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Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer, especially advanced types. However, not all patients are responsive to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The response rate depends on the immune microenvironment, tumor mutational burden (TMB), expression level of immune checkpoint proteins, and molecular subtypes of cancers. Along with the Cancer Genome Project, various open access databases, including The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus, provide large volumes of ...
To describe the prevalence, clinical presentation, and management of rheumatic immune-related adverse effects (Rh-irAEs) from immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies against the inhibitory, co-stimulatory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1. Their use in oncology has been associated with frequent and diverse immune-related adverse events. In the digestive tract, such toxicity presents primarily as colonic inflammation, resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This review presents recent developments regarding the characteristics of checkpoint inhibitor colitis (CIC) and its relation to IBD.
Current excitement about cancer immunotherapy is the result of unprecedented clinical impact from immune checkpoint inhibitors, particularly those that target programmed death (PD)-1 and PD-ligand (L)-1. Numerous other immunotherapeutics are also finding their way into the clinic either alone or in combination, and these have potential applications in many cancer types. Therapeutic cancer vaccines have been a major focus for many pioneers in the field yet have largely failed to live up to expectations as ga...
Initially understood for its physiological maintenance of self-tolerance, the immune checkpoint molecule has recently been recognized as a promising anti-cancer target. There has been considerable interest in the biology and the action mechanism of the immune checkpoint therapy, and their incorporation with other therapeutic regimens. Recently the small-molecule inhibitor (SMI) has been identified as an attractive combination partner for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and is becoming a novel direction ...
Side effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs), are relatively common but immune checkpoint inhibitor mediated cardiotoxicity are rare, although can be serious and potentially fatal. Pericarditis is an infrequent cardiac toxicity of immunotherapy and predisposing factors remain unknown. Here we report 3 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who developed pericarditis during therapy with PD-1/PD-L1 +/- CTLA-4 inhibitors. We review the clinical presentation of th...
The therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (Programmed cell death-1 and programmed cell death-ligand-1 inhibitors) is a novel and promising approach in cancer treatment. The mode of action can cause serious adverse advents, mainly immune-related ones. The case of a 65 year old caucasian female is reported. She suffers from hepatocellular carcinoma since 2012. She underwent several surgeries, was treated with sorafenib and had transcatheter arterial chemoembolizations. As part of an individual healing tri...
Cancer cells evade the immune system through a variety of different mechanisms, including the inhibition of antitumor effector T cells via checkpoint ligand-receptor interaction. Moreover, studies have shown that blocking these checkpoint pathways can reinvigorate the antitumor immunity, thereby prompting the development of numerous checkpoint immunotherapies, several of which are now being approved to treat multiple types of cancer. However, only a fraction of patients achieves promising long-term outcomes...
This review summarizes the current evidence on inflammatory arthritis following cancer treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), and the effects of these therapies in patients with preexisting autoimmune arthritis.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors-based immunotherapy offers a new effective modality in the treatment of advanced malignancies. Considering the remarkable efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical trials, the FDA has approved a variety of immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of advanced tumors. However, only limited patients with certain cancers can benefit from monotherapy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Interventional therapy for cancer can not only destroy the primary tumors, but also r...
Patients with HIV infection are at increased risk for cancer. Cancer is the leading cause of death among non-AIDS-defining illnesses in these patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has transformed the treatment of cancer. However, clinical trials of ICIs have historically excluded patients with HIV infection. The safety and efficacy profile of ICIs is unknown in this underrepresented population.
A growing understanding of the immune system and its anti-tumor functions has been imperative for the comprehension of malignant processes and beneficial in the pursuit of effective cancer treatments. To defend the body, immune cells must be able to differentiate between self and foreign cells using checkpoints, allowing the immune cells to attack foreign cells. Among the different types of immune target therapies recently developed, checkpoint inhibitors have come to the forefront in cancer treatment, enco...
Although recent clinical trials have revealed that immune checkpoint inhibitors significantly improved the overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced melanoma, these previous studies comprised mainly white populations, in which superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) and lentigo maligna melanoma are the major clinical types of melanoma. In contrast, Asians manifest a distinct clinicopathological type of melanoma from that of whites and show much higher frequencies of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and m...
Microscopic colitis (MC) has been described as 1 pattern of injury in immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI)-induced colitis. The main objective of this study was to characterize ICPI-induced MC by exploring the differences in risk factors, colitis treatments, endoscopic features, and clinical outcomes between cancer and noncancer patients with MC with and without exposure to ICPIs.
The immune environment and the potential for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors remain largely unexplored. We assessed immune checkpoint marker expression, lymphocytic infiltrate, and associated mutational profiles in a cohort of small intestine and pancreatic NETs.
One of the major breakthroughs of cancer immunotherapy has come from blocking immune checkpoint molecules on tumor-reactive T cells. Now, two studies examine targeting of a novel immune checkpoint, NKG2A, that can be expressed on both NK cells and on CD8 T cells, either combined with a tumor-targeting antibody or with a tumor-specific vaccine.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are newer, immunotherapy-based drugs that have been shown to improve survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unlike traditional chemotherapeutic agents, ICIs work by boosting the body's natural tumor killing response. However, this unique mechanism of action has also led to the recognition of class specific side-effects. Labeled immune related adverse events (irAEs), these toxicities can affect multiple organ systems including the lungs. Immune-mediated lu...
The ligation of PD-1 with PD-L1 activates a critical immune checkpoint leading to T cell dysfunction, exhaustion, and tolerance. Anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies can reverse the immune checkpoint, releasing the brake on T cell responses. We provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the activity of checkpoint inhibitors in lymphoma.
Due to the use of checkpoint inhibitors, intensive care units will be confronted with an increasing number of patients with immune-related adverse events. A broad spectrum of symptoms and potentially lethal consequences make diagnosis and treatment challenging.
Meningioma is the most common brain tumor in adults. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment. No chemotherapy exists. However, gene mutations now could explain ~ 80% of meningioma and targeted therapies based on these are being investigated. Furthermore, with the recent discovery of PD-L1 in malignant meningioma, clinical trials using immunotherapy have commenced. Here, we report for the first time the expression profiles of immune checkpoint proteins PD-L2, B7-H3 and CTLA-4 in meningioma and thei...
Inflammatory eruptions associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy: A single-institutional, retrospective analysis with stratification of reactions by toxicity and implications for management.
There is increasing recognition of distinct inflammatory eruptions associated with checkpoint inhibitors. A better understanding of their severity, therapeutic response and impact on cancer treatment is needed.