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This article describes and comments on contemporary legal regulations concerning the supply of medicines during pandemics in terms of public procurement.
The distribution of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in prescription medicines for human consumption in Japan was estimated using the public database of the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB). From the latest NDB, 2058 APIs were identified, and the prescription weight exceeded 1 tonne/year for 711 APIs. Of these, 298 APIs were selected for further analysis after removing 413 APIs that were not covered by current environmental risk assessment (ERA...
Few medicines have been approved for children, leading to rates of off-label prescribing reported to be as high as 90%. In 2007, the European Union adopted the Paediatric Regulation, which mandates that pharmaceutical companies conduct paediatric studies for all new medicines, unless granted a waiver. We aimed to evaluate the availability of paediatric trial results from studies required under the Paediatric Regulation for new medicines authorised in the EU.
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are an important source of innovative medicines. Compared with their larger counterparts, they experience challenges as a result of insufficient human and financial resources that can hamper drug development and regulatory compliance. This analysis reviews the profile of major objections raised in applications for medicines for human use submitted by SMEs to the European Medicines Agency between 2011 and 2015 and their impact on the outcome of applications. It showe...
Essential medicines lists (EMLs) are efficient means to ensure access to safe and effective medications. The WHO has led this initiative, generating a biannual EML since 1977. Nearly all countries have implemented national EMLs based on the WHO EML. Although EMLs have given careful consideration to many public health priorities, they have yet to comprehensively address the importance of medicines for treating acute illness and injury.
Self-medication with analgesics in dental pain management is a common practice as most of these medicines are available over-the-counter (OTC). The study aims to examine the relationship between beliefs about medicines and self-medication with analgesics in dental pain management in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted among conveniently sampled patients attending dental clinics, located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to assess association between self-medication with analgesics and patient's belie...
It is widely understood that the 1962 Kefauver-Harris Amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act ushered in the modern regulation of medicines requiring a combination of safety and efficacy. However, fewer appreciate the amendment was applied retroactively to virtually all medicines sold in the USA. For various reasons, many medicines faded into history. Here, we identify and analyze >1600 medicines (including over-the-counter drugs) and their innovators prior to the enactment of Kefauver-Harris. We repo...
The objective of this review is to report on whether, and if so, how, scientific research projects organised and managed within collaborative consortia across academia and industry are contributing to the Three Rs (i.e. reduction, replacement and refinement of the use of animals in research). A number of major technological developments have recently opened up possibilities for more direct, human-based approaches leading to a reassessment of the role and use of experimental animals in pharmacological resear...
In Kenya, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for 27% of all deaths. Adult Kenyans have an 18% chance of dying prematurely from cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or chronic respiratory diseases. A Novartis Access Initiative is making medicines available to treat cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, and breast cancer in 30 countries, including Kenya. Little is known about patients' perceptions of access to medicines for NCDs in Kenya. The study objective was to unders...
Regulatory authorities have a crucial role in communicating about vaccines they license. In terms of content and timing, their communication to the public is usually driven by data on quality, safety and efficacy. However, concerns over safety and vaccine hesitancy have emerged in some communities of various countries, and this demands a new approach to communication, starting with listening to the public debate. Reviewing communication research findings, coming in particular from the cognitive, decision-ma...
Consumers have questions about their medication but the nature of these concerns and how they reflect medication use is unknown.
What are the European trends and developments in ART and IUI in 2014 as compared to previous years?
This study compared the characteristics of new human drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicine Agency (EMA), and Swissmedic (SMC) in the period 2007 to 2016.
Quantitative risk assessment (QRA), a scientific, evidence-based analytical process that combines chemical and biological data to quantify the probability and potential impact of some defined risk, is used by regulatory agencies for decision-making. Thus, in tobacco product regulation, specifically in substantial equivalence (SE) evaluations, QRA can provide a useful, practical, and efficient approach to address questions that might arise regarding human health risk and potential influence on public health....
The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) in Japan and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have a long-standing experience of reviews of new medicines, and they meet their target pre-market review periods. In FY 2016 / 2016, 112 and 83 new medicines were approved in Japan and EU, respectively. Out of these medicines, 41 and 27 medicines containing new active ingredients were approved with total pre-market review periods of 209 days and 428 days in Japan and EU, respectively. Approximately one-th...
Biological medicines nowadays have a great impact, as they offer treatment for diverse diseases and suppose a high cost for health system. Biosimilar medicines contain a version of an active substance already authorized as an original biotechnological medicine, whose patent has expired, and they comply with the guidelines published by the European Medicines Agency. These guidelines, where biosimilarity criteria are established, guarantee comparability between biosimilar product and reference on...
To identify uses of WHO Model list of essential medicines (EM) and summarize studies examining essential medicines (EM) and national EM lists (NEMLs).
The health benefits of the antimicrobial's use is inherently associated to the risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), an ever-increasing multifactorial problem, closely related with injudicious use of antimicrobials, and the lack of new antimicrobial medicines on the market, particularly for veterinary use. Currently, an increasing number of regulatory "One Health" action plans on AMR are running worldwide, already based on monitoring and surveillance systems for resistance and antimicrobials consumption. ...
Public involvement in research is considered good practice by European funders; however, evidence of its research impact is sparse, particularly in relation to large-scale epidemiological research.
Excitement about the dramatic increase in potential successful anticancer medicines in recent years is hampered by the high costs involved as well as the length of time traditional pathways take for regulatory approval. The translation of experimental clinical data into real-world evidence is also problematic. While the randomised controlled trial remains the gold standard for assessing efficacy and safety, there is increasing interest in the use of observational data to enable more rapid, informed and wide...