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Most hospitals outsource supply procurement to purchasing alliances, or group purchasing organizations (GPOs). Despite their early 20th century origin, we lack both national and trend data on alliance utilization, services, and performance. The topic is important as alliances help hospitals control costs, enjoy tailwinds from affiliated regional/local alliances, and face headwinds from hospital self-contracting and criticism of certain business practices.
The removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is variable and some of these compounds pass these plants almost intact and others presenting a removal efficiency close to 100%. Their incomplete removal results in a continuous discharge of pharmaceuticals into the environment. To assess the profile of contamination of influents and effluents over a day, a set of 83 pharmaceuticals were evaluated hourly in a WWTP in Leiria, Portugal. The composite samples of the influent and ...
Within (European) healthcare systems, the predominant goal for pharmaceutical expenditure is cost containment. This is due to a general belief among healthcare policy makers that pharmaceutical expenditure-driven by high prices-will be unsustainable unless further reforms are enacted.
To compare the prices paid to physicians by employer-sponsored Medicare Advantage (MA) plans with those paid by traditional Medicare (TM) and to determine whether the relationship between MA and TM prices is affected by the generosity of MA benchmarks.
Understanding whether high healthcare costs for individuals persist over time is critical for the development of policies that aim to reduce the prevalence of high cost patients. And while high healthcare costs will occur in any given year based on the prevalence of certain morbidities and acute conditions, a large random component of the distribution means that it is rarely the same people driving the bulk of healthcare expenditures. Using administrative data for over 250,000 Australian residents for the y...
In this paper, we revisit the relationship between housing prices and consumption in China by using a continuous wavelet analysis. This method provides an insight into the dynamic nexus in both time and frequency domains. In general, Empirical results show that there is a positive relationship between the two series in China, although it varies across time and frequencies. First, we find that disposable income is the core factor which affects both consumption and housing prices in China. Second, housing pri...
The rising prices of specialty drugs have prompted a debate about how medications are priced. With the average price of cancer drugs doubling in the last decade, the unsustainability of drug prices is especially concerning in oncology and hematology. The objective of this study was to compare the prices of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) approved in the last 20 years by the FDA across disease states.
Cross-sectoral collaborative organizations (e.g., alliances, coalitions) bring together members from different industry sectors to ameliorate multifaceted problems in local communities. The ability to leverage the diverse knowledge and skills of these members is predicated on their sustained participation, which research has shown to be a significant challenge.
Veterinary antiparasitic pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters and several of these pharmaceuticals act on the nervous system on the target organisms implying that neurological effects also might be of concern in non-target animals such as fish. We tested if exposure to antiparasitic pharmaceuticals affect swimming activity in 6 days old zebrafish larvae. The results revealed that most pharmaceuticals did not cause any effects in swimming activity. However, larvae exposed to 0.58 mg/L doram...
In recent years, several drug companies have exploited U.S. regulatory policies to acquire exclusive rights to cheap therapies and substantially raise their prices, and Federal agencies and state governments are exploring various ways to prevent or punish such behavior in the future. Among these cases, however, Marathon Pharmaceuticals' handling of Emflaza (deflazacort) is unique, because the drug was previously only available abroad, and was never previously sold in the U.S. before the company obtained FDA...
We study the short- and long-term price effects of the number of competing firms, using panel-data on 1303 distinct pharmaceutical markets for 78 months within a reference-price system. We use actual transaction prices in an institutional setting with little scope for non-price competition and where simultaneity problems can be addressed effectively. In the long term, the price of generics is found to decrease by 81% when the number of firms selling generics with the same strength, form and similar package ...
We sought to characterize the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile of transgender women with HIV identified through a U.S. healthcare database. Compared with age- and race-matched cisgender men with HIV, transgender women with HIV had an increased prevalence of anemia and lower absolute hemoglobin levels. HIV control was sub-optimal and prevalence of HCV co-infection was high among transgender women. Further study of non-traditional CVD risk factors/immune activation among transgender women with...
In this article, we report on the Second Society for Simulation in Healthcare Research Summit held in 2017. This meeting succeeded the First Research Summit from 2011 with the goal of advancing the scope of healthcare simulation research. During the one and a half day summit, some of the world's leading experts in simulation, healthcare, and simulation in healthcare convened to discuss ideas about what research goals would be most beneficial to the healthcare simulation community, and what could be done to ...
Determine the prices and price variation of the prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) used in the United States and examine their trends from 2013-2016 using Medicare Part D data.
Orlowski has received research funding from Amgen, BioTheryX, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene Corporation, and Takeda Pharmaceuticals; honoraria from Amgen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene Corporation, Janssen, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, and Onyx Pharmaceuticals; and is a member of advisory boards for Amgen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene Corporation, Incyte, Kite, Legend Biotech, Sanofi-Aventis, and Takeda Pharmaceuticals.
The European Commission has formally opened a process of revision of its tobacco tax directive. The purpose of this study is to analyse the evolution of cigarette and roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco prices in order to identify avenues for the improvement of public health goals.
To examine whether changes in food prices are associated with changes in obesity prevalence among women in developing countries, and assess effect modification by individual socioeconomic status (SES).
The benefits of local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa for local access to medicines and to effective treatment remain contested. There is scepticism among health systems experts internationally that production of pharmaceuticals in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) can provide competitive prices, quality and reliability of supply. Meanwhile low-income African populations continue to suffer poor access to a broad range of medicines, despite major international funding efforts. A current wave of pharmaceutical...
Mandatory quality disclosure often includes a period over which the quality of new entrants is unreported. This provides the opportunity for forward-looking firms to adjust product characteristics in advance of disclosure. Using comprehensive data on Medicare Advantage (MA) from 2007 to 2015, I exploit the design of the MA Star Rating program to examine the presence of forward-looking behavior among insurers. I find that high-quality insurers reduce prices leading up to quality disclosure, while low-quality...
White House report on drug prices is a detailed road map.
Healthcare personnel are at high risk for exposure to influenza by direct and indirect contact, droplets and aerosols, and by aerosol generating procedures. Information on air and surface influenza contamination is needed to assist in developing guidance for proper prevention and control strategies. To understand the vulnerabilities of healthcare personnel, we measured influenza in the breathing zone of healthcare personnel, in air and on surfaces within a healthcare setting, and on filtering facepiece resp...
Congenital anomaly (CA) are a leading cause of disease, death and disability for children throughout the world. Many have complex and varying healthcare needs which are not well understood. Our aim was to analyse the healthcare needs of children with CA and examine how that healthcare is delivered.