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PubMed Journals Articles About "Improved Estimation Pollutant Emissions From Landing Takeoff Cycles" RSS

09:47 EDT 20th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Improved estimation pollutant emissions from landing takeoff cycles" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 11,000+

Improved estimation of air pollutant emissions from landing and takeoff cycles of civil aircraft in China.

Civil aircraft emissions during landing and takeoff (LTO) are important air pollutant sources, but have been given insufficient attention in China. Accurate estimation of these emissions is limited by a lack of important parameters, such as detailed flight information and the dynamic time in climb and approach modes during LTO that are dependent on mixing layer height (MLH). We developed a flight-time/flight-height relationship using real-time height information in Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay data, a...


Criteria and aldehyde emissions from a diesel Euro V engine using diesel/biodiesel blends in Brazil.

The Brazilian legislation does not establish limits or methodology for the measurement of aldehydes in the exhaust of heavy diesel engines. No conclusive studies on aldehyde emissions by such engines have been found in the literature available. This work measured the aldehyde emissions from a P7 diesel cycle engine (EURO V), which was tested on an engine test bench according to ETC (European Transient Cycle) and ESC (European Stationary Cycle) cycles using fuels with 5, 7 and 20% v/v of biodiesel and 10 and...

SCOPE11 Method for Estimating Aircraft Black Carbon Mass and Particle Number Emissions.

Black carbon (BC) emissions from aircraft engines lead to an increase in the atmospheric burden of fine particulate matter (PM). Exposure to PM from sources, including aviation, is associated with an increased risk of premature mortality, and BC suspended in the atmosphere has a warming impact on the climate. BC particles emitted from aircraft also serve as nuclei for contrail ice particles, which are a major component of aviation's climate impact. To facilitate the evaluation of these impacts, we have deve...


Detection of outliers in pollutant emissions from the Soto de Ribera coal-fired power plant using functional data analysis: a case study in northern Spain.

For more than a century, air pollution has been one of the most important environmental problems in cities. Pollution is a threat to human health and is responsible for many deaths every year all over the world. This paper deals with the topic of functional outlier detection. Functional analysis is a novel mathematical tool employed for the recognition of outliers. This methodology is applied here to the emissions of a coal-fired power plant. This research uses two different methods, called functional high-...

Criteria Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydrogen Production in U.S. Steam Methane Reforming Facilities.

The global and U.S. domestic effort to develop a clean energy economy and curb environmental pollution incentivizes the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel, owing to its zero tailpipe pollutant emissions and high fuel efficiency in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). However, the hydrogen production process is not emissions free. Conventional hydrogen production via steam methane reforming (SMR) is energy intensive, co-produces carbon dioxide, and emits air pollutants. Thus, it is necessary to quantif...

Carbon allowance allocation in the shipping industry under EEDI and non-EEDI.

The CO emissions targets in this study are based on the Paris Agreement, which aims to cut emissions in 2050 to half of the 2005 levels, with a focus on the shipping industry. This study uses data for various kinds of vessels following the guidelines set in the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and examines emission levels and the results of using different strategies during three different business climates. Carbon allowance allocations and cost benefit ratios (CBR) are included. The results show that ...

Improved isotopic model based on N tracing and Rayleigh-type isotope fractionation for simulating differential sources of N O emissions in a clay grassland soil.

Isotopic signatures of N O can help distinguish between two sources (fertiliser N, or endogenous soil N) of N O emissions. The contribution of each source to N O emissions after N-application is difficult to determine. Here, isotopologue signatures of emitted N O are used in an improved isotopic model based on Rayleigh type equations.

Estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from a wastewater treatment plant using membrane bioreactor technology.

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology have been considered a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study chose a small-scale wastewater treatment plant using MBR technology to estimate its potential for GHG emissions. The total GHG emissions from this wastewater treatment plant ranged from 2,802 to 11,946 kg CO -eq/month within the 4-year study period, and they were mainly attributable to electricity consumption (79.94%) followed by chemical usa...

Comprehensively assessing the drivers of future air quality in California.

In this study we analyze the impact of major drivers of future air quality, both separately and simultaneously, for the year 2035 in three major California air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB), the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). A variety of scenarios are considered based on changes in climate-driven meteorological conditions and both biogenic and anthropogenic emissions. Anthropogenic emissions are based on (1) the California Air Resources Board (CARB) California ...

The effect of coal alternative fuel from municipal solid wastes employing hydrothermal carbonization on atmospheric pollutant emissions in Zimbabwe.

The vast increase of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Zimbabwe coupled with a severe energy crisis have made waste-to-energy technology more attractive and necessary. Coal-alternative solid fuel production from MSW though hydrothermal carbonization can play a critical role to improve both waste management and energy supply. Moreover, MSW conversion to a carbon neutral solid fuel that can be burnt in existing coal-fired power stations might reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions despite GHG releases f...

Numerical evaluation of pollutant emissions of a two-stroke linear engine.

Combustion engines bring a lot of pollution products to human living environment. This study introduced a green engine called free-piston linear engine (FPLE), and performed an evaluation on the pollutant emissions of a diesel FPLE by comparison with a corresponding conventional crankshaft engine (CCE). The combustion reaction and pollutant formation were described by a comprehensive model which considers the special operation mechanism of the FPLE. The effect of dynamic and fuel quantity on the unclean com...

Historical and future polychlorinated biphenyl emission trends in Japan.

Different countries produce varying amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have distinct patterns of use, and regulations for treatment and disposal. Therefore, long-term countermeasures require an understanding of historical and future emission trends at the national scale. In this study, we estimate historical PCB emissions from products containing PCBs, unintentional production related thermal processes, and disposal processes for products containing PCBs from 1950 to 2030 in Japan. In addition, in...

Fuel consumption and emissions performance under real driving: Comparison between hybrid and conventional vehicles.

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are perceived to be more energy efficient and less polluting than conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. However, increasing evidence has shown that real-driving emissions (RDE) could be much higher than laboratory type approval limits and the advantages of HEVs over their conventional ICE counterparts under real-driving conditions have not been studied extensively. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the real-driving fuel consumption and pollutan...

CT-based sex estimation on human femora using statistical shape modeling.

Estimating the sex of decomposed corpses and skeletal remains of unknown individuals is one of the first steps in the identification process in forensic contexts. Although various studies have considered the femur for sex estimation, the focus has primarily been on a specific single or a handful of measurements rather than the entire shape of the bone. In this article, we use statistical shape modeling (SSM) for sex estimation. We hypothesize that the accuracy of sex estimation will be improved by using the...

Fine-scale spatial structure of air pollutant concentrations along bus routes.

Air pollution measurements were made at 5 s intervals along a bus route in Hong Kong, chosen to avoid frequent intersections or traffic jams. This allowed periodic pollutant concentration patterns in bus-derived pollutants to be explored using Fourier analysis. The analysis showed the defining role of the bus stops in terms of NO and PM concentrations, which have profiles with a sawtooth form. Early in inter-stop segments, concentrations are high, followed by a decline. This arises from high emissions dur...

Greenhouse gas emissions vary in response to different biochar amendments: an assessment based on two consecutive rice growth cycles.

The efficiency of biochar to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from rice paddy soils is not consistent. Furthermore, which factor dominates this mitigation efficiency is not clear. In the present 2-year greenhouse experiment, the effects of biochars derived from two feedstocks (wheat straw and saw dust) and two pyrolysis temperatures (500 °C and 700 °C), and applied at two different rates (0.5 wt% and 3 wt%) on methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions, and the total global warming potential ...

Nonlinear relationships between air pollutant emissions and PM-related health impacts in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

A direct and quantitative linkage of air pollution-related health effects to emissions from different sources is critically important for decision-making. While a number of studies have attributed the PM-related health impacts to emission sources, they have seldom examined the complicated nonlinear relationships between them. Here we investigate the nonlinear relationships between PM-related premature mortality in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, one of the most polluted regions in the world, and emi...

The relationship between frontal plane trunk control during landing and lower extremity muscle strength in young athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Lower extremity landing asymmetries are common and associated with strength deficits after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, less is known regarding trunk control during landing. This study's hypotheses were that frontal plane trunk excursion during single-leg landing would be greater in young athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction compared to controls and would be associated with strength deficits.

Effects of light-dark cycles on photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment and valuable substances production.

Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment is a novel method with great potential for resource recovery. Light-dark cycle is important for photosynthetic microorganisms, but its impact on PSB wastewater treatment is still unclear. This study evaluated the effects of four light-dark cycles on PSB biomass, valuable substances production, and pollutant removal. Results indicate that the highest biomass concentration was obtained under 24 h light/24 h dark cycle. The highest concentrations of protei...

Training rugby athletes with an external attentional focus promotes more automatic adaptions in landing forces.

Training to reduce landing forces is a common component of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programmes. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of training incorporating instructions promoting an internal versus external attentional focus on landing forces in adolescent rugby athletes. Twenty-two rugby athletes were randomly allocated to groups that received instructions promoting an internal versus an external focus during a two week training programme. Landing forces were recorded...

Anticipating ankle inversion perturbations during a single-leg drop landing alters ankle joint and impact kinetics.

Anticipatory responses to inversion perturbations can prevent an accurate assessment of lateral ankle sprain mechanics when using injury simulations. Despite recent evidence of the anticipatory motor control strategies utilized during inversion perturbations, kinetic compensations during anticipated inversion perturbations are currently unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of anticipation to an inversion perturbation during a single-leg drop landing on ankle joint and impa...

River pollution by priority chemical substances under the Water Framework Directive: A provisional pan-European assessment.

In this paper, we build a preliminary inventory of dissolved phase water emissions of 36 of the 45 chemical priority substances under the European Union's Water Framework Directive. For point sources, we consider the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) containing reported emissions from major industrial facilities. We consider all other sources as diffuse, and we estimate European average chemical emission factors from available measurements of dissolved phase concentrations, assuming ...

NO emissions and source partitioning using stable isotopes under furrow and drip irrigation in vegetable field of North China.

NO emissions have increased significantly over the last decades, with much of the increase being ascribed to the expansion in agricultural land. Agricultural water management has significant influence on NO emissions, hence the investigation of NO emissions and the underlying production mechanisms under different irrigation managements would provide insights for NO emission reduction and rational water usage. Here, we used the stable isotope method to evaluate the NO isotopic signatures and the site prefere...

Atmospheric observation-based estimation of fossil fuel CO emissions from regions of central and southern California.

Combustion of fossil fuel is the dominant source of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere in California. Here, we describe radiocarbon (CO) measurements and atmospheric inverse modeling to estimate fossil fuel CO (ffCO) emissions for 2009-2012 from a site in central California, and for June 2013-May 2014 from two sites in southern California. A priori predicted ffCO mixing ratios are computed based on regional atmospheric transport model (WRF-STILT) footprints and an hourly ffCO prior emission map (Vul...

Global soil nitrous oxide emissions since the pre-industrial era estimated by an ensemble of Terrestrial Biosphere Models: Magnitude, attribution and uncertainty.

Our understanding and quantification of global soil nitrous oxide (N O) emissions and the underlying processes remain largely uncertain. Here we assessed the effects of multiple anthropogenic and natural factors, including nitrogen fertilizer (N) application, atmospheric N deposition, manure N application, land cover change, climate change and rising atmospheric CO concentration, on global soil N O emissions for the period 1861-2016 using a standard simulation protocol with seven process-based terrestrial b...


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