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PubMed Journals Articles About "First Experimental Genetic Evidence Human Self Domestication Hypothesis" RSS

01:31 EST 18th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "First experimental genetic evidence human self domestication hypothesis" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 43,000+

Deciphering the puzzles of dog domestication.

The domestic dog, as a highly successful domestication model, is well known as a favored human companion. Exploring its domestication history should provide great insight into our understanding of the prehistoric development of human culture and productivity. Furthermore, investigation on the mechanisms underpinning the morphological and behavioral traits associated with canid domestication syndrome is of significance not only for scientific study but also for human medical research. Current development of ...


Domestication may affect the maternal mRNA profile in unfertilized eggs, potentially impacting the embryonic development of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

Domestication is an evolutionary process during which we expect populations to progressively adapt to an environment controlled by humans. It is accompanied by genetic and presumably epigenetic changes potentially leading to modifications in the transcriptomic profile in various tissues. Reproduction is a key function often affected by this process in numerous species, regardless of the mechanism. The maternal mRNA in fish eggs is crucial for the proper embryogenesis. Our working hypothesis is that modifica...

Glutamate receptors in domestication and modern human evolution.

There has been a recent resurgence of interest in the hypothesis that anatomically modern humans and domesticated species have followed convergent evolutionary paths. Here, we review results from domestication and modern-human evolutionary studies in order to evaluate evidence for shared changes to neurotransmission across these species. We compare genomic and, where available, brain-expression differences across 488 neurotransmitter receptor genes in 14 domesticated species and modern humans relative to th...


Parallel seed color adaptation during multiple domestication attempts of an ancient new world grain.

Thousands of plants have been selected as crops, yet, only a few are fully domesticated. The lack of adaptation to agro-ecological environments of many crop plants with few characteristic domestication traits potentially has genetic causes. Here, we investigate the incomplete domestication of an ancient grain from the Americas, amaranth. Although three grain amaranth species have been cultivated as crop for millennia, all three lack key domestication traits. We sequenced 121 crop and wild individuals to inv...

Evidence for selection events during domestication by extensive mitochondrial genome analysis between japonica and indica in cultivated rice.

The history of the domestication of rice is controversial, as it remains unknown whether domestication processes occurred once or multiple times. To date, genetic architecture and phylogenetic studies based on the rice nuclear genome have been extensively studied, but the results are quite different. Here, we found interesting results for different selections in Oryza sativa based on comprehensive studies of the rice mitochondrial (mt) genome. In detail, 412 rice germplasms were collected from around the wo...

Lipid Metabolism Disorder and Renal Fibrosis.

Since the lipid nephrotoxicity hypothesis was proposed in 1982, increasing evidence has supported the hypothesis that lipid abnormalities contributed to the progression of glomerulosclerosis. In this chapter, we will discuss the general promises of the original hypothesis, focusing especially on the role of lipids and metabolic inflammation accompanying CKD in renal fibrosis and potential new strategies of prevention.

Analysis of the mechanism underlying liver diseases using human induced pluripotent stem cells.

Results of recent studies have shown that disease models using human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have recapitulated the pathophysiology of genetic liver diseases, viral hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. The utilization of human iPS cells as a model of liver diseases has several substantial advantages compared with primary hepatocytes and cancer cell lines, such as the potential for unlimited expansion and similarity of biological characteristics to normal liver cells. In this review, we have focused ...

Genetic benefits of extreme sequential polyandry in a terrestrial-breeding frog.

Sequential polyandry may evolve as an insurance mechanism to reduce the risk that females choose mates that are genetically inferior (intrinsic male quality hypothesis) or genetically incompatible (genetic incompatibility hypothesis). The prevalence of such indirect benefits remains controversial, however, because studies estimating the contributions of additive and non-additive sources of genetic variation to offspring fitness have been limited to a small number of taxonomic groups. Here, we use artificial...

Sedentism and plant cultivation in northeast China emerged during affluent conditions.

The reasons and processes that led hunter-gatherers to transition into a sedentary and agricultural way of life are a fundamental unresolved question of human history. Here we present results of excavations of two single-occupation early Neolithic sites (dated to 7.9 and 7.4 ka) and two high-resolution archaeological surveys in northeast China, which capture the earliest stages of sedentism and millet cultivation in the second oldest center of domestication in the Old World. The transition to sedentism coin...

Origin and domestication of Cucurbitaceae crops:insights from phylogenies, genomics and archaeology.

Some of the World's most valuable crops, including watermelon, honey melon, cucumber, squash, zucchini, and pumpkin, belong to the family Cucurbitaceae. We review insights on their domestication from new phylogenies, archaeology, and genomic studies. Ancestral state estimation on the most-complete Cucurbitaceae phylogeny to date suggests that an annual life cycle may have contributed to domestication. Domestication started by 11,000 years ago in the New World and Asia, and apparently more recently in Africa...

Evolutionary Insights into the Nature of Plant Domestication.

Domestication is a co-evolutionary process that occurs when wild plants are brought into cultivation by humans, leading to origin of new species and/or differentiated populations that are critical for human survival. Darwin used domesticated species as early models for evolution, highlighting their variation and the key role of selection in species differentiation. Over the last two decades, a growing synthesis of plant genetics, genomics, and archaeobotany has led to challenges to old orthodoxies and the...

The Impact of the Low Frequency of the Electromagnetic Field on Human.

Recently, there has been attention and controversial debate topic about the effect of low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human beings. The catalyst for public awareness initiated from the first epidemiological study in 1979 that reported an association between residential EMFs exposure and the incidence of childhood leukemia. For over 40 years, many epidemiological and laboratory investigations were conducted to identify the possible biological effects of low-frequency EMF. Several studies cond...

Genetic landscapes reveal how human genetic diversity aligns with geography.

Geographic patterns in human genetic diversity carry footprints of population history and provide insights for genetic medicine and its application across human populations. Summarizing and visually representing these patterns of diversity has been a persistent goal for human geneticists, and has revealed that genetic differentiation is frequently correlated with geographic distance. However, most analytical methods to represent population structure do not incorporate geography directly, and it must be cons...

Does women's anxious jealousy track changes in steroid hormone levels?

Findings for progesterone and anxiety in non-human animals led to the hypothesis that women's interpersonal anxiety will track changes in progesterone during the menstrual cycle. There have been few direct tests of this hypothesis, however. Consequently, we used a longitudinal design to investigate whether interpersonal anxiety (assessed using the anxious jealousy subscale of the relationship jealousy questionnaire) tracked changes in salivary steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle in a large sample of...

Domestication and large animal interactions: Skeletal trauma in northern Vietnam during the hunter-gatherer Da But period.

The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis that healed traumatic injuries in the pre-Neolithic assemblage of Con Co Ngua, northern Vietnam (c. 6800-6200 cal BP) are consistent with large wild animal interactions prior to their domestication. The core sample included 110 adult (aged ≥ 18 years) individuals, while comparisons are made with an additional six skeletal series from Neolithic through to Iron Age Vietnam, Thailand, and Mongolia. All post cranial skeletal elements were assessed for signs of h...

Diversity of a wall-associated kinase gene in wild and cultivated barley.

Domestication of barley and other cereals was accompanied by an increase in seed size which has been ascribed to human selection, large seeds being preferred by early farmers or favoured by cultivation practices such as deep sowing. An alternative suggestion is that the increase in seed size was an indirect consequence of selection for plants with more vigorous growth. To begin to address the latter hypothesis we studied the diversity of HvWAK1, a wall-associated kinase gene involved in root proliferation, ...

Are drug targets with genetic support twice as likely to be approved? Revised estimates of the impact of genetic support for drug mechanisms on the probability of drug approval.

Despite strong vetting for disease activity, only 10% of candidate new molecular entities in early stage clinical trials are eventually approved. Analyzing historical pipeline data, Nelson et al. 2015 (Nat. Genet.) concluded pipeline drug targets with human genetic evidence of disease association are twice as likely to lead to approved drugs. Taking advantage of recent clinical development advances and rapid growth in GWAS datasets, we extend the original work using updated data, test whether genetic eviden...

In Silico Approaches in Predictive Genetic Toxicology.

Genetic toxicology testing is a weight-of-evidence approach to identify and characterize chemical substances that can cause genetic modifications in somatic and/or germ cells. Prediction of genetic toxicology using computational tools is gaining more attention and preferred by regulatory authorities as an alternate safety assessment for in vivo or in vitro approaches. Due to the cost and time associated with experimental genetic toxicity tests, it is essential to develop more robust in silico methods to pre...

Biotic resistance to invasion is ubiquitous across ecosystems of the United States.

The biotic resistance hypothesis predicts that diverse native communities are more resistant to invasion. However, past studies vary in their support for this hypothesis due to an apparent contradiction between experimental studies, which support biotic resistance, and observational studies, which find that native and non-native species richness are positively related at broad scales (small-scale studies are more variable). Here, we present a novel analysis of the biotic resistance hypothesis using 24 456 ...

The impact of human-facilitated selection on the gut microbiota of domesticated mammals.

Domestication is the process by which anthropogenic forces shape lifestyle and behavior of wild species to accommodate human needs. The impact of domestication on animal physiology and behavior has been extensively studied, whereas its effect on the gut microbiota is still largely unexplored. For this reason, 16S rRNA gene-based and ITS-mediated bifidobacterial profiling, together with shotgun metagenomics, were employed to investigate the taxonomic composition and metabolic repertoire of 146 mammalian feca...

Phenome-wide investigation of health outcomes associated with genetic predisposition to loneliness.

Humans are social animals that experience intense suffering when they perceive a lack of social connection. Modern societies are experiencing an epidemic of loneliness. While the experience of loneliness is universally human, some people report experiencing greater loneliness than others. Loneliness is more strongly associated with mortality than obesity, emphasizing the need to understand the nature of the relationship between loneliness and health. While it is intuitive that circumstantial factors such as...

A Human REPIN1 Gene Variant: Genetic Risk Factor for the Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

We tested the hypothesis that a genetic deletion (Del) variant in the REPIN1 gene is associated with the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans.

From phenotype to genotype: the precursor hypothesis predicts genetic influences that facilitate transitions in social behavior.

Parental care is expected to be one of the key evolutionary precursors to advanced social behavior. This suggests that there could be common genetic underpinnings to both parental care and sociality. However, little is known of the genetics underlying care. Here, we suggest that ethological predictions of behavioral precursors to care along with a genetic toolkit for behavior provide testable hypotheses and a defined approach to investigating genetics of sociality. We call this the 'precursor hypothesis'.

Genetic variability of pig and human rotavirus group A isolates from Slovakia.

The aim of this work was the genetic typing of RVA isolates originating from pigs and human patients in Slovakia. Seventy-eight rectal swabs from domestic pigs and 30 stool samples from humans were collected. The whole VP7 (G genotypes), VP6 (I genotypes) and partial VP4 (P genotypes) ORFs were amplified by RT-PCR. Genetic variability was higher amongst porcine sequences, where four G genotypes (G3, G4, G5, G11), two P genotypes (P[6], P[13]) and one I5 genotype were detected. Human RVA strains were represe...

Beyond the challenge hypothesis: The emergence of the dual-hormone hypothesis and recommendations for future research.

The challenge hypothesis makes specific predictions about the association between testosterone and status-seeking behaviors, but the findings linking testosterone to these behaviors are inconsistent. The dual-hormone hypothesis was developed to help explain these inconsistencies. Specifically, according to this hypothesis, testosterone's association with status-seeking behavior depends on levels of cortisol. Here, we (1) describe the dual-hormone hypothesis in relation to the challenge hypothesis; (2) revie...


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