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Showing "Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Market Data Survey Report" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 41,000+

Debate on the compositions of influenza B in northern hemisphere seasonal influenza vaccines.

Annual influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza. Influenza vaccines have traditionally included the hemagglutinins (HA) and neuraminidases (NA) from the two A viruses (H1N1 and H3N2) and either B Yamagata or B Victoria. Mismatches between circulating isolates of influenza B and the vaccines are very common. Taking 2017/2018 winter in northern hemisphere as an example, this study was designed to find out the reasons for mismatch between the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and mo...

Antigenic Variation of Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses, Guangdong Province, China, 2014-2018.

Market surveillance showed continuing circulation of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province in 2017, despite compulsory vaccination for avian influenza A(H5Nx) and A(H7N9). We analyzed H5N6 viruses from 2014-2018 from Guangdong Province, revealing antigenic drift and decreased antibody response against the vaccine strain in vaccinated chickens.

Influenza in temperate and tropical Asia: a review of epidemiology and vaccinology.

The impact of seasonal influenza has been under-appreciated in Asia and surveillance data lags in most other regions. The variety of influenza circulation patterns in Asia - largely due to the range of climates - has also only recently been recognized and its effect on the burden of disease is not fully understood. Recent reports that clinical protection wanes in the weeks after influenza vaccination emphasize the importance of optimally timing vaccination to local epidemiology. It also raises questions as ...

Effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety of influenza vaccines with MF59 adjuvant in healthy people of different age groups: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Influenza is a severe disease burden among all age groups. This study aimed to review the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines with MF59 adjuvant and non-adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccines among all age groups against specific influenza vaccine strains.

Meeting report and review: Immunological assays and correlates of protection for next-generation influenza vaccines.

This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the "Immunological Assays and Correlates of Protection for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines" meeting which took place in Siena, Italy, from March 31, 2019, to April 2, 2019.

Avian Influenza Virus Isolation, Propagation, and Titration in Embryonated Chicken Eggs.

Avian influenza virus and some mammalian influenza A viruses can be isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). Most sample types can be accommodated in ECE culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture, and if a mammalian lineage influenza A is expected to be in an avian sample, for example swine influenza in turkey specimens, mammalian cell may be preferable. Culture in ECEs is highly sensitive but is not specific for influenza A, which ...

Vaccine effectiveness of cell-culture relative to egg-based inactivated influenza vaccine during the 2017-18 influenza season.

There is concern that influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) may be attenuated by passage in eggs during manufacture. We compared quadrivalent cell-culture vaccine with egg-based vaccines, most of which were trivalent, against influenza A and B during 2017-2018 when A(H3N2) and B/Yamagata (present only in quadrivalent vaccines) predominated. We retrospectively examined risk of PCR-confirmed influenza A and B in members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California aged 4-64 years. We estimated the relative VE (rVE...

Attitudes and perception of influenza vaccines among older people in Singapore: A qualitative study.

Despite recommendations for influenza vaccination of people aged 65 and above, uptake rate of influenza vaccines remains low. This study aims to understand barriers and motivators behind older adult's decision on influenza vaccination.

Food Insecurity and Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccines Uptake Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in the United States.

Influenza and pneumonia vaccines can reduce morbidities and mortality associated with infectious diseases among older adults. Food security, good nutrition, and high-quality diets are critical for the wellbeing of older adults. However, little is known about the relationship between food insecurity and use of preventive health services, such as influenza and pneumonia vaccinations, among older adults. In this study, we analyzed data on 40,555 adults aged ≥ 65 years from the 2014-2018 National Health ...

Characteristics of H7N9 avian influenza pneumonia: a retrospective analysis of 17 cases.

H7N9 avian influenza is an infection of public health concern, in part because of its high mortality rate and pandemic potential.

Leveraging the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System for global respiratory syncytial virus surveillance-opportunities and challenges.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory infection is a common cause for hospitalization and hospital deaths in young children globally. There is urgent need to generate evidence to inform immunization policies when RSV vaccines become available. The WHO piloted a RSV surveillance strategy that leverages the existing capacities of the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) to better understand RSV seasonality, high-risk groups, validate case definitions, and de...

Inferring host roles in bayesian phylodynamics of global avian influenza A virus H9N2.

Role of avian hosts in shaping persistence, evolution, and dispersal of global low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H9N2 remains uncertain. Under Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo framework, we used the discrete trait analysis (DTA) to reconstruct host and location switches in the evolutionary history of global H9N2 given hemagglutinin gene sequences from 18 countries/regions between 1976 and 2018. We employed generalized linear models (GLMs) to inform virus migration rates by empirical predictors. ...

New molecular evolutionary characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza virus in Guangdong Province, China.

To understand the evolution of H9N2 avian influenza virus genotype and its molecular evolution rate, we systematically analyzed 72 H9N2 avian influenza virus sequences isolated from Guangdong province from 2014 to 2018. We found three genotypes (G57, G68, and G118) of the H9N2 avian influenza virus, of which G118 is a newly discovered genotype and G57 is the dominant genotype. The internal gene cassette of the G57 genotype H9N2 avian influenza virus is a stable combination that can easily transport internal...

Comparison of vaccine effectiveness against influenza hospitalization of cell-based and egg-based influenza vaccines, 2017-2018.

Egg-based influenza vaccines could be less effective than cell-based vaccine due to adaptive mutations acquired for growth. We conducted a test-negative case-control study at Kaiser Permanente Southern California to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) against hospitalization for laboratory-confirmed influenza during 2017-2018. Among the 1186 cases and 6946 controls, 74% and 59%, respectively, were ages ≥ 65 years. For any influenza, the adjusted relative VE of cell-based vaccine versus egg-based vacci...

The first report of human infection with avian influenza A(H9N2) virus in Oman: the need for a One Health approach.

After detection of the first human case of avian influenza A subtype H9N2 in 1998, more than 40 cases were diagnosed worldwide. The spread of the virus, on the other hand, is more remarkable and significant in global poultry populations causing notable economic losses despite its low pathogenicity. Many surveillance studies and activities conducted in several countries proved the predominance of this virus subtype. We present a case report of A(H9N2) virus infection in a 14-month-old female from Oman. It is...

Estimation of the number of exposed people during highly pathogenic avian influenza virus outbreaks in EU/EEA countries, October 2016-September 2018.

We estimated that more than 11,000 people were exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in EU/EEA countries over the outbreak period October 2016-September 2018 by cross-linking data submitted by Member States to European Food Safety Authority and EMPRES-i. A stronger framework for collecting human exposure data is required.

Age is not just a number-synopsis of the 5th New Zealand Influenza Symposium 2019.

Presented is a synopsis of the 5th New Zealand Influenza Symposium, which focused on both uptake of the influenza vaccine and the long-term consequences of influenza. Particularly highlighted were the advantages of influenza vaccination for older adults in reducing declines in cognitive and physical health. Research findings from influenza surveillance, future of influenza vaccines and the influenza promotional campaign presented at the symposium are summarised.

Effectiveness of Trivalent and Quadrivalent Inactivated Vaccines against Influenza B in the United States, 2011-2012 to 2016-2017.

Since 2013, quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing two B viruses gradually replaced trivalent vaccines in the United States. We compared vaccine effectiveness of quadrivalent to trivalent inactivated vaccines (IIV4 to IIV3) against illness due to influenza B during the transition when IIV4 use increased rapidly.

High performance of rapid influenza diagnostic test and variable effectiveness of influenza vaccines in Mexico.

To evaluate the performance of a rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) and influenza vaccines' effectiveness (VE) during an outbreak setting.

Avian Influenza Virus Detection Rates in Poultry and Environment at Live Poultry Markets, Guangdong, China.

We report the use of environmental samples to assess avian influenza virus activity in chickens at live poultry markets in China. Results of environmental and chicken samples correlate moderately well. However, collection of multiple environmental samples from holding, processing, and selling areas is recommended to detect viruses expected to have low prevalence.

Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of an oral influenza vaccine: a placebo-controlled and active-controlled phase 2 human challenge study.

Influenza is an important public health problem and existing vaccines are not completely protective. New vaccines that protect by alternative mechanisms are needed to improve efficacy of influenza vaccines. In 2015, we did a phase 1 trial of an oral influenza vaccine, VXA-A1.1. A favourable safety profile and robust immunogenicity results in that trial supported progression of the vaccine to the current phase 2 trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine in a human influenza challen...

Novel H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Reassortants with European H5N8 Isolated in Migratory Birds, China.

Five novel H5N6 influenza viruses, including four highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and one low pathogenic avian influenza virus, were isolated from migratory birds in Ningxia, China in November 2017. To understand the genetic origination of the novel H5N6 virus, and the infectivity and pathogenicity of the four highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in mammals, phylogeographic analyses and infection studies in mice were performed. The phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses showed that the H5N...

Interim Estimates of 2019-20 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness - United States, February 2020.

During the 2019-20 influenza season, influenza-like illness (ILI)* activity first exceeded the national baseline during the week ending November 9, 2019, signaling the earliest start to the influenza season since the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. Activity remains elevated as of mid-February 2020. In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months (1). During each influenza season, CDC estimates seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in pr...

Reassortment and adaptive mutations of an emerging avian influenza virus H7N4 subtype in China.

Human infections with avian influenza viruses including H5, H7 and H9 hemagglutinin subtypes occur at a low rate. Among human infections with H7 viruses, regional outbreaks with H7N2, H7N3, H7N7 and H7N9 have been documented. Early in 2018, a human infection with a novel H7N4 avian influenza virus was reported in Jiangsu, China. This study is aimed at understanding the probable origin and molecular features of this emerging H7N4 virus. Genomic segments encoding hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of H...

Wild Bird-Origin H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus is Transmissible in Guinea Pigs: H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus is Transmissible.

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