PubMed Journals Articles About "Frequent Homozygous Deletions CDKN2A Locus Somatic Cancer Tissues" RSS

10:42 EDT 16th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Frequent homozygous deletions CDKN2A locus somatic cancer tissues" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 23,000+

Frequent homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A locus in somatic cancer tissues.

Here we present and describe data on homozygous deletions (HD) of human CDKN2 A and neighboring regions on the p arm of Chromosome 9 from cancer genome sequences deposited on the online Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. Although CDKN2 A HDs have been previously described in many cancers, this is a pan-cancer report of these aberrations with the aim to map the distribution of the breakpoints. We find that HDs of this locus have a median range of 1,255,650bps. When the deletion b...

Prognostic significance of CDKN2A/B deletions in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a meta-analysis.

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/B (CDKN2A/B) genes are frequently altered in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patients. The aim of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively assess the prognostic value of CDKN2A/B deletions in ALL patients.

A polymorphic variant in p19 confers resistance to chemically-induced skin tumors by activating the p53 pathway.

Identification of the specific genetic variants responsible for the increased susceptibility to familial or sporadic cancers is important. Using a forward genetics approach to map such loci in a mouse skin cancer model, we previously identified a strong genetic locus, Stmm3 (skin tumor modifier of MSM 3), conferring resistance to chemically-induced skin papillomas on chromosome 4. Here, we report the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene Cdkn2a/p19 as a major responsible gene for the Stmm3 locus. We provid...

Prevalence and characteristics of likely-somatic variants in cancer susceptibility genes among individuals who had hereditary pan-cancer panel testing.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) hereditary pan-cancer panel testing can identify somatic variants, which exhibit lower allele frequencies than do germline variants and may confound hereditary cancer predisposition testing. This analysis examined the prevalence and characteristics of likely-somatic variants among 348,543 individuals tested using a clinical NGS hereditary pan-cancer panel. Variants showing allele frequencies between 10% and 30% were interpreted as likely somatic and identified in 753 (0.22%)...

Molecular features of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare central nervous system tumor occurring mostly in children and young adults. Next-generation sequencing of 295 cancer-related genes was used to investigate the molecular profiles of 13 cases of PXA. We found that BRAF V600E (5/13; 38%), FANCA/D2/I/M (5/13; 38%), PRKDC (4/13; 31%), NF1 (3/13; 23%), and NOTCH2/3/4 (3/13; 23%) alterations were the most frequent somatic gene mutations. However, neither PTEN nor EGFR mutation, which is frequently present in glioblasto...

Screening for depression in cancer patients using the PHQ-9: The accuracy of somatic compared to non-somatic items.

The PHQ-9 is a standard screening tool for depressive disorders in cancer patients. As for the frequently reported symptom overlap with somatic disease, it has been debated whether somatic items are suitable for identifying depressive disorders in cancer patients. Thus, this study examines the diagnostic accuracy of somatic versus cognitive-emotional PHQ-9 items.

A generalized theory of age-dependent carcinogenesis.

The Multi-Stage Model of Carcinogenesis (MMC), developed in the 1950 s-70s, postulated carcinogenesis as a Darwinian somatic selection process. The cellular organization of tissues was then poorly understood, with almost nothing known about cancer drivers and stem cells. The MMC paradigm was later confirmed, and cancer incidence was explained as a function of mutation occurrence. However, the MMC has never been tested for its ability to account for the discrepancies in the number of driver mutations and the...

Intracellular pH dynamics and charge-changing somatic mutations in cancer.

An unresolved question critical for understanding cancer is how recurring somatic mutations are retained and how selective pressures drive retention. Increased intracellular pH (pHi) is common to most cancers and is an early event in cancer development. Recent work shows that recurrent somatic mutations can confer an adaptive gain in pH sensing to mutant proteins, enhancing tumorigenic phenotypes specifically at the increased pHi of cancer. Newly identified amino acid mutation signatures in cancer suggest c...

Somatic LINE-1 retrotransposition in cortical neurons and non-brain tissues of Rett patients and healthy individuals.

Mounting evidence supports that LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition can occur postzygotically in healthy and diseased human tissues, contributing to genomic mosaicism in the brain and other somatic tissues of an individual. However, the genomic distribution of somatic human-specific LINE-1 (L1Hs) insertions and their potential impact on carrier cells remain unclear. Here, using a PCR-based targeted bulk sequencing approach, we profiled 9,181 somatic insertions from 20 postmortem tissues from five Rett patients a...

Genetic profiling of a chondroblastoma-like osteosarcoma/malignant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of bone reveals a homozygous deletion of CDKN2A, intragenic deletion of DMD and a targetable FN1-FGFR1 gene fusion.

Conventional osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. This group of neoplasms is subclassified according to specific histological features, but hitherto there has been no correlation between subtype, treatment and prognosis. By in-depth genetic analyses of a chondroblastoma-like osteosarcoma, we detect a genetic profile that is distinct from those previously reported in benign and malignant bone tumors. The overall genomic copy number profile was less complex than that typically associate...

Ampullary cancer: Evaluation of somatic and germline genetic alterations and association with clinical outcomes.

Ampullary carcinoma (AC) is a rare gastrointestinal cancer. Pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs) in BRCA2 and potentially targetable somatic alterations (SAs) in ERBB2 and ELF3 have been previously described in AC. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center has implemented an opt-in strategy for germline testing (GT) and somatic testing (ST) for patients with AC to further evaluate the spectrum of PGAs and SAs.

A clinical research on the potential pathogenesis of somatic cancer related cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

To investigate the pathogenesis of somatic solid cancer-related cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST).A total of 174 patients with CVST were recruited from the hospital between January 2006 and December 2017 and divided into two groups: (1) somatic cancer-related CVST group, defined as active somatic solid cancer patients with acute CVST; (2) cancer group (CG), defined as active somatic solid cancer patients without CVST. The cancer group patients were age and gender-matched somatic cancer-related CVST gr...

Well-differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor in a Patient With Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma Syndrome (FAMMM).

Germline mutations in CDKN2A result in Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma Syndrome (FAMMM), which is associated with an increased risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and melanoma. CDKN2A is somatically inactivated in multiple neoplasms, raising the possibility that, although the data are not conclusive, germline CDKN2A mutation may also impose an increased risk for other neoplasms. We present a patient with a CDKN2A germline mutation (p16-Leiden mutation) and mosaicism for neurofibromatosis type...

Psychological Impact of Learning CDKN2A Variant Status as a Genetic Research Result.

Little is known about genetic research participants' responses to receiving individual research results (IRR) from cancer genetic research. We examined the immediate and delayed psychological impact of returning a CDKN2A variant result that is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and melanoma.

Cancer-testis antigens: An update on their roles in cancer immunotherapy.

Several recent studies have assessed suitability of tumor antigens for immunotherapy. Based on the restricted expression pattern in somatic tissues, cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are possible candidates for cancer immunotherapy. These antigens are expressed in various tumors including gastrointestinal, breast, skin and hematologic malignancies.

Mutations in CDKN2A and the FGFR3 genes on bladder cancer diagnosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

To determine the association between mutations in CDKN2A and FGFR3 genes and the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma (BCa).

Cancer patients and music: (prospective) results from a survey to evaluate potential complementary treatment approaches.

Many cancer patients (PTS) suffer from somatic or non-somatic symptoms. Studies have shown positive effects of music intervention (MI) on aspects of quality of life or symptom management.

Autophagy and mTOR pathways in mouse embryonic stem cell, lung cancer and somatic fibroblast cell lines.

Embryonic developmental stages and regulations have always been one of the most intriguing aspects of science. Since the cancer stem cell discovery, striking for cancer development and recurrence, embryonic stem cells and control mechanisms, as well as cancer cells and cancer stem cell control mechanisms become important research materials. It is necessary to reveal the similarities and differences between somatic and cancer cells which are formed of embryonic stem cells divisions and determinations. For th...

Cdkn2a (Arf) loss drives NF1-associated atypical neurofibroma and malignant transformation.

Plexiform neurofibroma (PN) tumors are a hallmark manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) that arise in the Schwann cell (SC) lineage. NF1 is a common heritable cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor, which encodes a GTPase activating protein called neurofibromin that negatively regulates Ras proteins. Whereas most PN are clinically indolent, a subset progress to atypical neurofibromatous neoplasms of uncertain biologic potential (ANNUBP) and/or to ma...

Estimating the number of genetic mutations (hits) required for carcinogenesis based on the distribution of somatic mutations.

Individual instances of cancer are primarily a result of a combination of a small number of genetic mutations (hits). Knowing the number of such mutations is a prerequisite for identifying specific combinations of carcinogenic mutations and understanding the etiology of cancer. We present a mathematical model for estimating the number of hits based on the distribution of somatic mutations. The model is fundamentally different from previous approaches, which are based on cancer incidence by age. Our somatic ...

IKZF1 Deletions with COBL Breakpoints Are Not Driven by RAG-Mediated Recombination Events in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

IKZF1 deletion (ΔIKZF1) is an important predictor of relapse in both childhood and adult B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Previously, we revealed that COBL is a hotspot for breakpoints in leukemia and could promote IKZF1 deletions. Through an international collaboration, we provide a detailed genetic and clinical picture of B-ALL with COBL rearrangements (COBL-r). Patients with B-ALL and IKZF1 deletion (n = 133) were included. IKZF1 ∆1-8 were associated with large alterations wi...

Somatic symptoms in children who have a parent with cancer: A systematic review.

This systematic review explored the occurrence and types of somatic symptoms in children (0-20 years) who have experienced parental cancer.

Hectd1 is essential for embryogenesis in mice.

Many aspects of the functional role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hectd1 in embryogenesis and in cell biology still remain to be elucidated. In order to contribute to this task we now report the generation of a new transgenic mouse model for Hectd1 using the gene trap strategy. The HECT domain deletion mutant mouse was created by inserting a β-geo cassette into the Hectd1 locus. Mice homozygous for Hectd1-mutant showed early embryonic lethality with abnormal placental development and defective of neural tube ...

Investigation of somatic single nucleotide variations in human endogenous retrovirus elements and their potential association with cancer.

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been investigated for potential links with human cancer. However, the distribution of somatic nucleotide variations in HERV elements has not been explored in detail. This study aims to identify HERV elements with an over-representation of somatic mutations (hot spots) in cancer patients. Four HERV elements with mutation hotspots were identified that overlap with exons of four human protein coding genes. These hotspots were identified based on the significant over-r...

Brain somatic mutations in cause intractable epilepsy with aberrant N-glycosylation.

To identify whether somatic mutations in alter N-glycan structures in human brain tissues and cause nonlesional focal epilepsy (NLFE) or mild malformation of cortical development (mMCD).

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