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Undetected overfitting can occur when there are significant redundancies between training and validation data. We describe AVE, a new measure of training-validation redundancy for ligand-based classification problems that accounts for the similarity amongst inactive molecules as well as active. We investigated seven widely-used benchmarks for virtual screening and classification, and show that the amount of AVE bias strongly correlates with the performance of ligand-based predictive methods irrespective of ...
To determine national benchmarks and assess variability across centers, the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database (CHSD) was analyzed to document proportions of patients receiving intraoperative blood transfusion during open heart surgery.
Transition planning for children with chronic disease includes the development of independence in many self-management tasks. Conditions that depend on diet have distinct skill sets not well assessed by the traditional transition-readiness tools. There has been literature that describes age-appropriate skill acquisition for diabetes and food allergy patients. However, there are no age-appropriate benchmarks established for celiac disease (CD).
While academic open access, open data and open science initiatives have proliferated in recent years, facilitating new research resources for health promotion, open initiatives are not one-size-fits-all. Health research particularly illustrates how open initiatives may serve various interests and ends. Open initiatives not only foster new pathways of research access; they also discipline research in new ways, especially when associated with new regimes of research use and peer review, while participating in...
Food and nutrition are basic requirements for the promotion and protection of health. Nutrition monitoring and dietary recommendations are included in the mission of the Unified Health System (SUS, in its Portuguese acronym), as established by the Organic Health Law no. 8,080 of 1990. This article presents and discusses the food and nutrition agenda of the SUS and its interface with Food and Nutrition Security, its benchmarks, progress and challenges. This essay was guided by biographical and documentary re...
Collaboration between general practitioners and community pharmacists is essential to ensure safe and effective patient care. However, collaboration in primary care is not standardized and varies greatly. This review aims to highlight projects about professional collaboration in ambulatory care in Germany and identifies promising approaches and successful benchmarks that should be considered for future projects.
The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) for adults, and equivalent measures for children and adolescents and older people, are widely used in clinical practice and research contexts to measure mental health and functional outcomes. Additional HoNOS measures have been developed for special populations and applications. Stakeholders require synthesised information about the measurement properties of these measures to assess whether they are fit for use with intended service settings and populations an...
Current benchmark statistics on staffing, workload, and productivity in hospital pharmacy departments of state psychiatric hospitals are described and assessed by hospital size.
Medicare Advantage (MA), the program that allows people to receive their Medicare benefits through private health plans, uses a benchmark-and-bidding system to induce plans to provide benefits at lower costs. However, prior research suggests medical costs, profits, and other plan costs are not as low under this system as they might otherwise be.
Health disparities and health inequities can lead to poor health outcomes. However, health disparities continue to persist in communities across the United States, presenting a crucial public health challenge. Persisting budget cuts and workforce challenges tend to hinder local health departments' (LHDs') ability to assess and address health disparities.
Although there is much discussion about population health in academic medical centers, managed care organizations, and a variety of disciplines, it is not always clear what this term means. Population health describes the health outcomes of a group of individuals including health disparities, social determinants of health, and policies and interventions that link health outcomes with and patterns of health determinants. We describe some of the successes and challenges to addressing reproductive health issue...
Organizational health literacy is the degree to which an organization considers and promotes the health literacy of patients. Addressing health literacy at an organizational level has the potential to have a greater impact on more health consumers in a health system than individual-level approaches.
To better understand user conversations revolving around antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on Twitter, we used an online data collection and analysis toolkit with full firehose access to collect corpuses of tweets with "antibiotic" and "antimicrobial resistance" keyword tracks. The date range included tweets from November 28, 2015, to November 25, 2016, for both datasets. This yearlong date range provides insight into how users have discussed antibiotics and AMR and identifies any spikes in act...
The need to characterize and assess health apps has inspired a significant amount of research in the past years, in search for methods able to provide potential app users with relevant, meaningful knowledge. This article presents an overview of the recent literature in this field and categorizes - by discussing some specific examples - the various methodologies introduced so far for the identification, characterization, and assessment of health apps. Specifically, this article outlines the most significant ...
Experts have recommended the adoption of health literacy universal precautions, whereby health care providers make all health information easier to understand, confirm everyone's comprehension, and reduce the difficulty of health-related tasks. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services selected three health literate practices to track progress in the adoption of health literacy universal precautions.
Scoring functions are important component of protein-protein docking methods. They need to be evaluated on high-quality benchmarks to reveal their strengths and weaknesses. Evaluation results obtained on such benchmarks can provide valuable guidance for developing more advanced scoring functions. Methodology & results: In our comparative assessment of scoring functions for protein-protein interactions benchmark, the performance of a scoring function was characterized by 'docking power' and 'scoring power'. ...
Health investments, defined as formal expenditures to either produce or care for health, in the US are extremely inefficient and have yet to unlock the country's full potential for equitable health and well-being. A major reason for such poor performance is that the US health investment portfolio is out of balance, with too much spent on certain aspects of health care and not enough spent to ensure social, economic, and environmental conditions that are vital to maintaining health and well-being. This comme...
To examine the association between hospital-local health department (LHD) collaboration around community health needs assessments (CHNAs) and hospital investment in community health.
Due to growing health disparities, federal and philanthropic agencies have empha-sized reducing health disparities in their preventive health efforts. This study determined the status of disparities in health behaviors in the last 13 years in the United States.
Cambodia is a country where the resources for treating mental health disorders are far from sufficient. One strategy to narrow the treatment gap is to integrate mental health into primary health care (PHC). Understanding the knowledge and attitudes towards mental health integration that health-care workers have is important for assessing the challenges and opportunities when planning a potential integration project.
Many hospitals in the United States are exploring greater investment in community health activities that address upstream causes of poor health.
Nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds were designed empirically and subsequently synthesized, and their rheology, friction and wear performance as multifunctional base oils (MFBOs) was evaluated. Two of the compounds displayed good viscosity/rheology profile without the addition of polymeric viscosity modifiers, displaying high viscosity indexes (VI) above 200. Furthermore, all three MFBOs had lower coefficients of friction compared to well established and accepted benchmarks. The most significant advan...
Efforts to reduce expensive health service utilization, contain costs, improve health outcomes, and address the social determinants of health require research that demonstrates the economic value of health services in population health across a variety of settings. Social workers are an integral part of the US health care system, yet the specific contributions of social work to health and cost-containment outcomes are unknown. The social work profession's person-in-environment framework and unique skillset,...