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We would like to thank Andrea Nicolò, Michele Girardi and Massimo Sacchetti for their letter to the editor of The Journal of Physiology concerning our recent review (Tipton et al. 2017). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
While most trunk endurance field protocols are performed in the sagittal or frontal planes, the flexion-rotation trunk (FRT) test combines trunk flexion with rotation, which may be relevant to rotation-related sports. The aim of this study was to describe the trunk and hip muscle activation and fatigue and the range of hip flexion of this test. Twenty-seven physically active males and females performed the FRT test after a period of practice. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were bilaterally collected from t...
The biomechanical mechanisms of failure of FSUs have been studied but the correlation of repetitive flexion and extension loadings to the initial phase of fatigue in young FSUs are still not known. The purpose of the study was to examine the fatigue results of low magnitude repetitive flexion and extension loading on porcine lumbar Functional Spinal Units (FSUs) with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and histology.
Delayed return to work is common after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but has undergone little detailed evaluation. We examined factors associated with the timing of return to work after ARDS, along with lost earnings and shifts in healthcare coverage.
Serum AMH measurement became a key element in clinical practice, especially before using Assisted reproductive techniques (ART). However, many AMH kits exist giving different AMH results, leading to a confusion in their interpretation. Until recently, only manual ELISA kits existed (mainly Gen II Beckman, EIA/AMH Immunotech and two Anshlab kits) reporting non-interchangeable results. High and low AMH cut-off values, mainly useful to adapt therapeutics in ART, were different between kits. Since the end of 20...
Assessments of range of motion (ROM) represent an essential part of clinical diagnostics. Ultrasonic movement analyses have been demonstrated to provide reliable results when analyzing complete amplitudes (e.g., flexion-extension). However, due to subjective determination of the starting position, the assessment of half-cycle movements (e.g, flexion only) is less reproducible.
The growing economic resemblance of spouses has contributed to rising inequality by increasing the number of couples in which there are two high- or two low-earning partners. The dominant explanation for this trend is increased assortative mating. Previous research has primarily relied on cross-sectional data and thus has been unable to disentangle changes in assortative mating from changes in the division of spouses' paid labor-a potentially key mechanism given the dramatic rise in wives' labor supply. We ...
The potential of miniature inertial sensors for human balance and gait analysis appears promising. Base of support (BOS), together with its interaction with center of mass, is a critical indicator in above mentioned research fields. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of Xsens MVN BIOMECH, a commercial widely used inertial sensor-based motion capture system, for measuring static BOS and examine the effect of different task complexity on the accuracy. Eleven young males participated in this study and we...
A broad pelvis is characteristic of most, if not all, pre-modern hominins. In at least some early australopithecines, most notably the female Australopithecus afarensis specimen known as "Lucy," it is very broad and coupled with very short lower limbs. In 1991, Rak suggested that Lucy's pelvic anatomy improved locomotor efficiency by increasing stride length through rotation of the wide pelvis in the axial plane. Compared to lengthening strides by increasing flexion and extension at the hips, this mechanism...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate localized patterns of patellar tendon deformation during passive knee flexion. Ultrasound radiofrequency data were collected from the patellar tendons of twenty healthy young adults during knee flexion over a range of motion of 50˚-90˚of flexion. A speckle tracking approach was used to compute proximal and distal tendon displacements and elongations. Non-uniform tissue displacements were visible in the proximal tendon (p < .001), with the deep tendon undergoing mo...
Flexion is the main motion of the lumbar spine. While in vitro tests with pure moments suggest larger intra-segmental rotations for the more caudal segments, in vivo results show diverging motion distributions. The present study analysed the motion distribution in vivo of 320 asymptomatic subjects. The change of the back curvature between standing and upper body flexion was determined using a non-invasive measurement device. Linear, bilinear, trilinear, quadratic, and cubic regression models were fitted to ...
Pharmaceutical intervention targets arm flexor spasticity with an often-unsuccessful goal of improving function. Flexion synergy is a related motor impairment that may be inadvertently neglected. Here, flexor spasticity and flexion synergy are disentangled to determine their contributions to reaching dysfunction.
Despite the lack of representative data of a healthy population, many clinical trials concerning the measurement of postoperative elbow flexion or forearm supination strength use the contralateral side as a control. We hypothesized that there are no differences in elbow flexion and supination strength between the dominant and nondominant sides in healthy volunteers.
Quengel casting was introduced in 1922 for nonsurgical treatment of knee flexion contractures (KFC) associated with hemophilic arthropathy. It consists of an extension-desubluxation hinge fixed to a cast allowing for gradual correction of a flexion deformity while preventing posterior tibial subluxation. The purpose of this study is to report 1 center's experience with this technique for the treatment of pediatric KFC.
Breast cancer pathobiology is known to be influenced by the differential expression of a group of proteins called the kinesin superfamily (KIFs), which is instrumental in the intracellular transport of chromosomes along microtubules during mitosis. During cellular division, kinesins are strictly regulated through temporal synthesis so that they are present only when needed. However, their misregulation may contribute to uncontrolled cell growth owing to premature sister chromatid separation, highlighting th...
The vast majority of displaced pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures can be treated successfully with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. The need for open reduction is difficult to determine a priori and is typically due to the failure of closed reduction attempts or persistent limb ischemia. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of flexion-type supracondylar humeral fractures, the rate of open reduction for flexion-type fractures, and the predictive impact of ulnar nerve injur...
To review recent advances in achalasia diagnostics and therapeutics.
Reduced knee flexion is a leading feature of post-stroke gait, but the causes have not been well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the knee flexion and the lower-limb muscle activation within the stance-to-swing phases of gait cycle in the post-stroke hemiplegic patients. Ten stroke patients and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the experiment. The lower-limb kinematic signals and the surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the lef...
The independent neurovascular anatomy of the long head of the triceps brachii and its suitability as a free muscle transfer have been extensively studied. Instead muscle transposition of the long head of the triceps brachii to enhance elbow flexion has been rarely described. We describe in this paper two cases of injury of brachial plexus sequel in which transposition was performed only on the long head of the triceps. The elbow flexion was improved, the extension was preserved.
When estimating knee kinematics from skin markers and stereophotogrammetry, multi-body optimization (MBO) has provided promising results for reducing soft tissue artefacts (STA), but can still be improved. The goal of this study was to assess the performance of MBO with subject-specific knee models at high knee flexion angles (up to 110°) against knee joint kinematics measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eight subjects were recruited. MBO with subject-specific knee models was more effective in compensat...
Effects of resistance training are well known to be specific to tasks that are involved during training. However, it remains unclear whether neuromuscular adaptations are induced after adjacent joint training. This study examined the effects of hip flexion training on maximal and explosive knee extension strength and neuromuscular performance of the rectus femoris (RF, hip flexor and knee extensor) compared with the effects of knee extension training. Thirty-seven untrained young men were randomly assigned ...
Stretching exercises based on wrist flexion-ulnar deviation with elbow extension, forearm pronation, and additional index or middle finger flexion have been used to stretch the wrist extensors for lateral epicondylitis. The purpose of this study was to quantify the strain on the tendon origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis in cadaver specimens during these stretching exercises.