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13:55 EST 25th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Health Officials Rule Human Human Transmission Pneumonia Like" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 37,000+

Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study.

Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans.

The epidemic of 2019-novel-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and insights for emerging infectious diseases in the future.

At the end of December 2019, a novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, caused an outbreak of pneumonia spreading from Wuhan, Hubei province, to the whole country of China, which has posed great threats to public health and attracted enormous attention around the world. To date, there are no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available for these human coronavirus infections. Intensive research on the novel emerging human infectious coronaviruses is urgently needed to elucidate their route of transmission ...

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in avian influenza A (H5N6) human pneumonia.

The pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema can repetitively occur in human H5N6 virus pneumonia. Prompt treatment of this uncommon complication is important for successful rescue of patients with H5N6 virus pneumonia.

2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness.

On 31 December 2019 the Wuhan Health Commission reported a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases that was linked to a wet market in the city of Wuhan, China. The first patients began experiencing symptoms of illness in mid-December 2019. Clinical isolates were found to contain a novel coronavirus with similarity to bat coronaviruses. As of 28 January 2020, there are in excess of 4,500 laboratory-confirmed cases, with > 100 known deaths. As with the SARS-CoV, infections in children appear to be rare. Travel-re...

An international survey of perceptions of the 2014 FIFA World Cup: National levels of corruption as a context for perceptions of institutional corruption.

We conducted a survey about the 2014 FIFA World Cup that measured attitudes about FIFA, players, and officials in 18 languages with 4600 respondents from 29 countries. Sixty percent of respondents perceived FIFA officials as being dishonest, and people from countries with less institutional corruption and stronger rule of law perceived FIFA officials as being more corrupt and less competent running the tournament than people from countries with more corruption and weaker rule of law. In contrast, respondent...

Leveraging non-human primates for exploring the social transmission of microbes.

Host social interactions can provide multiple complex pathways for microbial transmission. Here, we suggest non-human primates as models to study the social transmission of commensal or mutualistic microbes due to their high sociality, wide range of group compositions and dominance structures, and diverse group interactions. Microbial sharing from social interactions can positively impact host health by promoting microbial diversity and influencing immunity. Microbes may also drive their own transmission by...

Avian-to-Human Receptor-Binding Adaptation of Avian H7N9 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin.

Since 2013, H7N9 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have caused more than 1,600 human infections, posing a threat to public health. An emerging concern is whether H7N9 AIVs will cause pandemics among humans. Molecular analysis of hemagglutinin (HA), which is a critical determinant of interspecies transmission, shows that the current H7N9 AIVs are still dual-receptor tropic, indicating limited human-to-human transmission potency. Mutagenesis and structural studies reveal that a G186V substitution is sufficient f...

Unmet health-care needs and human rights-A qualitative analysis of patients' complaints in light of the right to health and health care.

This study focuses on patient complaints from a human rights perspective. Despite the UN Convention on Human Rights being widely recognized, it has not previously been examined in relation to patients' complaints on health care. A human rights perspective and the right to the highest attainable standard of health are a major sustainability challenge in health care today. Previous research points to patients' complaints as a growing concern for health-care organizations, and the handling of this concern can ...

Human-infecting influenza A (H9N2) virus: A forgotten potential pandemic strain?

Continuously emergence of human infection with avian influenza A virus poses persistent threat to human health, as illustrated in H5N1, H7N9 and recent surge of H9N2 infections. Long-term prevalence of H9N2 avian influenza A virus in China and adjacent regions favours the interspecies transmissions from avian to human. Establishment of multiple genotypes of H9N2 variants in this region contributes to the emergence of novel H7N9 and H10N8 viruses which caused human fatalities. Recent increasing human infecti...

NewsCAP: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issues final 'conscience rule'.

Dengue illness impacts daily human mobility patterns in Iquitos, Peru.

Human mobility plays a central role in shaping pathogen transmission by generating spatial and/or individual variability in potential pathogen-transmitting contacts. Recent research has shown that symptomatic infection can influence human mobility and pathogen transmission dynamics. Better understanding the complex relationship between symptom severity, infectiousness, and human mobility requires quantification of movement patterns throughout infectiousness. For dengue virus (DENV), human infectiousness pea...

The New 2019 IRB Common Rule Update: Implications for Plastic Surgery Research.

Clinical research remains at the forefront of academic practice and evidence-based medicine. Unfortunately, history has shown that human subjects are vulnerable to experimentation without regard for their own dignity and informed decision making. Subsequently, it is vital for research institutes to uphold safeguards and ethical conscientiousness towards human subjects. The establishment of federal regulations and the development of institutional review boards (IRBs) have set guidance on these processes. On ...

Early cidofovir administration might be associated with a lower probability of respiratory failure in treating human adenovirus pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study.

To compare outcomes of early and delayed treatment of cidofovir for human adenovirus (HAdV) pneumonia.

Tissue tropism and transmission ecology predict virulence of human RNA viruses.

Novel infectious diseases continue to emerge within human populations. Predictive studies have begun to identify pathogen traits associated with emergence. However, emerging pathogens vary widely in virulence, a key determinant of their ultimate risk to public health. Here, we use structured literature searches to review the virulence of each of the 214 known human-infective RNA virus species. We then use a machine learning framework to determine whether viral virulence can be predicted by ecological traits...

Alveolar microbiota profile in patients with human pulmonary tuberculosis and interstitial pneumonia.

The presence of the human lung microbiota has been demonstrated in patients with different lung diseases, mainly in sputum samples. However, for study of the alveolar microbiota, a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) sample represents the lower respiratory tract (LRT) environment. It is currently unknown whether there is a specific alveolar microbiota profile in human lung diseases, such as pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and interstitial pneumonia (IP).

Soil biota, antimicrobial resistance and planetary health.

The concept of planetary health acknowledges the links between ecosystems, biodiversity and human health and well-being. Soil, the critical component of the interconnected ecosystem, is the most biodiverse habitat on Earth, and soil microbiomes play a major role in human health and well-being through ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, pollutant remediation and synthesis of bioactive compounds such as antimicrobials. Soil is also a natural source of antimicrobial resistance, which is often termed i...

Importation and Human-to-Human Transmission of a Novel Coronavirus in Vietnam.

Decision rule to predict pneumonia in children presented with acute febrile respiratory illness.

It is a frequent challenge for physicians to identify pneumonia in patients with acute febrile respiratory symptoms, particularly in stable pediatric patients without respiratory distress. A decision rule is required to assist judgement on the need of ordering a chest radiograph.

Top 10 research priorities for human milk banking and use of donor human milk: A partnership between parents and clinicians.

This study sought to establish research priorities in human milk banking and use of pasteurised donor human milk. It aimed to (i) collaborate with national stakeholders, including parents of preterm infants, human milk donors and health-care professionals, to identify evidence uncertainties and (ii) agree by consensus on a consolidated prioritised list of research questions.

Comparing vector and human surveillance strategies to detect arbovirus transmission: A simulation study for Zika virus detection in Puerto Rico.

Detecting and monitoring the transmission of arboviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus, and chikungunya virus is critical for prevention and control activities. Previous work has compared the ability of different human-focused surveillance strategies to detect ZIKV transmission in U.S. counties where no known transmission had occurred, but whether virological surveillance in mosquitoes could represent an effective surveillance system is unclear.

Wastewater-based epidemiology for tracking human exposure to mycotoxins.

Mycotoxins are among the compounds of most concern for human health because of their common presence in food and their proven toxicity for human health. Human biomonitoring (HBM) studies, foodstuff analysis and dietary surveys are usually used to assess human exposure, but they are costly and time-consuming. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) can complement the established exposure monitoring tools. The aim of this study was to develop a new WBE application for assessing human exposure to mycotoxins by mea...

Human Factors and Usability for Health Information Technology: Old and New Challenges.

Despite national mandates, incentives, and other programs, the design of health information technology (IT) remains problematic and usability problems continue to be reported. This paper reviews recent literature on human factors and usability of health IT, with a specific focus on research aimed at applying human factors methods and principles to improve the actual design of health IT, its use, and associated patient and clinician outcomes.

Immune trypanolysis test as a promising bioassay to monitor the elimination of gambiense human African trypanosomiasis.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of gambiense-Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) elimination as a public health problem for 2020 and interruption of transmission in humans for 2030. In this context, it is crucial to monitor progress towards these targets using accurate tools to assess the level of transmission in a given area. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of the immune trypanolysis test (TL) as a population-based bioassay to evaluate Trypanosoma brucei gambiens...

Inactivation of human norovirus and its surrogate by the disinfectant consisting of calcium hydrogen carbonate mesoscopic crystals.

Human norovirus is one of the major causes of food-borne gastroenteritis, and it can be easily transmitted from infected person, virus-contaminated foods, and environmental surfaces. Effective disinfection method is needed to stop the transmission of human norovirus. CAC-717 is a new disinfectant consisting of calcium hydrogen carbonate mesoscopic crystals. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CAC-717 against human norovirus. This study used human norovirus derived from fecal specimens and cultured murine n...

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection causes a spectrum of respiratory illness, from asymptomatic to mild to fatal. MERS-CoV is transmitted sporadically from dromedary camels to humans and occasionally through human-to-human contact. Current epidemiologic evidence supports a major role in transmission for direct contact with live camels or humans with symptomatic MERS, but little evidence suggests the possibility of transmission from camel products or asymptomatic MERS cases. Bec...

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