PubMed Journals Articles About "Global Allantoin Market 20172021 Report Updated 23082017 Prices" RSS

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Showing "Global Allantoin Market 20172021 Report Updated 23082017 Prices" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 17,000+

Impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the wheat market: A global dynamic analysis.

Although the widespread influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurrences on crop yields of the main agricultural commodities is well known, the global socio-economic consequences of ENSO still remain uncertain. Given the global importance of wheat for global consumption by providing 20% of global calories and nourishment, the monitoring and prediction of ENSO-induced variations in the worldwide wheat market are essential for allowing national governments to manage the associated risks and t...

The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County.

Background: Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods: Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy...

Confidence and self-attribution bias in an artificial stock market.

Using an agent-based model we examine the dynamics of stock price fluctuations and their rates of return in an artificial financial market composed of fundamentalist and chartist agents with and without confidence. We find that chartist agents who are confident generate higher price and rate of return volatilities than those who are not. We also find that kurtosis and skewness are lower in our simulation study of agents who are not confident. We show that the stock price and confidence index-both generated ...

The Collapse of the Price of Oil and the Importance of Fair Market Competition and Optimizing Public and Private Resources: Assessing Angola's Contraceptive Market Landscape.

A Cost Analysis of the Jan Aushadhi Scheme in India.

Medicines constitute a substantial proportion of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses in Indian households. In order to address this issue, the Government of India launched the Jan Aushadhi (Medicine for the Masses) Scheme (JAS) to provide cheap generic medicines to the patients ( These medicines are provided through the Jan Aushadhi stores established across the country. The objective of this study was to do a quick assessment for policy-makers regarding the objec...

Research and Development Spending to Bring a Single Cancer Drug to Market and Revenues After Approval.

A common justification for high cancer drug prices is the sizable research and development (R&D) outlay necessary to bring a drug to the US market. A recent estimate of R&D spending is $2.7 billion (2017 US dollars). However, this analysis lacks transparency and independent replication.

Hospital and Health Insurance Markets Concentration and Inpatient Hospital Transaction Prices in the U.S. Health Care Market.

To examine the effects of hospital and insurer markets concentration on transaction prices for inpatient hospital services.

Availability and variation of publicly reported prescription drug prices.

To examine how often retail prices for prescription drugs are available on state public reporting websites, the variability of these reported prices, and zip code characteristics associated with greater price variation.

Determinants of Market Exclusivity for Prescription Drugs in the United States.

The high prices of brand-name prescription drugs are a growing source of controversy in the United States. Manufacturers of brand-name drugs can command high prices because they are protected from generic competition by two types of government-granted monopoly rights. The first are patents on the drugs that generally define the basic period of brand-name-only sales. The second is awarded at the time of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and usually defines the minimum time until a generic can be...

Affordability of medicines in the European Union.

Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices.

An evolutionarily stable strategy and the critical point of hog futures trading entities based on replicator dynamic theory: 2006-2015 data for China's 22 provinces.

Although frequent fluctuations in domestic hog prices seriously affect the stability and robustness of the hog supply chain, hog futures (an effective hedging instrument) have not been listed in China. To better understand hog futures market hedging, it is important to study the steady state of intersubjective bidding. This paper uses evolutionary game theory to construct a game model between hedgers and speculators in the hog futures market, and replicator dynamic equations are then used to obtain the stea...

Trajectories of Injectable Cancer Drug Costs After Launch in the United States.

Purpose Cancer drug prices at launch have increased in recent years. It is unclear how individual drug prices change over time after launch and what market determinants influence these changes. We measured the price trajectories of a cohort of cancer drugs after their launch into the US market and assessed the influence of market structure on price changes. Methods We studied the changes in mean monthly costs for a cohort of 24 patented, injectable anticancer drugs that were approved by the US Food and Drug...

Allantoin contributes to the stress response in cadmium-treated Arabidopsis roots.

Ureides are nitrogen-rich compounds, derived from purine catabolism. A dual role for ureides, and for allantoin in particular, in both nitrogen recycling and the abiotic stress response has been recently identified. Previous work on the effect of allantoin on cadmium (Cd)-exposed Arabidopsis revealed that high concentration of allantoin in allantoinase-negative mutant (aln-3) leaves alleviates Cd toxicity via inducing antioxidant mechanisms in these plants. In the present study, we evaluate whether allantoi...

Allantoin Crystal Formation in Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Females.

Bagrada hilaris is a polyphagous herbivore reported as an invasive pest in the United States. During the course of dissecting Burmeister hilaris unique crystals were observed in both the midgut and oviducts. Crystals were identified using X-ray diffraction techniques. Both acicular (i.e., needle-like, slender, and/or tapered) and cubic (i.e., cube shaped) crystals were observed in six of 75 individuals examined (8.0%). The crystals were mainly observed in females (6.7%), followed by males (1.3%) with no cry...

Longitudinal Associations of Local Cigarette Prices and Smoking Bans with Smoking Behavior in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Few studies have examined associations of geographically proximal cigarette prices with within-person changes in smoking outcomes, or assessed interactions between cigarette prices and smoking bans.

Tiered co-payments, pricing, and demand in reference price markets for pharmaceuticals.

Health insurance companies curb price-insensitive behavior and the moral hazard of insureds by means of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing in drug markets. This paper evaluates the effect of price limits - below which drugs are exempt from co-payments - on prices and on demand. First, using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy, we find that the new policy decreases prices by 5 percent for generics and increases prices by 4 percent for brand-name drugs in the German refe...

Bib Pharma Monopoly: Why Consumers Keep Landing on "Park Place" and How the Game is Rigged.

Now, more than ever before, pharmacologists are contributing medical advances to confront ravaging disease. They are developing drugs to mitigate the effects of Alzheimer’s, HIV, multiple sclerosis, and various forms of cancer. To capitalize on the opportunity, brand-name pharmaceutical firms are patenting these drugs, consequently guarding formulas and, with it, profits. Patents grant brand-name firms market exclusivity, which essentially allows them to set their own prices. Even though brand-name firms ...

Early Impacts of Marijuana Legalization: An Evaluation of Prices in Colorado and Washington.

Following the legalization and regulation of marijuana for recreational purposes in states with medical markets, policymakers and researchers seek empirical evidence on how, and how fast, supply and demand changed over time. Prices are an indication of how suppliers and consumers respond to policy changes, so this study uses a difference-in-difference approach to exploit the timing of policy implementation and identify the impacts on marijuana prices 4-5 months after markets opened. This study uses unique l...

Who's Biased? A Meta-Analysis of Buyer-Seller Differences in the Pricing of Lotteries.

A large body of empirical research has examined the impact of trading perspective on pricing of consumer products, with the typical finding being that selling prices exceed buying prices (i.e., the endowment effect). Using a meta-analytic approach, we examine to what extent the endowment effect also emerges in the pricing of monetary lotteries. As monetary lotteries have a clearly defined normative value, we also assess whether one trading perspective is more biased than the other. We consider several indic...

Updated Global Estimates of Respiratory Mortality in Adults ≥30Years of Age Attributable to Long-Term Ozone Exposure.

Relative risk estimates for long-term ozone (O3) exposure and respiratory mortality from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (ACS CPS-II) cohort have been used to estimate global O3-attributable mortality in adults. Updated relative risk estimates are now available for the same cohort based on an expanded study population with longer follow-up.

Effects of house prices on health: New evidence from Australia.

Recent house price variation has strongly affected households' housing wealth and debt, yet the non-economic consequences of these changes in housing wealth are still poorly understood. Using a sample of 19,000 individuals from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (HILDA) for 2001-2015, we examine the relationship between house price fluctuations and individual health by exploiting large exogenous changes in house prices in Australia. We find that an increase in local house prices i...

Evaluation of starter dietary digestible lysine level on broilers raised under a sex-separated or straight-run housing regime, part 2: Economics of sex separation and digestible lysine level for maximum returns.

The objective of this experiment was to determine the maximum net returns digestible lysine (dLys) levels (MNRL) when maintaining the ideal amino acid ratio for starter diets of broilers raised sex separate or comingled (straight-run). A total of 3,240 Ross 708 chicks was separated by sex and placed in 90 pens by 2 rearing types: sex separate (36 males or 36 females) or straight-run (18 males + 18 females). Each rearing type was fed 6 starter diets (25 d) formulated to have dLys levels between 1.05 and 1.80...

History, Structure and Agency in Global Health Governance Comment on "Global Health Governance Challenges 2016 - Are We Ready?"

Ilona Kickbusch's thought provoking editorial is criticized in this commentary, partly because she fails to refer to previous critical work on the global conditions and policies that sustain inequality, poverty, poor health and damage to the biosphere and, as a result, she misreads global power and elides consideration of the fundamental historical structures of political and material power that shape agency in global health governance. We also doubt that global health can be improved through structures and...

Integrated techno-economic and environmental analysis of butadiene production from biomass.

In this study, lignocellulose biorefineries annexed to a typical sugar mill were investigated to produce either ethanol (EtOH) or 1,3-butadiene (BD), utilizing bagasse and trash as feedstock. Aspen simulation of the scenarios were developed and evaluated in terms of economic and environmental performance. The minimum selling prices (MSPs) for bio-based BD and EtOH production were 2.9-3.3 and 1.26-1.38-fold higher than market prices, respectively. Based on the sensitivity analysis results, capital investment...

Association of Hospital Market Concentration With Costs of Complex Hepatopancreaticobiliary Surgery.

Trade-offs involved with market competition, overall costs to payers and consumers, and quality of care have not been well defined. Less competition within any given market may enable provider-driven increases in charges.

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