PubMed Journals Articles About "Fight Flight Response Shown Driven Bone Hormone Adrenaline" RSS

09:20 EDT 23rd October 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Fight Flight Response Shown Driven Bone Hormone Adrenaline" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 29,000+

Different paths, same destination: divergent action potential responses produce conserved cardiac fight-or-flight response in mouse and rabbit hearts.

Cardiac electrophysiology and Ca handling change rapidly during the fight-or-flight response to meet physiological demands. Despite dramatic differences in cardiac electrophysiology, the cardiac fight-or-flight response is highly conserved across species. In this study, we performed physiological sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) while optically mapping cardiac action potentials and intracellular Ca transients in innervated mouse and rabbit hearts. Despite similar heart rate and Ca handling responses betw...

The role of stimulus-driven versus goal-directed processes in fight and flight tendencies measured with motor evoked potentials induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

This study examines two contrasting explanations for early tendencies to fight and flee. According to a stimulus-driven explanation, goal-incompatible stimuli that are easy/difficult to control lead to the tendency to fight/flee. According to a goal-directed explanation, on the other hand, the tendency to fight/flee occurs when the expected utility of fighting/fleeing is the highest. Participants did a computer task in which they were confronted with goal-incompatible stimuli that were (a) easy to control a...

How Ca influx is attenuated in the heart during a "fight or flight" response.

Fight or Flight? Potential tradeoffs between drought defense and reproduction in conifers.

Plants frequently exhibit tradeoffs between reproduction and growth when resources are limited, and often change these allocation patterns in response to stress. Shorter-lived plants such as annuals tend to allocate relatively more resources toward reproduction when stressed, while longer-lived plants tend to invest more heavily in survival and stress defense. However, severe stress may affect the fitness implications of allocating relatively more resources to reproduction versus stress defense. Increased d...

Switching tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide results in a significant decline in parathyroid hormone levels: uncovering the mechanism of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-related bone loss?

: An increasing number of patients have been switched from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide because of its improved bone safety profile, although the pathophysiological mechanism is not fully understood. We show that serum parathyroid hormone levels drop significantly after the switch from TDF to tenofovir alafenamide. This observation supports the theories that TDF-related bone loss is parathyroid hormone-driven and that this effect is dose-dependent.

Fight or flight.

Growth Hormone Increases Bone Toughness and Decreases Muscle Inflammation in Glucocorticoid-Treated Mdx Mice, Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

The absence of functional dystrophin with mutations of the dystrophin-encoding gene in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) results in muscle inflammation and degeneration, as well as bone fragility. Long-term glucocorticoid therapy delays the muscular disease progression but suppresses growth hormone secretion, resulting in short stature and further deleterious effects on bone strength. This study evaluated the therapeutic potential of daily growth hormone therapy in growing mdx mice as a model of DMD. Growth...

Peak Growth Hormone Response to Combined Stimulation Test in 315 Children and Correlations with Metabolic Parameters.

Studies are lacking regarding the timing of peak growth hormone (PGH) response. We aim to elucidate the timing of PGH response to arginine and levodopa (A-LD) and evaluate the influence of body mass index (BMI) and other metabolic parameters on PGH.

The Bacterivore's Solution: Fight and Flight to Promote Survival.

Bacterial avoidance and innate immune response are two ways by which C. elegans respond to pathogenic bacteria. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Kumar et al. (2019) and Singh and Aballay (2019) demonstrate that bacterial colonization is essential to induce both responses, which may be associated with somatic and reproductive longevity.

Different effects of Wnt/β-catenin activation and Parathyroid hormone on diaphyseal and metaphyseal in the early phase of femur bone healing of mice.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and agents related to the manipulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling are two promising anabolic anti-osteoporotic therapies that have been shown to promote the healing of bone fractures. Now, it is widely accepted that cortical bone and trabecular bone are two different compartments, and should be treated as separate compartments in pathological processes, such as fracture healing. It is currently unknown whether PTH and the activation of β-catenin signaling would demonstrate differ...

Digest: A single genetic origin and a role for bone development pathways in repeated losses of flight in steamer ducks.

Is there evidence for convergence in the molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of flight in the avian evolutionary tree? Campagna et al. (2019) used genomic data to investigate the genetic basis of flightlessness in steamer ducks, a recently diverged clade that is polymorphic with respect to flight. They found an association between morphological changes related to flightlessness and several genes, one of which is involved in growth and bone development, providing evidence for a single genetic origin fo...

Correction to: Effects of growth hormone on bone modeling and remodeling in hypophysectomised young female rats: a bone histomorphometric study.

The following corrections are found in the original publication of the article and corrected as below.

Mechanism and impact of catecholamine conversion by Vibrio cholerae.

Bacterial pathogens are influenced by signaling molecules including the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline which are host-derived hormones and neurotransmitters. Adrenaline and noradrenaline modulate growth, motility and virulence of bacteria. We show that adrenaline is converted by the pathogen Vibrio cholerae to adrenochrome in the course of respiration, and demonstrate that superoxide produced by the respiratory, Na - translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) acts as electron acceptor ...

PYY is a negative regulator of bone mass and strength.

Bone loss in anorexia nervosa and following bariatric surgery is associated with an elevated circulating concentration of the gastrointestinal, anorexigenic hormone, peptide YY (PYY). Selective deletion of the PYY receptor Y1R in osteoblasts or Y2R in the hypothalamus results in high bone mass, but deletion of PYY in mice has resulted in conflicting skeletal phenotypes leading to uncertainty regarding its role in the regulation of bone mass. As PYY analogs are under development for treatment of obesity, we ...

Cathepsin K-deficient osteocytes prevent lactation-induced bone loss and parathyroid hormone suppression.

Lactation induces bone loss to provide sufficient calcium in the milk, a process that involves osteoclastic bone resorption but also osteocytes and perilacunar resorption. The exact mechanisms by which osteocytes contribute to bone loss remain elusive. Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. We show that Ctsk deletion in osteocytes prevented the increase in osteocyte lacunar area seen during lactation, as we...

Bone Turnover Markers Predict Type of Bone Histomorphometry and Bone Mineral Density in Asian Chronic Hemodialysis Patients.

Although the levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) are well-controlled following the KDIGO guideline, the incidence of osteoporosis and fracture are still high in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone histomorphometry in HD patients.

The effects of adrenaline in out of hospital cardiac arrest with shockable and non-shockable rhythms: Findings from the PACA and PARAMEDIC-2 randomised controlled trials.

Previous research suggests there may be differences in the effects of adrenaline related to the initial cardiac arrest rhythm. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adrenaline compared with placebo according to whether the initial cardiac arrest rhythm was shockable or non-shockable.

Diffuse microdamage in bone activates anabolic response by osteoblasts via involvement of voltage-gated calcium channels.

Matrix damage sustained by bone tissue is repaired by the concerted action of bone cells. Previous studies have reported extracellular calcium ([Ca]) efflux to originate from regions of bone undergoing diffuse microdamage termed as "diffuse microdamage-induced calcium efflux" (DMICE). DMICE has also been shown to activate and increase intracellular calcium ([Ca]) signaling in osteoblasts via the involvement of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). Past studies have assessed early stage (< 1 h) responses of...

Endocrine implications of bariatric surgery: a review on the intersection between incretins, bone, and sex hormones.

Bariatric surgery is now the most widely used intervention for the treatment of human obesity. A large body of literature has demonstrated its efficacy in sustained weight loss and improvement in its associated comorbidities. Here, we review the effect of bariatric surgery in gut hormone physiology, bone remodeling and the reproductive axis. Rapid improvements in insulin release and sensitivity appear to be weight loss independent and occur immediately after surgery. These effects on pancreatic beta cells a...

Menopausal hormone therapy. Effects on bone and body composition.

Changes occurring at menopause can be mitigated by prescribing menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Recent publications from the CoLaus/OsteoLaus cohorts provide important insights into the effects of HRT and after its discontinuation on bone and body composition. HRT has a beneficial effect on bone mineral density, bone microarchitecture and fracture prevention. The benefits persist after treatment discontinuation, but not beyond 2 to 5 years. The effect of HRT on body composition is more controve...

Impact of adrenaline dose and timing on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival and neurological outcomes.

The 2015 ILCOR Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Guidelines recommend intravenous adrenaline (epinephrine) as a crucial pharmacologic treatment during cardiac arrest resuscitation. Some recent observational studies and clinical trials have questioned the efficacy of its use and suggested possible deleterious effects on overall survival and long-term outcomes. This study aimed to describe the association between time and dose of adrenaline on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and neurologic functio...

Forecasting the critical role of intermittent therapies for the control of bone resorption.

Osteoporosis is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by an imbalance of bone resorption and formation, leading to bone fragility and increased susceptibility to fracture. Parathyroid hormone is approved therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Evaluation of the Elecsys anti-Müllerian hormone assay for the prediction of hyper-response to controlled ovarian stimulation with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol.

This non-interventional study aimed to validate a pre-specified anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) cut-off of 15 pmol/L (2.10 ng/mL) for the prediction of hyper-response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) using the fully automated Elecsys AMH immunoassay.

Biophysics and the nonlinear dynamics instigated by a special hormone.

Calcitonin, a potent hypocalcemic hormone, plays a vital role in inhibiting osteoclastic activities and suppressing bone removal. The physiological characteristics of calcitonin have long been discussed, along a few recommending calcitonin as a vestigial hormone. The basis for this article is to discuss the role of low and high levels of calcitonin in normal and osteoprotic bone turnover. The effect of calcitonin on the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-ligand and osteoclasts has been demonstrated ...

Estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone as predictors of onset of menopause transition-related bone loss in pre- and perimenopausal women.

The menopause transition (MT) may be an opportunity for early intervention to prevent rapid bone loss. In order to intervene early, we need to be able to prospectively identify pre- and perimenopausal women who are beginning to lose bone. This study examined whether estradiol (E2), or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), measured in pre- and perimenopausal women, can predict significant bone loss by the next year. Bone loss was considered significant if BMD decline at the lumbar spine (LS) or femoral neck (F...

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