral Cortex, Cipriani et al. are following up on the recent report of Sorrels et al. to add novel immunohistological observations indicating that, unlike rodents, adult and aging humans do not acquire new neurons in the hippocampus. The common finding emerging from these 2 different, but almost simultaneous studies is highly significant because the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was, until recently, considered as the only structure in the human brain that may continue neurogenesis thr...

Dysfunction of Iron Metabolism and Iron-Regulatory Proteins in the Rat Hippocampus After Heat Stroke.

Heat stroke, the most serious type of heat illness, refers to the presence of hyperthermia (core temperature >40°C), accompanied by central nervous system dysfunction. The hippocampus is a particularly vulnerable region in the early stage of heat stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that dysregulation of brain iron metabolism is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether heat stroke causes dysfunction of iron metabolism, as well as iron-regulatory proteins, in the hippocampus remains unk...

Breakfast food health and acute exercise: Effects on state body image.

Food intake and exercise have been shown to alter body satisfaction in a state-dependent manner. One-time consumption of food perceived as unhealthy can be detrimental to body satisfaction, whereas an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can be beneficial. The current study examined the effect of exercise on state body image and appearance-related self-esteem following consumption of isocaloric foods perceived as healthy or unhealthy in 36 female college students (18-30 years old) in the Nort...

The response of meteorin-like hormone and interleukin-4 in overweight women during exercise in temperate, warm and cold water.

Background Meteorin-like hormone (Metrnl) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) are protein molecules that stimulate the production of brown adipose tissue to improve diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of Metrnl protein and IL-4 in overweight women during exercise in temperate, warm and cold water. Materials and methods Thirteen overweight young women (mean age 25.21 ± 3.27 years, body mass index 26.43 ± 1.34 kg/m2) were selected randomly and performed t...

Exercise Training Mitigates Multi-System Deconditioning during Bed Rest.

This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of a new integrated aerobic and resistance exercise training prescription (SPRINT) using two different sets of exercise equipment: a suite of large ISS-like exercise equipment similar to what is found on the International Space Station (ISS) and a single device with aerobic and resistance exercise capability in the spaceflight analog of bed rest (BR).

Changes in lipid metabolism and capillary density of the skeletal muscle following low-intensity exercise training in a rat model of obesity with hyperinsulinemia.

Although exercise is effective in improving obesity and hyperinsulinemia, the exact influence of exercise on the capillary density of skeletal muscles remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise training on metabolism in obesity with hyperinsulinemia, focusing specifically on the capillary density within the skeletal muscle. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were used as animal models of obesity with hyperinsulinemia, whereas Long-Evans Tokush...

Presence of Spotters Improves Bench Press Performance: A Deception Study.

Sheridan, A, Marchant, DC, Williams, EL, Jones, HS, Hewitt, PA, and Sparks, SA. Presence of spotters improves bench press performance: a deception study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Resistance exercise is a widely used method of physical training in both recreational exercise and athletic populations. The use of training partners and spotters during resistance exercise is widespread, but little is known about the effect of the presence of these individuals on exercise performance. The purpose o...

The effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice supplementation and FATMAX exercise on fat oxidation rates and cardio-metabolic markers in healthy humans.

Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) are rich in anthocyanins, compounds capable of augmenting fat oxidation and regulating metabolic dysfunction. The present study examined whether Montmorency tart cherry juice (MTCJ) supplementation could augment fat oxidation rates at rest and during FATMAX exercise, thus improve cardio-metabolic health. Eleven, healthy participants consumed MTCJ or placebo (PLA) twice daily, in a randomised, counterbalanced order for 20 days. Participants cycled at FATMAX for 1...

Effects of Taurine acute intake on cortical excitability and post-exercise facilitation: a TMS study.

Taurine (TAU) is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain. It has many important physiological functions. The effects of TAU supplementation on brain function need to be further characterized in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of Taurine (TAU) intake would modulate corticospinal excitability and post-exercise facilitation (PEF) of the motor evoked potentials (MEP).

Electrically evoked local muscle contractions cause an increase in hippocampal BDNF.

High-intensity exercise has recently been shown to cause an increase in brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Some studies have suggested that myokines secreted from contracting skeletal muscle, such as irisin (one of the truncated form of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)), play important roles in this process. Thus, we hypothesized that locally evoked muscle contractions may cause an increase of BDNF in the hippocampus through some afferent mechanisms. Under an...

An Acute Bout of Aquatic Treadmill Exercise Induces Greater Improvements in Endothelial Function and Post-Exercise Hypotension than Land Treadmill Exercise: A Crossover Study.

The purpose of the study was to compare acute bouts of aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) exercise on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), post-exercise blood pressure (BP), plasma nitrate/nitrite (PN), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in untrained, pre-hypertensive men.

Effect of the 6-week home-based exercise program on physical activity level and physical fitness in colorectal cancer survivors: A randomized controlled pilot study.

Despite improvement in prognosis of colorectal cancer, colorectal cancer survivors often suffer from adverse effects of cancer treatment, including reduced health-related fitness level. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the feasibility and efficacy of the 6-week home-based exercise program on the level of physical activity and physical fitness in stage II to III colorectal cancer survivors. Seventy-two stage II to III colorectal cancer survivors were randomly assigned to either a home-based exercise (n...

The Impact of Aerobic Exercise on the Muscle Stem Cell Response.

Satellite cells are indispensable for skeletal muscle repair and regeneration and are associated with muscle growth in humans. Aerobic exercise training results in improved skeletal muscle health also translating to an increase in satellite cell pool activation. We postulate that aerobic exercise improves satellite cell function in skeletal muscle.

Effects of exercise on brown and beige adipocytes.

Physical exercise leads to beneficial effects in numerous tissues and organ systems and offers protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated the role of exercise on brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT), and have indicated marked adaptations to each tissue with exercise. Studies investigating the effects of exercise on BAT have produced conflicting results, with some showing an increase in the thermogenic activity of BAT and some demonstrating a decreas...

Effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young transgenic APP/PS1 mice.

To investigate the effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young APP/PS1mice, twenty 6-month-old male APP/ PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into the APP/PS1 control (AD control) group and the APP/PS1 running (AD running) group (10 mice per group), and ten wild-type mice of the littermate were regarded as the wild-type (WT) group. The AD running mice ran on motorized treadmill machiene for 4 months, while the WT mice and AD control mice were housed in standard c...

Effects of regular endurance exercise on GlycA: Combined analysis of 14 exercise interventions.

GlycA is a relatively new biomarker for inflammation as well as cardiometabolic disease risk. However, the effect of exercise on GlycA is largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of regular exercise on the inflammatory marker GlycA across seven studies and 14 exercise interventions.

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