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PubMed Journals Articles About "First Trial CRISPR Edited Immune Cells Cancer Appears" RSS

18:52 EST 9th December 2019 | BioPortfolio

First Trial CRISPR Edited Immune Cells Cancer Appears PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest First Trial CRISPR Edited Immune Cells Cancer Appears articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "First trial CRISPR edited immune cells cancer appears" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 41,000+

Immune cells within the tumor microenvironment: biological functions and roles in cancer immunotherapy.

The immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME) play important roles in tumorigenesis. It has been known that these tumor associated immune cells may possess tumor-antagonizing or tumor-promoting functions. Although the tumor-antagonizing immune cells within TME tend to target and kill the cancer cells in the early stage of tumorigenesis, the cancer cells seems to eventually escape from immune surveillance and even inhibit the cytotoxic function of tumor-antagonizing immune cells through a variety ...


CRISPR-Edited Stem Cells in a Patient with HIV and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia.

The safety of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-based genome editing in the context of human gene therapy is largely unknown. is a reasonable but not absolutely protective target for a cure of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, because -null blood cells are largely resistant to HIV-1 entry. We transplanted CRISPR-edited -ablated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) into a patient with HIV-1 infection and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The acute...

Immunogenicity of Cas9 Protein.

CRISPR form the adaptive immune system in archaea and bacteria and have been modified for genome engineering in eukaryotic cells. CRISPR systems contain two components, a guide RNA (sgRNA), which is a short RNA composed of a 20 nucleotide sequence that targets specific sites in the genomic DNA and a scaffold necessary for its binding to the CRISPR-associated endonuclease (Cas9). Because of its high efficiency and accuracy, the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing based therapies are poised to treat a multitude of hum...


CRISPR/Cas9 guided genome and epigenome engineering and its therapeutic applications in immune mediated diseases.

The recent developments in the nucleic acid editing technologies have provided a powerful tool to precisely engineer the genome and epigenome for studying many aspects of immune cell differentiation and development as well as several immune mediated diseases (IMDs) including autoimmunity and cancer. Here, we discuss the recent technological achievements of the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-based RNA-guided genome and epigenome editing toolkit and provide an insight into ...

Boosting immune system against cancer by melatonin: A mechanistic viewpoint.

Cancer is a disease of high complexity. Resistance to therapy is a major challenge in cancer targeted therapies. Overcoming this resistance requires a deep knowledge of the cellular interactions within tumor. Natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the main anti-cancer immune cells, while T regulatory cells (Tregs) and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) facilitate immune escape of cancer cells. Melatonin is a natural agent with anti-cancer functions that has also been suggested as...

Editing TaMTL gene induces haploid plants efficiently by optimized Agrobacterium-mediated CRISPR system in wheat.

CRISPR/LbCpf1 and CRISPR/xCas9 systems in wheat have not yet been reported. In this study we compared the efficiencies of three CRISPR editing systems (SpCas9, LbCpf1 and xCas9), and three different promoters (OsU6a, TaU3 and TaU6) driving sgRNA which were introduced into wheat via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Results indicated that TaU3 is a better choice than OsU6a or TaU6; the editing efficiency was higher using two sgRNAs than one sgRNA, and the mutants with a large fragment deletion between t...

An IL-2 proaerolysin fusion toxin that selectively eliminates regulatory t cells to enhance antitumor immune response.

Recent success with immune-checkpoint inhibitors in some tumor types has highlighted the power of the immune system to control and eradicate human cancer cells. However, these therapies have demonstrated a limited activity in prostate cancer, which has a more immunosuppressive microenvironment that can be because of the presence of a variety of inhibitory cell types, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs). One strategy to improve the efficacy of imm...

An optimised CRISPR/Cas9 protocol to create targeted mutations in homoeologous genes and an efficient genotyping protocol to identify edited events in wheat.

Targeted genome editing using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has been applied in a large number of plant species. Using a gene-specific single guide RNA (sgRNA) and the CRISPR/Cas9 system, small editing events such as deletions of few bases can be obtained. However larger deletions are required for some applications. In addition, identification and characterization of edited events can be challenging in plants with complex genomes, such as wheat.

Profiles of immune cell infiltration and immune-related genes in the tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer.

tumor-infiltrating immune cells are highly relevant to the progression and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study is to explore the immune cells and immune-related gene expression in tumor microenvironment of CRC.

Alterations in composition of immune cells and impairment of anti-tumor immune response in aged oral cancer-bearing mice.

Aging has been suggested to be associated with immune dysregulation. An understanding of alterations in the host immunity with advancing age is, therefore, important for designing immune therapy for elderly cancer patients. In this context, not much is known about age-associated alterations in the immune system in oral cancer.

CRISPR-Cas9 mediated CD133 knockout inhibits colon cancer invasion through reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

We previously reported that CD133, as a putative cancer stem cell marker, plays an important role in cell proliferation and invasion in colon cancer. To understand the role of CD133 expression in colon cancer, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of CD133 in colon cancer cells. In this study, we generated CD133knockout colon cancer cells (LoVo) using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system. CD133+ colon cancer cells (LoVo) were infected with the lentiviral vector carrying CD133 gRNA and purified cell by culturing...

Systematic Immunotherapy Target Discovery Using Genome-Scale In Vivo CRISPR Screens in CD8 T Cells.

CD8 T cells play essential roles in anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we performed genome-scale CRISPR screens in CD8 T cells directly under cancer immunotherapy settings and identified regulators of tumor infiltration and degranulation. The in vivo screen robustly re-identified canonical immunotherapy targets such as PD-1 and Tim-3, along with genes that have not been characterized in T cells. The infiltration and degranulation screens converged on an RNA helicase Dhx37. Dhx37 knockout enhanced the...

Targeting regulatory T cells by Curcumin: A potential for cancer immunotherapy.

Immune system has critical roles in fighting against several diseases like cancer. Cancer cells evolve several ways to escape from the immune system to remain alive and trigger new phases of cancer progression. Regulatory T cells are one of the key components in tumor immune tolerance and contribute to the evasion of cancer cells from the immune system. Targeting regulatory T cells could provide new horizons in designing and development of effective therapeutic platforms for the treatment of various maligna...

Discriminated sgRNAs-based SurroGate System Greatly Enhances the Screening Efficiency of Plant Base-edited Cells.

The development of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated base editing has made genomic modification more efficient. However, selecting genetically modified cells from millions of treated cells, especially plant cells, is still challenging. In this study, an efficient surrogate reporter system was established in rice to enrich base-edited cells based on a defective hygromycin resistance gene. After step-by-step optimization, the Discriminated sgRNAs-based SurroGate system (DisSUGs) was generated by artificially differentiati...

Opposing Functions of Interferon Coordinate Adaptive and Innate Immune Responses to Cancer Immune Checkpoint Blockade.

Interferon-gamma (IFNG) augments immune function yet promotes T cell exhaustion through PDL1. How these opposing effects are integrated to impact immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is unclear. We show that while inhibiting tumor IFNG signaling decreases interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in cancer cells, it increases ISGs in immune cells by enhancing IFNG produced by exhausted T cells (T). In tumors with favorable antigenicity, these T mediate rejection. In tumors with neoantigen or MHC-I loss, T instead ut...

Cancer modeling meets human organoid technology.

Organoids are microscopic self-organizing, three-dimensional structures that are grown from stem cells in vitro. They recapitulate many structural and functional aspects of their in vivo counterpart organs. This versatile technology has led to the development of many novel human cancer models. It is now possible to create indefinitely expanding organoids starting from tumor tissue of individuals suffering from a range of carcinomas. Alternatively, CRISPR-based gene modification allows the engineering of org...

Cellular Senescence and the Immune System in Cancer.

In response to a variety of cancer-inducing stresses, cells may engage a stable cell cycle arrest mechanism, termed cellular senescence, to suppress the proliferation of preneoplastic cells. Despite this cell intrinsic tumor suppression, senescent cells have also been implicated as active contributors to tumorigenesis by extrinsically promoting many hallmarks of cancer, including evasion of the immune system. Here, we discuss these dual, and seemingly contradictory, roles of senescence during tumorigenesis....

A stochastic individual-based model to explore the role of spatial interactions and antigen recognition in the immune response against solid tumours.

Spatial interactions between cancer and immune cells, as well as the recognition of tumour antigens by cells of the immune system, play a key role in the immune response against solid tumours. The existing mathematical models generally focus only on one of these key aspects. We present here a spatial stochastic individual-based model that explicitly captures antigen expression and recognition. In our model, each cancer cell is characterised by an antigen profile which can change over time due to either epim...

STING: a master regulator in the cancer-immunity cycle.

The aberrant appearance of DNA in the cytoplasm triggers the activation of cGAS-cGAMP-STING signaling and induces the production of type I interferons, which play critical roles in activating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, numerous studies have shown that the activation of STING and the stimulation of type I IFN production are critical for the anticancer immune response. However, emerging evidence suggests that STING also regulates anticancer immunity in a type I IFN-independent manner...

Double-check base editing (DBE) for efficient A to G conversions.

With the development of CRISPR/Cas9 technology, a new generation of editing methods that convert specific bases has enabled precise single-base mutations. To date, conversion of cytosine to thymidine and adenine to guanine has been achieved using the cytidine deaminase APOBEC1 and adenosine deaminase (TadA), respectively. However, the base editing efficiency can be unacceptably low in some cell types or at certain target loci. One reason might be the lack of a selective pressure against the survival of non-...

CRISPR system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application in the bioproduction of useful chemicals.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) immune systems in bacteria have been used as tools for genome engineering. Thus far, the CRISPR-Cas system has been used in various yeast, bacterial, and mammalian cells. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a nonpathogenic yeast, classified under "generally recognized as safe", and has long been used to produce consumables such as alcohol or bread. Additionally, recombinant cells of S. cerevisiae have been constructed and...

The Tolerogenic Function of Regulatory T Cells in Pregnancy and Cancer.

Regulatory T cells, a subpopulation of suppressive T cells, are potent mediators of self-tolerance and essential for the suppression of triggered immune responses. The immune modulating capacity of these cells play a major role in both transplantation, autoimmune disease, allergy, cancer and pregnancy. During pregnancy, low numbers of regulatory T cells are associated with pregnancy failure and pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. On the other hand, in cancer, low numbers of immunosuppressive T ce...

Keeping crispr in check: diverse mechanisms of phage-encoded anti-crisprs.

CRISPR-Cas represents the only adaptive immune system of prokaryotes known to date. These immune systems are widespread among bacteria and archaea, and provide protection against invasion of mobile genetic elements, such as bacteriophages and plasmids. As a result of the arms-race between phages and their prokaryotic hosts, phages have evolved inhibitors known as anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins to evade CRISPR immunity. In recent years, several Acr proteins have been described in both temperate and virulent phag...

Methylation of immune synapse genes modulates tumor immunogenicity.

Cancer immune evasion is achieved through multiple layers of immune tolerance mechanisms including immune editing, recruitment of tolerogenic immune cells, and secretion of immune suppressive cytokines. Recent success with immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy suggests a dysfunctional immune synapse as a pivotal tolerogenic mechanism. Tumor cells express immune synapse proteins to suppress the immune system, which is often modulated by epigenetic mechanisms. When the methylation status of key...

Comprehensive immune profiling and immune-monitoring using body fluid of patients with metastatic gastric cancer.

The aim of this study is to profile the cytokines and immune cells of body fluid from metastatic gastric cancer (mGC), and evaluate the potential role as a prognostic factor and the feasibility as a predictive biomarker or monitoring source for immune checkpoint inhibitor.


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