PubMed Journals Articles About "Global Allantoin Market 20172021 Report Updated 23082017 Prices" RSS

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Showing "Global Allantoin Market 20172021 Report Updated 23082017 Prices" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 17,000+

Assays for estimating HIV incidence: updated global market assessment and estimated economic value.

Accurate incidence estimates are needed to characterize the HIV epidemic and guide prevention efforts. HIV Incidence assays are cost-effective laboratory assays that provide incidence estimates from cross-sectional surveys. We conducted a global market assessment of HIV incidence assays under three market scenarios and estimated the economic value of improved incidence assays.

Thresholds for decision-making: informing the cost-effectiveness and affordability of rotavirus vaccines in Malaysia.

Cost-effectiveness thresholds (CETs) based on the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) are extensively used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) lacking locally defined CETs. These thresholds were originally intended for global and regional prioritization, and do not reflect local context or affordability at the national level, so their value for informing resource allocation decisions has been questioned. Using these thresholds, rotavirus vaccines are widely regarded as cost-effective inter...

Allantoin and hydantoin as new protein aggregation suppressors and their mechanisms of action.

Allantoin is widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, and is composed of a hydantoin ring and a ureido group. Recent reports showed that allantoin suppresses thermal aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme (LYZ). However, whether allantoin controls the aggregation of other proteins under different stress conditions remains unclear. Here we analyzed the effects of allantoin and its derivatives on the aggregation of LYZ, carbonic anhydrase from bovine erythrocytes (BCA), albumin from chicken egg whi...

The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County.

Background: Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods: Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy...

Exogenous allantoin increases Arabidopsis seedlings tolerance to NaCl stress and regulates expression of oxidative stress response genes.

Allantoin is a nitrogenous compound derived from purine catabolism that contributes to nitrogen recycling in plants. Accumulation of allantoin in plant tissues and a potential role in protection of plants from abiotic stress conditions has been identified. The present work shows that application of exogenous allantoin increased stress tolerance of Arabidopsis seedlings when germinated on, or subjected to the media containing NaCl. Allantoin-induced tolerance to NaCl stress was associated with decreased prod...

A global perspective on capsule endoscopy.

A search of the internet today to quantify the estimated value of capsules from a global perspective, easily delivers figures stating around $200 million in 2014 to about $400 million by 2020, which would be approximately 10% of the gastrointestinal endoscopic market. Is this a steep rise within just six years or could the capsule market do even better? What chances does this offer and what are the key aspects for future success? By 2020, more than 1 billion people are aged sixty or older and around one thi...

Predictability of machine learning techniques to forecast the trends of market index prices: Hypothesis testing for the Korean stock markets.

The prediction of the trends of stocks and index prices is one of the important issues to market participants. Investors have set trading or fiscal strategies based on the trends, and considerable research in various academic fields has been studied to forecast financial markets. This study predicts the trends of the Korea Composite Stock Price Index 200 (KOSPI 200) prices using nonparametric machine learning models: artificial neural network, support vector machines with polynomial and radial basis functio...

Housing price gradient and immigrant population: Data from the Italian real estate market.

The database presented here was collected by Antoniucci and Marella to analyze the correlation between the housing price gradient and the immigrant population in Italy during 2016. It may also be useful in other statistical analyses, be they on the real estate market or in another branches of social science. The data sample relates to 112 Italian provincial capitals. It provides accurate information on urban structure, and specifically on urban density. The two most significant variables are original indica...

Analysis of the transmission characteristics of China's carbon market transaction price volatility from the perspective of a complex network.

Research on the price fluctuation transmission of the carbon trading pilot market is of great significance for the establishment of China's unified carbon market and its development in the future. In this paper, the carbon market transaction prices of Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Guangdong were selected from December 29, 2013 to March 26, 2016, as sample data. Based on the view of the complex network theory, we construct a price fluctuation transmission network model of five pilot carbon market...

The Collapse of the Price of Oil and the Importance of Fair Market Competition and Optimizing Public and Private Resources: Assessing Angola's Contraceptive Market Landscape.

A Cost Analysis of the Jan Aushadhi Scheme in India.

Medicines constitute a substantial proportion of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses in Indian households. In order to address this issue, the Government of India launched the Jan Aushadhi (Medicine for the Masses) Scheme (JAS) to provide cheap generic medicines to the patients ( These medicines are provided through the Jan Aushadhi stores established across the country. The objective of this study was to do a quick assessment for policy-makers regarding the objec...

Research and Development Spending to Bring a Single Cancer Drug to Market and Revenues After Approval.

A common justification for high cancer drug prices is the sizable research and development (R&D) outlay necessary to bring a drug to the US market. A recent estimate of R&D spending is $2.7 billion (2017 US dollars). However, this analysis lacks transparency and independent replication.

Effect of Allantoin on experimentally induced gastric ulcers: Pathways of gastroprotection.

Gastric ulcer affects people worldwide, and its inefficacy and recurrence have fueled the search for new therapeutic strategies. Despite the well-known use of allantoin in medicines and cosmetic products, its effect has not yet been studied with regard to gastric ulcer. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the pharmaco-mechanistic efficacy of allantoin against commonly harmful agents that cause injuries to the stomach. Ethanol, indomethacin, and stress-induced gastric ulcer models were adopted...

Killing U.S. Slowly: Curing the Epidemic Rise of Cancer Drug Prices.

In August 2015, more than 110 U.S. oncologists published an article detailing the deleterious effects of rising cancer drugs prices and calling for numerous reforms to our prescription drug system. These prices are the result of decades of political maneuvering; they reflect the way our country has chosen to pay for healthcare, to foster and reward innovation, and to promote a national free market system. While these choices have resulted in immense profits for pharmaceutical companies—and subsidized the ...

Availability and variation of publicly reported prescription drug prices.

To examine how often retail prices for prescription drugs are available on state public reporting websites, the variability of these reported prices, and zip code characteristics associated with greater price variation.

Determinants of Market Exclusivity for Prescription Drugs in the United States.

The high prices of brand-name prescription drugs are a growing source of controversy in the United States. Manufacturers of brand-name drugs can command high prices because they are protected from generic competition by two types of government-granted monopoly rights. The first are patents on the drugs that generally define the basic period of brand-name-only sales. The second is awarded at the time of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and usually defines the minimum time until a generic can be...

Trajectories of Injectable Cancer Drug Costs After Launch in the United States.

Purpose Cancer drug prices at launch have increased in recent years. It is unclear how individual drug prices change over time after launch and what market determinants influence these changes. We measured the price trajectories of a cohort of cancer drugs after their launch into the US market and assessed the influence of market structure on price changes. Methods We studied the changes in mean monthly costs for a cohort of 24 patented, injectable anticancer drugs that were approved by the US Food and Drug...

Allantoin contributes to the stress response in cadmium-treated Arabidopsis roots.

Ureides are nitrogen-rich compounds, derived from purine catabolism. A dual role for ureides, and for allantoin in particular, in both nitrogen recycling and the abiotic stress response has been recently identified. Previous work on the effect of allantoin on cadmium (Cd)-exposed Arabidopsis revealed that high concentration of allantoin in allantoinase-negative mutant (aln-3) leaves alleviates Cd toxicity via inducing antioxidant mechanisms in these plants. In the present study, we evaluate whether allantoi...

Allantoin Crystal Formation in Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Females.

Bagrada hilaris is a polyphagous herbivore reported as an invasive pest in the United States. During the course of dissecting Burmeister hilaris unique crystals were observed in both the midgut and oviducts. Crystals were identified using X-ray diffraction techniques. Both acicular (i.e., needle-like, slender, and/or tapered) and cubic (i.e., cube shaped) crystals were observed in six of 75 individuals examined (8.0%). The crystals were mainly observed in females (6.7%), followed by males (1.3%) with no cry...

Pricing of monoclonal antibody therapies: higher if used for cancer?

The rising prices of specialty drugs have prompted a debate about how medications are priced. With the average price of cancer drugs doubling in the last decade, the unsustainability of drug prices is especially concerning in oncology and hematology. The objective of this study was to compare the prices of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) approved in the last 20 years by the FDA across disease states.

Longitudinal Associations of Local Cigarette Prices and Smoking Bans with Smoking Behavior in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Few studies have examined associations of geographically proximal cigarette prices with within-person changes in smoking outcomes, or assessed interactions between cigarette prices and smoking bans.

Tiered co-payments, pricing, and demand in reference price markets for pharmaceuticals.

Health insurance companies curb price-insensitive behavior and the moral hazard of insureds by means of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing in drug markets. This paper evaluates the effect of price limits - below which drugs are exempt from co-payments - on prices and on demand. First, using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy, we find that the new policy decreases prices by 5 percent for generics and increases prices by 4 percent for brand-name drugs in the German refe...

An island apart? Risks and prices in the Australian cryptomarket drug trade.

Australia has a reputation as an anomaly with regard to cryptomarket drug trading, with seemingly disproportionately high levels of activity given its relatively small size, high prices and anecdotal accounts of it being a destination where many foreign-based vendors will not sell. This paper aims to investigate these claims from a risk and prices perspective.

Marijuana buyers in the United States, 2010-2014.

Obtaining or purchasing marijuana in the U.S. can be done only in certain states via a lawful market, for medical or non-medical (recreational) purposes, or via an unlawful market ("black market") by home cultivation and unlicensed vendors and individuals. Given the evolving U.S. state marijuana legislation landscape, the objective of this study is to describe individuals who report buying marijuana in the past year by selected characteristics and U.S. geographical location.

Status and determinants of small farming households' food security and role of market access in enhancing food security in rural Pakistan.

In most of the developing countries, lack of resources and little market accessibility are among the major factors that affect small farming household food security. This study aims to investigate the status of small farming households' food security, and its determinants including the role of market accessibility factors in enhancing food security at household level. In addition, this study also determines the households' perception about different kinds of livelihoods risks. This study is based on a house...

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