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PubMed Journals Articles About "Index Plays Chippy Action" RSS

13:36 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Index Plays Chippy Action PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Index Plays Chippy Action articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Index Plays Chippy Action" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 11,000+

A Reinforcement Learning Neural Network for Robotic Manipulator Control.

We propose a neural network model for reinforcement learning to control a robotic manipulator with unknown parameters and dead zones. The model is composed of three networks. The state of the robotic manipulator is predicted by the state network of the model, the action policy is learned by the action network, and the performance index of the action policy is estimated by a critic network. The three networks work together to optimize the performance index based on the reinforcement learning control scheme. ...


Validating pre-treatment body mass index as moderator of antidepressant treatment outcomes: Findings from CO-MED trial.

Currently, there are no valid clinical or biological markers to personalize the treatment of depression. Recent evidence suggests that body mass index (BMI) may guide the selection of antidepressant medications with different mechanisms of action.

Directing visual attention during action observation modulates corticospinal excitability.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) research has shown that corticospinal excitability is facilitated during the observation of human movement. However, the relationship between corticospinal excitability and participants' visual attention during action observation is rarely considered. Nineteen participants took part in four conditions: (i) a static hand condition, involving observation of a right hand holding a ball between the thumb and index finger; (ii) a free observation condition, involving obser...


When context modulates the influence of action observation on language processing.

Numerous studies in the field of embodied cognition have shown a crosstalk between language and sensorimotor processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that perceiving an action influences subsequent language processing. However, when studying the effect of action observation on language processing it has not been considered whether the context of action presentation could modulate this influence. To test this assumption, the participants in our study observed a prime, specifically a cartoon picture...

Corticospinal excitability is modulated by distinct movement patterns during action observation.

It is well established that excitability of the primary motor cortex increases during action observation. However, the modulation of motor cortex excitability during observation of different actions, with distinct movement patterns, is not fully understood. The aim of the current study was to examine time-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability during observation of two actions with different levels of complexity. We developed videos of two distinct actions (a point and a reach-and-grasp), that were...

Narcissism and Risky Decisions: A Neurophysiological Approach.

Narcissists are prone to risky decision-making, but why? This study tested-via behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures-two accounts: Deficiencies in error monitoring and deficiencies in action updating. High and low narcissists were engaged in a monetary gambling task by choosing between a high-risk and a low-risk option while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was being recorded. Two ERP components relevant to outcome evaluation-feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3-were analyzed, with the FRN...

Corepresentation During Joint Action in Marmoset Monkeys ( Callithrix jacchus).

Behavioral coordination is a fundamental element of human cooperation. It is facilitated when individuals represent not only their own actions but also those of their partner. Identifying whether action corepresentation is unique to humans or also present in other species is therefore necessary to fully understand the evolution of human cooperation. We used the auditory joint Simon task to assess whether action corepresentation occurs in common marmosets, a monkey species that engages extensively in coordin...

Evaluating the clinical value of the hypoxia burden index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

We aimed to develop a novel index, the hypoxia burden index (HBI), that reflects the degree and duration of oxygen desaturation, and to determine whether this index is better than the apnea hypopnea-index (AHI) for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular diseases morbidities.

Interpersonal motor coordination during joint actions in children with and without autism spectrum disorder: The role of motor information.

Kinematics plays a key role in action prediction, imitation and joint action coordination. Despite people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a failure to use kinematic cues during observation and imitation, there is a paucity of studies exploring the role of this dysfunction during joint actions in children with ASD.

Decreased use of active coping styles contributes to elevated allostatic load index in first-episode psychosis.

Accumulating evidence indicates that stress plays an important role in the development of psychotic disorders. Recent studies have revealed that patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) present systemic biological dysregulations related to stress-exposure in terms of elevated allostatic load (AL) index. However, the mechanisms underlying this observation remain unknown. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the AL index with respect to stress coping strategies in 36 FEP patients and 31 matched...

Impairments in action-outcome learning in schizophrenia.

Learning the causal relation between actions and their outcomes (AO learning) is critical for goal-directed behavior when actions are guided by desire for the outcome. This can be contrasted with habits that are acquired by reinforcement and primed by prevailing stimuli, in which causal learning plays no part. Recently, we demonstrated that goal-directed actions are impaired in schizophrenia; however, whether this deficit exists alongside impairments in habit or reinforcement learning is unknown. The presen...

Pesticide Detox by Design.

Detoxification (detox) plays a major role in pesticide action and resistance. The mechanisms involved are sometimes part of the discovery and development process in seeking new biochemical targets and metabolic pathways. Genetically- and chemical safener- modified crops are a marked exception and often involve herbicide detox by design to achieve the required crop tolerance. This perspective evaluates the role of detox by design or chance and target site-based selectivity in insecticide, herbicide, and fung...

Essential role for hypothalamic calcitonin receptor-expressing neurons in the control of food intake by leptin.

The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, acts via its receptor (LepRb) on central nervous system neurons to communicate the repletion of long-term energy stores, to decrease food intake and promote energy expenditure. We generated mice that express cre recombinase from the calcitonin receptor (Calcr) locus (Calcrcre mice) to study Calcr-expressing LepRb (LepRbCalcr) neurons, which reside predominantly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Calcrcre-mediated ablation of LepRb in LepRbCalcrKO mice caused hyperphagic obe...

Biodiversity of subalpine meadow in Heyeping of Luya Mountain, China.

In this study, investigation on plant community was conducted in Heyeping subalpine meadow of Luya Mountain in Shanxi Province of China. The importance values of 36 herbaceous species, α diversity index, phylogenetic diversity index, as well as their correlations were investigated. The results showed that the species diversity of the subalpine meadow was uniformly distributed. Species richness was higher in marginal areas, indicating an 'edge effect'. The phylogenetic structure of four plots was convergent...

Specificity of action selection modulates the perceived temporal order of action and sensory events.

The perceived temporal order of actions and changes in the environment is crucial for our inferences of causality. Sensory events presented shortly after an action are more likely considered as self-generated compared to the same events occurring before action execution. However, the estimation of when an action or a sensory change occurred is a challenge for the human brain. This estimation is formed from available sensory information combined with internal representations. Researchers suggested that inter...

Representation of action semantics in the motor cortex and Broca's area.

Previous studies have shown that both reading action words and observing actions engage the motor cortex and Broca's area, but it is still controversial whether a somatotopic representation exists for action verbs within the motor cortex and whether Broca's area encodes action-specific semantics for verbs. Here we examined these two issues using a set of functional MRI experiments, including word reading, action observation and a movement localiser task. Results from multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) show...

Simon effects in action sequences.

Most actions we perform in daily life consist of multiple movement elements. In two Simon task experiments, we investigated the impact of stimulus-response compatibility on planning and execution of action sequences. A total of 38 participants were instructed to perform action sequences consisting of multiple key presses (two to four key presses) as response to a left- or right-presented colored stimulus. Within one block, the requested action sequences were of the same length but differed in their spatial ...

Advances in the studies on topographic effects of vegetation indices.

Vegetation index is a key indicator for qualitative and quantitative assessment of green vegetation, which has been widely used in vegetation monitoring. Forests are often distributed in mountainous areas with complex topography, which is one of the main factors of accurate retrieval of forest vegetation information. Here, we analyzed the topographic effects on canopy reflectance using a geometric optical model. The responses of complete ratio vegetation indices [simple ratio index (SR), normalized differen...

Lucky or clever? From expectations to responsibility judgments.

How do people hold others responsible for the consequences of their actions? We propose a computational model that attributes responsibility as a function of what the observed action reveals about the person, and the causal role that the person's action played in bringing about the outcome. The model first infers what type of person someone is from having observed their action. It then compares a prior expectation of how a person would behave with a posterior expectation after having observed the person's a...

Investigation into the intracellular fates, speciation and mode of action of selenium-containing neuroprotective agents using XAS and XFM.

A variety of selenium compounds have been observed to provide protection against oxidative stress, presumably by mimicking the mechanism of action of the glutathione peroxidases. However, the selenium chemistry that underpins the action of these compounds has not been unequivocally established.

Mimicking and anticipating others' actions is linked to Social Information Processing.

It is widely known that individuals frequently imitate each other in social situations and that such mimicry fulfills an important social role in the sense that it functions as a social glue. With reference to the anticipated action effect, it has recently been demonstrated that individuals do not only imitate others, but also engage in anticipated action before the observed person starts engaging in that action. Interestingly, both phenomena (i.e., mimicry and anticipated action) rely on tracking others' s...

Visual illusions modify object size estimates for prospective action judgements.

How does the eye guide the hand in an ever-changing world? The perception-action model posits that visually-guided actions rely on object size estimates that are computed from an egocentric perspective independently of the visual context. Accordingly, adjusting grip aperture to object size should be resistant to illusions emerging from the contrast between a target and surrounding elements. However, experimental studies gave discrepant results that have remained difficult to explain so far. Visual and propr...

Robustness of Light-Transport Processes to Bending Deformations in Graded-Index Multimode Waveguides.

Light transport through a multimode optical waveguide undergoes changes when subjected to bending deformations. We show that optical waveguides with a perfectly parabolic refractive index profile are almost immune to bending, conserving the structure of propagation-invariant modes. Moreover, we show that changes to the transmission matrix of parabolic-index fibers due to bending can be expressed with only two free parameters, regardless of how complex a particular deformation is. We provide detailed analysi...

When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency t...

The Structural and Functional Signature of Action Control.

Individuals differ in their ability to initiate self- and emotional-control mechanisms. These differences have been explicitly described in Kuhl's action-control theory. Although interindividual differences in action control make a major contribution to our everyday life, their neural foundation remains unknown. Here, we measured action control in a sample of 264 healthy adults and related interindividual differences in action control to variations in brain structure and resting-state connectivity. Our resu...


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