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Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is among the most common health care-associated infections in the United States and is increasingly affecting the elderly. Although carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections are still relatively uncommon, there are reported increases in the rate of infection for certain strains, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae. This study examines the burden of mortality and morbidity for CDI and CRE infections in the United States and estimates the societal willingness ...
Dipilidium caninum infection is a relatively uncommon parasitic infection in children. We present 10 cases treated in our tertiary care hospital during the last two years. This parasitosis has a relatively benign course, but should be considered in children with gastrointestinal symptoms and eosinophilia. Treatment can be challenging, especially in infancy. Preventative measures are necessary to avoid the spread of the disease.
When intrauterine infection develops prior to viability, prognosis for the fetus is guarded. Previable partuition can be pursued when infection is present, but physician must challenge themselves to do only what is indicated and avoid causing unnecessary effects by their methods of terminating pregnancy.
Health care-associated infections studies project: An American Journal of Infection Control and National Healthcare Safety Network data quality collaboration case study: Bloodstream infection-patient injection into vascular access 2018.
This case study is part of a series centered on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) health care-associated infection surveillance definitions. These cases reflect some of the complex patient scenarios infection preventionists have encountered in their daily surveillance of health care-associated infections using NHSN definitions and protocols. Teaching points for this case study are.
The pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) causes mostly mild infections characterised by nocturnal anal pruritus, mainly in children. Still, the infection is stigmatising and sleep disturbances may lead to lack of concentration. For Germany, no epidemiological data are available. Laboratory data of all patients for whom detection of E. vermicularis by cellulose tape test had been requested between 2007 and November 2017 were analysed retrospectively. E. vermicularis was detected in 971/5578 (17.4%) samples coll...
The (re)emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Africa requires better knowledge on the epidemiology of CHIKV infection in the continent for efficient public health strategies. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of CHIKV infection in Africa, a neglected tropical disease (NTD).
Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) in health care settings contributes significantly to mortality, and improved processes are associated with reduced burden of infection. In Australia, health care-associated SAB (HA-SAB) rates are reported as a health care performance indicator, but standardized methods for analyzing longitudinal data are not applied. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of statistical process control chart methodology for reporting HA-SAB and flagging higher than expect...
To know the perception of expert professionals in infection control and prevention on the teaching of skills for the prevention and control of infections related to health care in undergraduate courses in Health Sciences.
Urinary tract infection (UTI)- related hospitalizations are a poor patient outcome in the rapidly growing home health care (HHC) arena that serves a predominantly elderly population. We examined the association between activities of daily living (ADL) and risk of UTI-related hospitalization among this population.
Zika virus is an emerging infection that has posed vexing challenges to the US public health system. Improved characterization of patients with possible and confirmed infection is needed to better understand risks for infection in US travelers and to inform evolving evaluation guidelines.
To develop a mobile health app for older women with HIV infection that will be used in a larger study.
Pharmacoepidemiologic studies using electronic health record data could serve an important role in assessing safety and effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the validity of these data needs to be determined. We evaluated the accuracy of pharmacy fill records in the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW) as compared to facility-level electronic health record.
Valid data are a crucial aspect of infection prevention and control programs. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of routine reporting in the Iranian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System in intensive care units.
Sexual and physical abuse in childhood creates a great health burden including on mental and reproductive health. A possible link between child abuse and HIV infection has increasingly attracted attention. This paper investigated whether a history of child physical and sexual abuse is associated with HIV infection among adult women.
Current antiretroviral treatment (ART) may control HIV-1 replication but it cannot cure the infection due to the formation of a reservoir of latently infected cells. CD4+ T cell activation during HIV-1 infection eliminates the antiviral function of the restriction factor SAMHD1, allowing proviral integration and the reservoir establishment. The role of tyrosine kinases during T-cell activation is essential for these processes. Therefore, the inhibition of tyrosine kinases could control HIV-1 infection and r...
Like other low-income countries, limited data are available on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in Pakistan. We conducted a systematic review of studies on PPE use for respiratory infections in healthcare settings in Pakistan. MEDLINE, Embase and Goggle Scholar were searched for clinical, epidemiological and laboratory-based studies in English, and 13 studies were included; all were observational/cross-sectional studies. The studies examined PPE use in hospital (n=7), dental (n=4) or laborator...
Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the phase of HIV infection immediately after acquisition, during which many patients develop symptoms and often seek healthcare. However, clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa are not currently taught about AHI.
Pathogenic organisms exert a negative impact on host health, revealed by the clinical signs of infectious diseases. Immunity limits the severity of infectious diseases through resistance mechanisms that sense and target pathogens for containment, killing, or expulsion. These resistance mechanisms are viewed as the prevailing function of immunity. Under pathophysiologic conditions, however, immunity arises in response to infections that carry health and fitness costs to the host. Therefore, additional defens...
Our increased understanding of the human microbiome has brought insight into the role it plays in health and disease, including HIV infection. Studies have shown that the gut microbiome is less diverse in individuals with HIV infection than in noninfected control subjects. Efforts to modify the microbiome to bolster immune reconstitution in people with HIV infection have so far been unsuccessful. The vaginal microbiome affects risk of HIV acquisition, with Lactobacillus dominance being protective compared w...
Health state utility values are a unique representation of an individual's valuation for being in a particular health state. Depending on the method of evaluation, group of patients, and setting, these values vary significantly. To date, majority of the available estimates for the health-related state utility values for urinary tract infection (UTI) has been in men with comorbid conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and bladder cancer or with spinal cord abnormalities. The utility values in these ...
Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) are the subject of increasing interest regarding their benefits for health. However, a serious concern is the potential appearance of clinically significant drug⁻herb interactions in patients. This work provides an overview of drug⁻herb interactions and an evaluation of their clinical significance. We discuss how personalized health services and mobile health applications can utilize tools that provide essential information to patients to avoid drug⁻HMP interactions. T...
Chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV)infection is the most common blood-borne infection affecting at least 3.5 million people in the USA. HCV is a public health threat as it can lead to cirrhosis, liver decompensation with variceal bleeding, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocellular carcinoma or death. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 399,000 individuals died from cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma caused by HCV infection in 2015. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reser...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a universal health problem. HCV infection may proceed to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The latest is the third leading global cause of cancer-related mortality. Cytokines including IL-27 and TNF-α play a major role as a link between innate and adaptive immunity which in turn deduct the outcome of HCV infection.
The World Health Organization has set the goal of reducing the hepatitis-related mortality rate by 65% between 2015 and 2030. Diagnosis and awareness of infection is the first essential step towards achieving this goal. Our study examined the current awareness rate of chronic viral hepatitis in the U.S and the potentially associated factors. In the National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 2013-2016, there were 11,488 persons who participated in serology testing for chronic viral hepatitis. We define...
To measure disparities in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and immunity among a high-risk patient population at a community health center in New York City.