PubMed Journals Articles About "GMOs South Africa Benefits Biotech Crops Changing Women" RSS

20:54 EDT 20th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "GMOs South Africa Benefits biotech crops changing women" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Prevalence, epidemiology and molecular studies of Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in South Africa.

Criniviruses accumulate in the phloem tissue and damage crops by reducing chlorophyll which is essential for plant growth and development. Tomato chlorosis crinivirus (ToCV) is vectored by several whitefly species that damage tomato crops throughout the world. In South Africa, ToCV is a poorly studied pathogen of global economic importance. Therefore, a national survey was initiated to investigate the occurrence and distribution of criniviruses infecting tomato crops in South Africa. Whitefly infested tomat...

Peer Teaching Increases Knowledge and Changes Perceptions about Genetically Modified Crops in Non-Science Major Undergraduates.

We analyzed effects of peer teaching on non-science major undergraduates' knowledge, perceptions, and opinions about genetically modified (GM) crops and their use in agriculture. Undergraduates enrolled in an introductory nonmajors biology course participated in a service-learning program (SLP) in which they acted as cross-age peer teachers to high school students, teaching about the role of genetics in crop improvement through traditional breeding and GM approaches. Using pre/postassessments, we found that...

An exposure pathway-based risk assessment system for GM plants.

Cultivating GM crops brings benefits, such as increasing farm incomes and the crop production as well as reducing insecticide and herbicide use and greenhouse gas emissions (Brookes & Barfoot 2018). These benefits should translate into a brilliant future for GM crops. However, debates continue around GM food safety and environmental and ecological risk. Many GM opponents think scientists and agricultural corporations treat genes and genomes as resources to produce GM organisms (GMOs) at the expense of prese...

Public health benefits of reducing exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in South Africa.

Air pollution is a growing problem in developing countries, and there exists a wide range of evidence documenting the large health and productivity losses associated with high concentrations of pollutants. South Africa is a developing country with high levels of air pollution in some regions, and the costs of air pollution on human health and economic growth in South Africa are still uncertain. The environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) model was applied to South Africa using local dat...

Maternal iron-deficiency is associated with premature birth and higher birth weight despite routine antenatal iron supplementation in an urban South African setting: The NuPED prospective study.

Recent studies are suggesting a U-shaped relationship between antenatal iron exposure and birth outcomes. Little is known about the iron status and associated birth outcomes of pregnant women in South Africa. Our aim was to assess iron status at early, mid- and late pregnancy, and to determine associations with gestational age and birth weight in women in Johannesburg, South Africa.

"My Husband Has to Stop Beating Me and I Shouldn't Go to the Police": Family Meetings, Patriarchal Bargains, and Marital Violence in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

This article examines how women in South Africa, in challenging marital violence, navigate relations of patriarchal domination through appeals to the state, familial channels, or a combination of both. Using Kandiyoti's concept of "patriarchal bargains," the article describes how women during family meetings draw upon the state to challenge patriarchy within intimate partnerships and reassert control within their marriages. However, by drawing on the state for support, women have to navigate the patriarchal...

Fertility Intentions and Clinical Care Attendance Among Women Living with HIV in South Africa.

Poor HIV care retention impedes optimal treatment outcomes in persons living with HIV. Women trying to become pregnant may be motivated by periconception horizontal and vertical transmission concerns and thus more likely to attend HIV care visits than women not trying to conceive. We estimated the effect of fertility intentions on HIV care attendance over 12 months among non-pregnant, HIV-positive women aged 18-35 years who were on or initiating antiretroviral therapy in Johannesburg, South Africa. The pe...

Perpetration of sexual aggression among adolescents in South Africa.

In South Africa, one in three men have reported perpetrating rape. Adolescence presents a unique developmental period for primary prevention of violence. However, few studies characterize the epidemiology of sexual violence among adolescents in South Africa.

Homicide pattern among adolescents: A national epidemiological study of child homicide in South Africa.

Large numbers of young people die yearly due to homicide, but little is known about homicide during adolescence. Research primarily focuses on youth violence among young men and masks important gender-related factors inherent in the adolescent age group. Although young women are less likely to be victims of homicide, violence against women is an important form of violence experienced during adolescence. In this paper, we describe the prevalence of and gender difference in adolescent homicide in South Africa...

A cost comparison analysis of paediatric intermediate care in a tertiary hospital and an intermediate care facility in Cape Town, South Africa.

In South Africa, 600-700 new cases of paediatric cancers have been reported every year for the past 25 years, and in the year 2000, HIV/AIDS was responsible for 42,479 deaths in children under five. These children need intermediate care but research in the field is lacking, with the few costing studies conducted in South Africa reporting a range of inpatient day costs.

Course of perinatal depressive symptoms among South African women: associations with child outcomes at 18 and 36 months.

Latent modelling was used to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms among low-income perinatal women in South Africa. Predictors of trajectories and the association of trajectories with child outcomes were assessed.

Post-mortem toxicology in violent fatalities in Cape Town, South Africa: A preliminary investigation.

In South Africa, violence-related injury and mortality contributes highly to the nation's burden of injury. Drug abuse, which is also reported to be rife across the county, has been associated with violence, resulting injury, and death. While post-mortem toxicological investigations are comprehensive and routine in violent fatalities internationally; this is not currently the case in South Africa.

Hygiene, Blood Flow, and Vaginal Overload: Why Women Removed an HIV Prevention Vaginal Ring During Menstruation in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe.

We assessed the interference between vaginal ring use and menses among women who participated in the qualitative component of the MTN-020/ASPIRE vaginal ring trial in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe (N = 214). A common reason for imperfect ring adherence and premature removal of the vaginal ring cited by participants related to vaginal bleeding or menses. Whereas self-reporting via survey questions suggested that the majority (60%) of women did not mind wearing the ring while menstruating, and...

Perceptions of weight in relation to health, hunger, and belonging among women in periurban South Africa.

Obesity among South African women represents an important dimension of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. Experiences of weight are an under-explored frame of reference for intervention. Using three-part in-depth interviews with 20 women and 9 focus groups with a total of 57 women (N = 77) in one low-income neighborhood, I relate women's positive perceptions of fatness to belonging and experiences of hunger. Aware of public health obesity messaging, participants tried to lose weight, yet stress and foo...

The epidemiology of rape and sexual violence in the platinum mining district of Rustenburg, South Africa: Prevalence, and factors associated with sexual violence.

Estimates for the prevalence of rape and other forms of sexual violence (SV) vary in South Africa. This survey aimed to provide clarity by quantifying the prevalence of SV (forced sex or sexual acts) by 1) sexual partners, and 2) non-partners, and to describe factors associated with these outcomes among women (18-49 years) living in Rustenburg Municipality.

Progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors after hyperglycemia first detected in pregnancy: A cross-sectional study in Cape Town, South Africa.

Global data indicate that women with a history of hyperglycemia first detected in pregnancy (HFDP) are at up to 7 times risk of progressing to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with their counterparts who have pregnancies that are not complicated by hyperglycemia. However, there are no data from the sub-Saharan African region, which has the highest projected rise in diabetes prevalence globally. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of women who progress to T2DM and associated risk fa...

Trends in Melanoma Mortality in the Population Groups of South Africa.

The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) is increasing in countries around the world. However, little is known about melanoma trends in African countries by population group. We studied CM mortality in South Africa from 1997 to 2014 to partly address this knowledge gap. Unit record mortality data for all South Africans who died from CM (n = 8,537) were obtained from Statistics South Africa. Join-point regression models were used to assess whether there was a statistically significant change in the direction...

Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in South Africa - Estimates using routine laboratory data, 2005-2015.

South Africa is considered highly endemic for hepatitis A virus (HAV) although few seroprevalence studies have been conducted over the past two decades. The World Health Organization recommends integrating HAV vaccination into national childhood immunization schedules where there is transition from high to intermediate endemicity. As a means of gauging age-specific rates of infection, we report HAV seroprevalence rates among specimens tested for HAV serology within South Africa's public health sector from 2...

An analysis of delays among women accessing second-trimester abortion in the public sector in South Africa.

To identify key delays and associated factors in women's pathway to second-trimester abortion that could inform strategies to increase earlier presentation.

Improving estimates of district HIV prevalence and burden in South Africa using small area estimation techniques.

Many countries, including South Africa, have implemented population-based household surveys to estimate HIV prevalence and the burden of HIV infection. Most household HIV surveys are designed to provide reliable estimates down to only the first subnational geopolitical level which, in South Africa, is composed of nine provinces. However HIV prevalence estimates are needed down to at least the second subnational level in order to better target the delivery of HIV care, treatment and prevention services. The ...

The per-patient costs of HIV services in South Africa: Systematic review and application in the South African HIV Investment Case.

In economic analyses of HIV interventions, South Africa is often used as a case in point, due to the availability of good epidemiological and programme data and the global relevance of its epidemic. Few analyses however use locally relevant cost data. We reviewed available cost data as part of the South African HIV Investment Case, a modelling exercise to inform the optimal use of financial resources for the country's HIV programme.

Silicosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in deceased female South African miners.

Implementation of South Africa's 2002 Mining Charter increased women's participation in underground mining. However, occupational lung diseases (OLDs) in female gold miners have not been studied.

Dietary exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in rural communities living within catchment areas of iSimangaliso World Heritage Site, South Africa.

Dietary intake of contaminated food is a major route of human exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Despite the prevalence of OCP usage in southern Africa for several decades, their impact on socioeconomically vulnerable communities remains largely overlooked. We investigated the accumulation of OCPs in crops commonly cultivated by rural communities surrounding iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa. All samples analysed were found to be contaminated, with total OCP concentrations ranging between 1...

Community-based strategies to identify the unmet need for care of individuals with STI-associated symptoms in rural South Africa.

To determine the unmet need for care and barriers for consulting STI services at six primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in rural South Africa.

Clinical characteristics of Mycoplasma genitalium and the usefulness of syndromic management among women living with HIV.

We report the clinical symptoms and examination findings of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in women living with HIV (WLHIV) in South Africa. If we relied on syndromic management alone to treat MG, only 15/46 of MG-infected women would have received appropriate treatment: sensitivity 32.6% (95%CI: 19.5-48.0) and specificity 67.4% (95%CI: 63.4-71.2).

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