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PubMed Journals Articles About "Index Plays Chippy Action" RSS

22:10 EDT 17th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

Index Plays Chippy Action PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Index Plays Chippy Action articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Index Plays Chippy Action" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 11,000+

Object words modulate the activity of the mirror neuron system during action imitation.

Although research has demonstrated that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a crucial role in both action imitation and action-related semantic processing, whether action-related words can inversely modulate the MNS activity remains unclear.


A Reinforcement Learning Neural Network for Robotic Manipulator Control.

We propose a neural network model for reinforcement learning to control a robotic manipulator with unknown parameters and dead zones. The model is composed of three networks. The state of the robotic manipulator is predicted by the state network of the model, the action policy is learned by the action network, and the performance index of the action policy is estimated by a critic network. The three networks work together to optimize the performance index based on the reinforcement learning control scheme. ...

Validating pre-treatment body mass index as moderator of antidepressant treatment outcomes: Findings from CO-MED trial.

Currently, there are no valid clinical or biological markers to personalize the treatment of depression. Recent evidence suggests that body mass index (BMI) may guide the selection of antidepressant medications with different mechanisms of action.


Sensory predictions during action support perception of imitative reactions across suprasecond delays.

Perception during action is optimized by sensory predictions about the likely consequences of our movements. Influential theories in social cognition propose that we use the same predictions during interaction, supporting perception of similar reactions in our social partners. However, while our own action outcomes typically occur at short, predictable delays after movement execution, the reactions of others occur at longer, variable delays in the order of seconds. To examine whether we use sensorimotor pre...

Does observation of a disabled child's action moderate action execution? Implication for the use of Action Observation Therapy for patient rehabilitation.

Research investigating action observation-execution priming has mainly manipulated congruent versus incongruent action, and aspects of action expertise/capability. More specifically, the literature suggests enhanced performance priming following action observation by actors closely matched to participant expertise. The aim of the present study was to extend the understanding of action expertise effects by investigating action priming in healthy participants after observing a mild hemiparetic child actor ver...

Directing visual attention during action observation modulates corticospinal excitability.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) research has shown that corticospinal excitability is facilitated during the observation of human movement. However, the relationship between corticospinal excitability and participants' visual attention during action observation is rarely considered. Nineteen participants took part in four conditions: (i) a static hand condition, involving observation of a right hand holding a ball between the thumb and index finger; (ii) a free observation condition, involving obser...

Corticospinal excitability is modulated by distinct movement patterns during action observation.

It is well established that excitability of the primary motor cortex increases during action observation. However, the modulation of motor cortex excitability during observation of different actions, with distinct movement patterns, is not fully understood. The aim of the current study was to examine time-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability during observation of two actions with different levels of complexity. We developed videos of two distinct actions (a point and a reach-and-grasp), that were...

Corepresentation During Joint Action in Marmoset Monkeys ( Callithrix jacchus).

Behavioral coordination is a fundamental element of human cooperation. It is facilitated when individuals represent not only their own actions but also those of their partner. Identifying whether action corepresentation is unique to humans or also present in other species is therefore necessary to fully understand the evolution of human cooperation. We used the auditory joint Simon task to assess whether action corepresentation occurs in common marmosets, a monkey species that engages extensively in coordin...

Evaluating the clinical value of the hypoxia burden index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

We aimed to develop a novel index, the hypoxia burden index (HBI), that reflects the degree and duration of oxygen desaturation, and to determine whether this index is better than the apnea hypopnea-index (AHI) for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular diseases morbidities.

Interpersonal motor coordination during joint actions in children with and without autism spectrum disorder: The role of motor information.

Kinematics plays a key role in action prediction, imitation and joint action coordination. Despite people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a failure to use kinematic cues during observation and imitation, there is a paucity of studies exploring the role of this dysfunction during joint actions in children with ASD.

Impairments in action-outcome learning in schizophrenia.

Learning the causal relation between actions and their outcomes (AO learning) is critical for goal-directed behavior when actions are guided by desire for the outcome. This can be contrasted with habits that are acquired by reinforcement and primed by prevailing stimuli, in which causal learning plays no part. Recently, we demonstrated that goal-directed actions are impaired in schizophrenia; however, whether this deficit exists alongside impairments in habit or reinforcement learning is unknown. The presen...

Essential role for hypothalamic calcitonin receptor-expressing neurons in the control of food intake by leptin.

The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, acts via its receptor (LepRb) on central nervous system neurons to communicate the repletion of long-term energy stores, to decrease food intake and promote energy expenditure. We generated mice that express cre recombinase from the calcitonin receptor (Calcr) locus (Calcrcre mice) to study Calcr-expressing LepRb (LepRbCalcr) neurons, which reside predominantly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Calcrcre-mediated ablation of LepRb in LepRbCalcrKO mice caused hyperphagic obe...

Biodiversity of subalpine meadow in Heyeping of Luya Mountain, China.

In this study, investigation on plant community was conducted in Heyeping subalpine meadow of Luya Mountain in Shanxi Province of China. The importance values of 36 herbaceous species, α diversity index, phylogenetic diversity index, as well as their correlations were investigated. The results showed that the species diversity of the subalpine meadow was uniformly distributed. Species richness was higher in marginal areas, indicating an 'edge effect'. The phylogenetic structure of four plots was convergent...

Specificity of action selection modulates the perceived temporal order of action and sensory events.

The perceived temporal order of actions and changes in the environment is crucial for our inferences of causality. Sensory events presented shortly after an action are more likely considered as self-generated compared to the same events occurring before action execution. However, the estimation of when an action or a sensory change occurred is a challenge for the human brain. This estimation is formed from available sensory information combined with internal representations. Researchers suggested that inter...

Representation of action semantics in the motor cortex and Broca's area.

Previous studies have shown that both reading action words and observing actions engage the motor cortex and Broca's area, but it is still controversial whether a somatotopic representation exists for action verbs within the motor cortex and whether Broca's area encodes action-specific semantics for verbs. Here we examined these two issues using a set of functional MRI experiments, including word reading, action observation and a movement localiser task. Results from multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) show...

Advances in the studies on topographic effects of vegetation indices.

Vegetation index is a key indicator for qualitative and quantitative assessment of green vegetation, which has been widely used in vegetation monitoring. Forests are often distributed in mountainous areas with complex topography, which is one of the main factors of accurate retrieval of forest vegetation information. Here, we analyzed the topographic effects on canopy reflectance using a geometric optical model. The responses of complete ratio vegetation indices [simple ratio index (SR), normalized differen...

Lucky or clever? From expectations to responsibility judgments.

How do people hold others responsible for the consequences of their actions? We propose a computational model that attributes responsibility as a function of what the observed action reveals about the person, and the causal role that the person's action played in bringing about the outcome. The model first infers what type of person someone is from having observed their action. It then compares a prior expectation of how a person would behave with a posterior expectation after having observed the person's a...

Investigation into the intracellular fates, speciation and mode of action of selenium-containing neuroprotective agents using XAS and XFM.

A variety of selenium compounds have been observed to provide protection against oxidative stress, presumably by mimicking the mechanism of action of the glutathione peroxidases. However, the selenium chemistry that underpins the action of these compounds has not been unequivocally established.

Mimicking and anticipating others' actions is linked to Social Information Processing.

It is widely known that individuals frequently imitate each other in social situations and that such mimicry fulfills an important social role in the sense that it functions as a social glue. With reference to the anticipated action effect, it has recently been demonstrated that individuals do not only imitate others, but also engage in anticipated action before the observed person starts engaging in that action. Interestingly, both phenomena (i.e., mimicry and anticipated action) rely on tracking others' s...

Visual illusions modify object size estimates for prospective action judgements.

How does the eye guide the hand in an ever-changing world? The perception-action model posits that visually-guided actions rely on object size estimates that are computed from an egocentric perspective independently of the visual context. Accordingly, adjusting grip aperture to object size should be resistant to illusions emerging from the contrast between a target and surrounding elements. However, experimental studies gave discrepant results that have remained difficult to explain so far. Visual and propr...

When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency t...

Body mass index is independently associated with xanthine oxidase activity in overweight/obese population.

The pathophysiological mechanism of the relationship between xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and obesity has not been completely elucidated. Since inflammation and oxidative stress are regarded as key determinants of enlarged adipose tissue, we aimed to investigate the association between oxidative stress (as measured with XO activity), inflammation [as measured with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and obesity [as measured with body mass index (BMI)]. In addition, we wanted to examine whether hs...

Egocentric Temporal Action Proposals.

We present an approach to localize generic actions in egocentric videos, called temporal action proposals (TAPs), for accelerating the action recognition step. An egocentric TAP refers to a sequence of frames that may contain a generic action performed by the wearer of a head-mounted camera, e.g., taking a knife, spreading jam, pouring milk, or cutting carrots. Inspired by object proposals, this paper aims at generating a small number of TAPs, thereby replacing the popular sliding window strategy, for local...

Polyhedral 30-Faceted BiVO4 Microcrystals Predominantly Enclosed by High-Index Planes Promoting Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Activity.

Unprecedented 30-faceted BiVO4 polyhedra predominantly surrounded by {132}, {321}, and {121} high-index facets are fabricated through the engineering of high-index surfaces by a trace amount of Au nanoparticles. The growth of high-index facets results in a 3-5 fold enhancement of O2 evolution from photocatalytic water splitting by the BiVO4 polyhedron, relative to its low-index counterparts. Theory calculations reveal that water dissociation is more energetically favorable on the high-index surfaces than on...

The Barthel Index and the Cumulated Ambulation Score are superior to the de Morton Mobility Index for the early assessment of outcome in patients with a hip fracture admitted to an acute geriatric ward.

To examine clinimetric properties of the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in patients with hip fracture in comparison with the modified Barthel Index (BI), Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS), and 30-s Chair Stand Test (30-s CST).


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